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1X1 !• lOi/iJ* 




Volume X.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 3. 1875. 



[Number i. 



"The Glorious Fourth." 

It is Dot a jot nor tittle the less "glorious" on 
account of the extravagant praises of its friends, 
or the sneers and criticisms of its enemies. 
The burlesques on "the spread eagle" have 
not clipped the -wings of the emblematic bird, 
and the people will continue to ^eep this truly 
glorious day according to dictates of their own 
consciences, their own tastes and their pockets; 
and the first century of American independence 



believe that when the coming century shall 
have finished its course, and in rendering its 
account has occasion to allude to its "illus- 
trious predecessor," there will be little dis- 
tinguishing of periods in awarding its praises. 

We have provided the Phess with a holiday 
suit to enable it to "go to the Fourth" in a be- 
coming manner. Although the opinions of the 
Rdbai, Pbess are supposed to have considera- 
ble weight, it is our design to never have the 
paper heavy; and our readers will observe that 
we have made a special effort to avoid heavi- 
ness on this holiday occasion. 

As a reminder of the grand International Es- 



from. The exhibition will open M ly 10th, 1876, 
and those who desire to exhibit cereals, forage 
plants and tubers, should make their prepara- 
tions during the present season. The building, 
shown in the accompanying engraving, is most 
eligibly located in Fairmount park, and will 
cover ten acres of ground, giving plenty of place 
for the exhibition of all the articles expected. 
There will be provided also, ample and suitable 
accommodations for the shelter and display of 
live stock, which it is intended shall be exhib- 
ited during the months of September and Octo- 
ber. The exhibition being international, will 
bring together for comparison the best products 



Old Ladies' Home. 

An aged lady writes to the Rub^l Pbess ask- 
ing if there is in this State an institution cor- 
responding to the "Old Ladies' Homes," of 
Eastern cities, where homeless old ladies of 
respectable character can find a comfortable 
home, free of all expense, receiving proper at- 
tention in sickness and due respect always. 
We have made diligent inquiry and find that 
there is no such institution in California. 
Among the bequests of Mr. Lick was a liberal 




THE A GRICXJLTXTRAL BUILDING AT THE CENTENNIAL. 



will, on Monday next, receive a grand parting 
salute. This century has been an experimen- 
tal one, and has proved as satisfactory, to the 
world at large as an experiment, as it has to 
our own people. It is a grand century's work; 
and realizing this, as we must while looking at 
it as a whole, we should be very careful how 
we disparage one decade in order to exalt an- 
other. There have been "revolutionary 
heroes" in many epochs in our history; and 
there also have been conservative heroes who 
have rendered eflfective service to the country 
in the seemingly unimportant periods between 
these epochs. The coming century will un- 
doubtedly need the services of both these classes 
of heroes; and notwithstanding our character- 
istic disparagement of "the period," we firmly 



hibition in honor of the hundredth anniver- 
sary of the "glorious Fourth," and with a view 
to stimulate active interest in its success, we 
have given the most conspicuous part of our 
paper this week to an illustration of one of the 
Centennial Buildings. 
Of course in the exhibition of 1876, where all 
the inventions of the nation are to be repre- 
sented, agriculture will have a prominent place. 
The Centennial Commissioner, realizing the im- 
portance of the agricultural interests of the 
United States, and antioipating the demands 
that will be made for proper representation, is 
making ample provi.sion for the accommodation 
of this department. The Bureau of Agriculture 
has been organizfid as one of the bureaus of ad- 
minstration of the exhibition, and will compre- 
hend the native and cultivated products of the 
soil, and of objects immediately derived there- 



from everv quarter of the globe ; hence every 
effort should be made to give just evidence 
of the capacity of the varied climates, soils, skill 
in tillage, and the character of the live stock in 
the United States ; whilst the mechanicil aids 
to agriculture should exhibit ingenuity, excel- 
lence of workmanship, and adaptation to the 
desired ends. 



The Washington National Monument Soci- 
ety request the churches and Sabbath schools 
of the country to take up a collection on Sun- 
day, July 4th, to aid in completion of the mon- 
ument; contributions to be forwarded to J. B. 
Smith, Treasurer of the society, Washington, 
P.O. . 

The Oceanic, the pioneer steamer of the Ori- 
ental and Occidental line, arrived at this port 
last Thursday from Hongkong i\ui Yokohama. 



appropriation for such an institution, but it i« 
to be feared that the old ladies of to-day wiU 
have gone to their final homo before this in- 
stitution opens its doors. 

If the press throughout the State would devote 
half the space to advocating the founding and 
erection of an old ladies' home that they give 
to the impertinent, heartless witticisms about 
mothers in law, thus nggrava ting the feoling of 
homelessness in the heart of many a worthy 
old lady, then this want would soon be 
supplied. . . 

San Francisco is behind other cities in this 
matter. Let us first get aside of them here and 
then see if we cannot take the lead in providing 
a suitable home for worthy old men. 

Ond hundrea and fifty thousand dollars, 
worth of property was destroyed by the recent 
stonn in Iowa. 



rjuly 3, 1875. 



kORRESPONDENCE. 



Notes from Fresno County. 

Mkssbi. Editors: — To one visiting any por- 
tion of Freano county now, or indeed any por- 
tion of San Joaquin valley, no feature ia so 
forcibly presented everywhere as this, that our 
people, farmers, merchants, artisans, in fact 
all citizens, seem alive to the absolute 
Necessily of Irrigation. 

The best of it is, in nearly every part of our 
county, active preparations are being made to 
pour out Nature's abundant supplier of water 
from our rivers upon the thirsty plaius nest 
year. 

In some instances, companies of farmers are 
making these preparations, in others, compan- 
ies of C:ipitali-ts. 

Whoever has any sympathy for the small 
land ownera, for the industrious, toiling farm- 
ers, the men who have continued the struggle 
with true perseverance and California grit to 
develop our agriculturHl resources, in spite of 
being dried out repeatedly, eat out by cattle, 
discouraged by excessive railroad freights and 
fares, at the mercy of capitalists who may 
have loaned them money on their land^^; men, 
who, as ibe early settlers of this valley, in the 
face of all such mislortunea and disappoint- 
ments, have maintained a supreme faith in the 
fuiure of our fertile lands, so soon as water 
could bd famished them, aud have managed to 
hold on to the quirter section or more which 
the just home^tvad and pre-emption laws have 
enabled them to secure as homes for their de- 
pendent (amilies— whoever sympathizes with 
thehC men, can but feel the deepest solicitude 
now, that their 

Just Rights as American Citizens 
Maybe prot>cied, in the securing of water 
claims, tbe construction of ditches, and the dis- 
tribution of water. 

it will be a gloomy day for the bona fide 
farmers of the irrigated districts, Me8^^s. Edi- 
tors, whenever the control of the free waters of 
our Slate shall have been secured entirely, or 
in great part, by large land owners who, pro- 
vided ibey can get water on their I'wn lauds, 
will care litile, in their selfishness, whether the 
small land owner ge.B any to save his crop or 
not. 

The only hope of our people now is that our 
next Lfgi>l)iture will give us just laws to super- 
vise these mattera. This vital question never 
will be properly managed until it is sufficiently 
controlled by our farmers. 

Few counties in -the State will have superior 
advanta^es for general irrigation to Fresno, 
when the necess-iry canals are made. Tbe waters 
of vhn San Joaquin and King's rivers can grant 
us a lavish supply. The only condition needed 
is that 

Man Must Properly Apply It. 
Near Biverdale a few farmers have con- 
structed a ditch, from oue of the sloughs of 
lower Eiog's river, through which they have 
an abundant flow of water, all the sumiiter 
round. 

Its great advantages are well illustrated on 
the pince I'f D. S. Orr, whose hospitalities I 
enjoyed while there. He had already harvested 
his barley bay. On the 24th of May, he was 
fl )oding and uaturaiing thirty acres of bis land. 
His object was to plow it four or five days after 
tbe water was allowed to disappear, and plant 
it in corn, pumpkins and beans, as a second 
crop for the xear. 

He assured nae that one acre produced him 
$80 worth of barley and corn, by this mode of 
culture, last year. Now that is profitable farm- 
iug, and it is a good rotation of crops. 

Well, then, does he have to pay $1.50 or $2 
per acre for the use of tbe water for every crop 
he irrigates? Ob, no! The ditch was cou- 
Btrueted at very 6mall expense by several farm- 
ers with their own teams aud plows, and the 
expruse for annual repairs is but small and 
each farmer bears his proportion of it. Every- 
ODe bas an abundant supply of water. 

There are no extravagant bills for surveying, 
and lancy en<;in> er's work. There is 

No Watering of Stock. 
What they seek is to water iheir land, and 
they do it, at moderate expense. 

By the way, they do "water the stock" to a 
small extent, but it is not in the way that the 
great corporations water theirs. The stock our 
Bi^erdalo friends water occasionally belongs 
to some of the wealthy cattle men, who want 
to "eat out" the small grain farmers and drive 
them away, and hence disregard our valuable 
" no feuce " law. 

But this game is gradually losing its fascina- 
tion, for qniie a number of these four-footed 
trehpasseis are being corralled and sold ac- 
cording to law, and to tbe astonishment of 
sume of the two-legged trespassers, the sales 
statid good. 

That no fence law is 

A Righteous Law. 
It protects the weak against tbe domineering 
encroachments of the strong. Let our farmers 
see that the men they elect to the Legislature 
are in favor of maintaining and extending it, as 
its extension is demanded by tbe wants of ag- 
riculture. 

Riverdale is a very desirable location. Its 
vicinity can furuish hoiues for many thrifty 
happy families ; its soil ia extremely fertile 
and moist ; its plains are covered with tall green 
grass the samiu«r through ; its sloughs abound 



in wild ducks and fl^b. Quantities of wild 
duck eggs are^found in nests in the tall grass 
on tbe plains in the settlement, as well as in the 
tules about three miles ' west and near Tulare 
lake. 

A party of us rode down to these tules one 
afternoon. Theride was not intended for a hunt, 
but one of our number secured two pieces of 
game. With the assistance of a spring wagon 
and team, three men, and two dogs, be brought 
to bay a large lynx or reed-cat, and killed him 
by a blow or two with a monkey-wrench. 

The other game be killed was an animal more 
or less common in different parts of California. 
He killed him in some manner with a stick. 
None of us were near enough to see exactly how 
it was done. The systematic name of this 
showy animal is Mephitis occidentals, a name 
familiar to naturalists. 

This is a 

Splendid Country for Sportimen. 
Our crowd will always recall with a zest equal 
to the enjoyments of the scene itself these 
achievements of Brother Welling, the present 
Worthy Master of Riverdale Grange. These 
things he did before he was a Granger. 

I lonnd in this region in great abundance a 
plant I bad never before met with, though I 
have since learned from Prof. Asa Gray that 
it is rather widely distributed from Northern 
Mexico to the Ca ifornia Coast. 

It grows only in moist localities. Its leaves 
are very similar in shape aud color to those of 
sour-dock. Its simple flower stem bears a 
single flower consisting of a long thick cone- 
shaped spike, surrounded at its base by a whorl 
of SIX round white leaves forming an involucre. 
Its roots are very aromatic, aLd somewhat 
pungent. Their flavor combines the taste of 
calamus, black pepper, and turpentine. It be 
longs to the pepper family. Its botanical 
name is 

Amenopsis Californica, Nutt. 

The first two syllables would naturally bring 
it near the eLd of our catalogue of plants, and 
with it this letter must close. The Spaniards 
call it mamas. It is noted among them as a 
medicinal herb. They make a tea of it for kid- 
ney and other kindred diseases. It also has a 
reputation like arnica, for making an excellent 
liniment. 

Physicians could gather it in sufficient quan- 
tities near Tulare lake to make a valuable ad- 
dition to their Materia Medira. 

More anon, J. W. A. Weight. 

Borden, June 2l8t, 1875. 

Effects of the Rain. 

Mkesbs. Editors: — Never has the farming 
community during the annals of our State 
received so many drawbacks as it has during 
the present time, with such fine outlook at the 
early season. It has pas.sed to another 
change, of evil unprecedented in our State. Had 
it come six weeks sooner thousands of dollars 
would have benefited the farmer's- purse; as it 
now stands, the same amount stands to his 
debtor. Where it may have benefited some, to 
a large majority it has proved an injury. It is 
reported that grain standing uncut is laid every 
which way, broken by the force of the storm. 
Corn fields in places broken down; blackberry 
vines shaken so that it scattered the fruit on the 
sround; melons and garden truck along tbe 
water bauks, covered by the drifting sand, and 
broken from the vines, require labor to dig 
them out; hay in stacks wet to the depth of a 
foot, and grain in sacks had to be removed. 
Threshers are now moving out, doing some 
work in tbe wake of the headers; and hereafter, 
all grain will be stowed away safely for fear of 
another "new departure" of tbe season. 

Now let us look at the benefits. Large fields 
of corn are planted and tbe rain is spoken of 
as a godsend to them, giving them new life, 
as they were previously sufi'ering from tbe 
early dry winds. On tbe American river fields 
of hops extended to a new lease, and youog 
shoots are growing vigorously. Fruit has been 
benefited to some extent, tbe cool atmosphere 
purifying tbe air. Nature, with her garb of 
foliage, looks fresh and green. During the 
storm, peals of thunder were beard, flashes of 
lightning 8een, bail fell in places, and a water- 
spout broke, causing a perfect stream to flow 
at one time. 

The dry feed is ruined on the plains, and as 
there will not be sufficient moisture to renew it 
many are hurrying to clear their fields so that 
they can be pastured. Those on the river have 
the advantage, as they have alfalfa fields to 
mow. The second crop is already cut, and 
they expect to cut three more during the sea- 
son. 

I notice since the storm, those who have 
gathered their hay crop have put the plows to 
work to summer fallow it. Others that have 
summer fallowed, are running their horses over 
it to crush the lumps so that it will be ready to 
sow the seed early. 

A lesson can be learned by tbe past, so that 
in the future we can protect oui crops, either 
by housing, or build them in shape to turn the 
rain. If our climate is undergoing a change, 
we must change our mode of farming accord- 
ingly. I believe that in time, as our dry plains 
and valleys become more inhabited, its barren 
places become cultivated, its open face shaded 
by trees aud foliage, its parched soil become 
more moistened by irrigation, and vegetation 
as-^umes an ascendency, during our hummer 
months we will receive an increase of moisture 
from nature's source, that will compensate all 
our trouble, and make her bloom as a new born 
ro8«. G. R. 



War Against the Squirrels. 

To the Patrons of Husbandry in the State of 
C'aZi/ornta:— Although not a member of your 
Order, I recognize it as an organized body, 
ready for united action, capable of accomplish- 
ing much pertaining to the subject of agricul- 
ture in cases where an individual would be 
practically unseen, unheard and unfelt. So 
recognizing your organization, I earnestly 
solicit your efi'orts aud definite action in pro- 
curing the enactment of an efficient law for the 
destruction of squirrels. I take the liberty of 
addressing you upon this subject for the rea- 
sons: 

1. Because I am a personal sufferer from the 
intrusions and devastations of these pests. 

2. Because of the interest that should be 
taken, as a question of economy among pro- 
ducers and one of great public concern. 

3. Because it specially pertains to the objects 
and jurisdiction of your Order and because you 
have organized power that can, at once, be made 
efi'ective. 

The first reason, perhaps, is not very forcible 
and perhaps is not in very good taste, as an in- 
dividual cannot make his own los-^eB or incon- 
veniencies a pretext for appealing to a public 
organization, like yours, to aid in procuring 
legislative relief for what might appear to be a 
private injury; but when I consider my case 
one of a numerous class, I feel that I am speak- 
ing for that class rather than for mysflf. My 
case illutrates theirs. I am at present a small, 
impecunious farmer, located on public land, 
surrounded by unproductive property on three 
sides and vast sheep ranches on the other. I 
am on a beautiful sunny slope, a frostless spot, 
an elevated site that commands a view of two 
cities, ft magnificent valley, the picturesque 
mountains behind, "the deep blue ooean," and 
"islands of the sea." I have grubbed, plowed 
and planted — have worked hard to make a 
bushy, stumpy waste, which had been idle 
since its creation, show signs of bumao pro- 
gress. In six months the grape, apple, peach 
aud pear have taken ths places of the sumac, 
elder and sycamore. The banana, cocoanut, 
orange, etc., are yet to come. 

The products of the farm and garden have 
in the same period supplanted the poison oak 
aikd sage and greasewood, and the vines of tbe 
lu-cious melon now run where wild vines ran 
before. But what availeth thcso c-flfjrtB? The 
squirrels colonize tbe place as soon as a slaugh- 
ter is made of those in possession. They come 
from the sheep ranches. They come by day 
and by night; they couce singly as spies, ;ti 
numbers as scouts, in bodies as armies. Ris 
limes in six months I have had the nAace 
cleared of them, but they come again and\.keft' 
coming and there appears to be no end to Uis 
coloniz ition. My little crop is to be taken by 
these marauders. My patience is exhausted. 
I have asked tbe question: By what right do 
these owners of large iminLabited tracts raise 
squirrels to devour my crop? I answer it by 
saying, they must either kilt their own squirrels 
or let the State kill them at their expense. 
What I am suffering in annoyance in witness- 
ing their devastations on my liitle plantation, 
are precisely what every nmall farmer sur- 
rounded by unimproved land lo-;es and suffc-rs. 

None will be more profited than the owners 
of large improved tracts; fijst, in the increased 
value of their land; second, in the grasses 
which the squirrels destroy; thirdly, in the 
satisfaction arising from the fact that these 
animals are exterminated. 

As an economical public question, it is one 
of great public concern, of which you are al- 
ready conversant. It may safely be estimated 
that the county of Los Angeles is suffering at 
the rate of five hundred thousand dollars per 
year from this pest, and that the State has snf-. 
(ered from the same cause twenly-five millions 
in the twenty five years of her existence. Now, 
what is tbe remedy? I simply suggest the out- 
line of a plau: 

I. Require the Supervisors of the county to 
district the county into squirrel districts, and 
appoint a Squirrel Master for each. 

II. Raise a small tax, sufficient to purchase 
everything required, and to supply men to use 
the materials where there are not sufficient 
residents on the laud. 

III. Give the Commissioner or Squirrel 
Master power to call out all persons in ttju dis- 
tiict, five or six days in a year for the destruc- 
tion of these animals. 

Any law upon this subject (or any other) 
must be prepared with care. A squirrel law 
should be the product of tbe combined capac- 
ity of the experienced farmer or squirrel killer, 
who has well observed their habits, tastes, and 
best modes of destruction, the chemist who 
can give scientific directions to the practical 
experience of tbe farmer or squirrel killer, as 
to poisons, proportions, mixing, etc., and the 
lawyer who can give legal certainty in expres- 
sion, aud provide the powers and penalties 
necessary to secure efficiency. 

lu the hurry of tbe moment I have made a 
rough draft of an Act, very crude of course, in 
all things, which I submit to consideration, hop- 
ing that it may serve to call forth suggestions, 
discussions, aud finally tbe preparation of some 
law upon this subject. 

Somebody must begin, and begin crudely too, 
in moving for a new law upon a new and diffi- 



cult subject for legislation. You will there- 
fore look upon this draft as merely introducing 
the subject more in detail, which is more use- 
ful than a general expression of tbe opinion 
that squirrels are great pests. 

If the Patrons will take hold of this matter 
communicate with and procure the oo-opera- 
tion of the local and State Granges, there is no 
doiibt but that an efficient law can be prepared 
which would command the immediate action of 
the Legislature, if presented in due form by a 
committee of the State Grange. 

One thing is very certain— that nothing abort 
of a vigorous law which shall secure the uni- 
form, undivided and simultaneous efforts of 
the whole forming community, over the whole 
State, or large districts and just contributions 
from the owners of large estates being used for 
cattle and sheep husbandry, will ever extermi- 
nate these marauding enemies. 

Respeotiully, 

Cbables Lindley. 

Monte Vista. June ISlh, 1875. 

An Act Providing for the Destruction of Squirrels. 

The people of the State of California, repre- 
sented in Senate and Assembly, do enact as 
follows: 

Sec. 1. Each school district outside of incor- 
porated cities and towns is declared to be a 
Squirrel District. 

Sec. 2. Tbe Board of Supervisors of a county 
may at their discretion appoint a Squirrel Mas- 
ter for each squirrel district. They must ap- 
point a Fquirrel master when one-fourth of 
tbe registered voters of a squirrel district re- 
quest in writing such appointment. 

Sec. 3. Squirrel masters must execute and 
file bonds with sureties, and also oath of office 
in like manner, with constables of the 
township in which the squirrel master is to 
officiate. 

See. 4. Squirrel masters must appoint any 
number of deputies that be deem necessarv for 
the full execution of the duties of bis office. 
Such deputies shall execute and file bonds and 
qudify in like Banner with the principals. 
They shall have the same power as the prin- 
cipals. 

See. 5. The trustees of any school district 
for which a squirrel master is appointed, must 
levy and omse to be collected on property in 
the district, such tax as may be necessary for 
tbe full execution of this act, tbe same to be 
assessed and collected in like manner with 
local school diiitrict taxes for school purposes. 

Such tax must not exceed on each 

dollar of valnaiion. 

Sec. 6. All able-bodied inhabitants of a 
squirrel district, haying a squirrel master, must 
turn out six davs in each year as a squirrel 
force, for tbe destruction of the squirrels, viz.: 
On tbe last Saturday of tbe ibonths of Octo- 
ber, November, December, January, Fobruary 
and March. 

Sec. 7. The places and time of rendezvous 
on each of said days will be at tbe residence of 
the Fquirrel master at 7 a. m. The place of 
meeting may be changed by a public notice 
from the squirrel master published by posting 
ten band-bills for three days in different parts 
of the district, within twenty days next pre- 
ceding the time of the meeting. There maybe 
different places of meeting indicated in the no- 
tice when the squirrel master deems it proper 
to divide the squirrel f jrce into squirrel squads 
under different deputies. 

Sec. 8. The squirrel force shall be under 
the direction of the squirrel master, who shall 
prescribe &t\d cause to be printed tbe regula- 
tions therefor until tbe Board of Supervisors 
shall prescribe such regulations for the county 
at large, which they are empowered to do. 

Sec. 9. Any person liable to turn out may 
commute his liability by paying the squirrel 
master five dollars ($5) for eai-h day that he 
is so liable, or may furnish a substitute accept- 
able to the squirrel masier. 

Sec. 10. Any person liable to turnout un- 
der this act wuo does not turn out or furnish a 
substitute or commute bis liability is guilty of 
a misdemeanor. 

Sec. 11. Any member of the squirrel force 
who disobeys a lawful order of the squirrel 
master or violates the prescribed regulations, is 
guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Sec. 12. The squirrel lax and the commuta- 
tion money must be paid into the county 
treasury as a special squirrel fund, and must 
be drawn out on warrants signed by the squir- 
rel master. 

Sec. 13. The squirrel master must pnr- 
cbuse nil necessary things to be employed in 
the dastruetion of squirrels and employ all nec- 
essary aid in tbe preparation of such things. 
In all sparsely settled districts he may in bis 
discretion hire persons not liable to duty under 
this act to assist the squirrel force on the Sat- 
urdays mentioned. 

Sec. 14. The squirrel master shall keep 
books showing the number, names and time of 
service of all persons under ' is direction and 
also aU substitutes and commutation money 
received and tbe names of fall per^oas liable 
who failed to turn out, and all expenditures on 
account of the squirrel fund, and the number 
of all vouchers for such expenditure, and he 
sbnll report under oath to the Board of Super- 
visors within ten days after each of said Satur- 
days, making in his report a full exhibit con- 
cerning the requirements above mentioned and 
of all his official proceedings. The Board of 
Supervisors shall audit and settle all his ac- 
counts, when just and supported by proper 
vouchers. 

Seo. 16. The squirrel master and his depu- 
ties shall have such oompensation as the 
Supervisors may prescribe. 



July 3, 1875.] 



From Chino> 

MssBBB. Editobb:— Ab I have Been nothing 
in your valuable paper from this part of San 
Bernardino, I thought I would try and write 
something myself. If you think it worthy a 
place in your paper, you are welcome to it; if 
not, just toss it into the waste basket. I won't 
get mad, as did the New Italy. 

Chino (or Rinoon as it is commonly called) 
is some twenty-five miles west from the town 
of San Bernardino, on the north side of Santa 
Ana river, and east from Anaheim about 
eighteen miles; divided from the latter place by 
a range of small mountains. The Rincon is a 
small rancho, only one league of land, half of 
which was purchased by one Jesse Mayhew 
and some three or four others, in the spring of 
1867, when the first settlement was started. 
The other half was purchased by the settlers 
from the heirs of the old grantee, so when the 
land was first purchased in 1867 the country 
along the river for twenty miles was compara- 
tively a wilderness. Kow we can boast of 
some thirty families on this one league of land, 
besides some eight or ten living on government 
land adjacent. 

The great drawback to our settlement is the 
old Mexican grants. Here we are almost sur- 
rounded by the great monster. The Chino 
rancho on the north, consisting of some eleven 
leagues of the finest land in Southern Califor- 
nia, is all held for grazing purposes, with the 
exception of one single farm of four hundred 
acres. The Juapa grant on the east is equally 
as large. Then to the south are two more that 
embrace a large area of country. So, true 
enough, the Rincon is a comer. Cannot some 
enterprising companies or capitalists come in 
here and buy up these grants, or some of them, 
and divide them up into small farms and sell to 
actual settlers? There certainly is money in it 
for them, and a great many goodhomes for the 
thousands of immigrants who are continually 
pouring in from the Eastern States. The Santa 
Ana river furnishes an abundance of water for 
irrigating purposes. There is a large section 
of the land that needs no irrigation, damp land 
that will produce corn and vegetables any 
year. 

We have a good school here, with a regular 
attendance of about fifty scholars, and taught 
by a first class teacher. Our crops this season 
are far better than was anticipated, and not- 
withstanding the drouth wo will make an aver- 
age crop. The heavy fogs and cloudy, cool 
weather did the good work for us. 

John Tatlob. 
Chino, San Bernardino Co., June '20th, 1875. 



No Rattleweed in Salinas Valley. 

Messbh Editors :— In your issue of the 5th is 
an article headed " Blind Staggers and Sheep," 
in which occur some very erroneous statements 
concerning this section of country. 

The whole of the tillable land in the Salinas 
valley from Monterey bay to the Munras ranch, 
a distance of 40 miles in a direct line, is under 
cultivation and will yield at least a fair crop 
this season, consequently there is no rattle- 
weed or sheep upon it. 

I have traveled over most of this land before 
it was devoted to the plow, and I never saw any 
rattleweed growing upon it, and it is not " abun- 
dant in the vicinity of Salinas," tliough there 
may be some in the adjoining mountains. 

In the next place, I have been engaged in 
raising cattle and sheep in this county for sev- 
eral years, both on the plains and in the hills, 
and am acquainted with every man of any 
prominence in the business in the "vicinity," 
and I have never heard or known of a single in- 
stance of " annoyance or serious losses to stock 
owners in these parts," from stock eating rattle- 
weed, on the contrary, I think Monterey county 
can show not only some of the finest, but the 
healthiest stock in the State or the U. S. If 
there are any doubters let them visit our county 
fair next fall and I will prove it. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. E. Hebbbon. 

Salinas, June 7th, 1875. 



About the Weevil. 



Messes. Editobs: — I see an article in your 
journal of the 19th inst., on the subject of wee- 
vil in wheat, and you give Dr. Harris' opin- 
ion, which is, that kiln drying is an efi'ectual 
remedy, 

I must dissent from that position for the rea- 
son that wheat is an absorbant of moisture, 
like salt or tobacco, and when it is stored 
through a long wet season, it becomes as vul- 
nerable to the attacks of weevil as though it 
had never been kiln dried. 

The best way that I have seen to keep those 
insects out of grain, is to make a strong solu- 
tion of good lime and whitewash your store 
houses, granaries, floors and all, and I am 
of the opinion that weevil will be very scarce. 
This IS certainly cheaper than the modes sug- 
" Respectfully, A. H. B. 

Waterford, Stanislaus Co., June 24th, 1875. 



sheep, they reached, it would seem, the highest 
acme of their art, and that, too, by judicious 
selections and crossings within the limits of 
their own flocks and families. To such au ex- 
tent were their improvements carried, that 
when the prestige of the French was lost, the 
awakened mind of the American public was 
ready to receive the improved Spanish merino 
as the sheep best adapted to their wants— a 
sheep that showed itself possessed of all the 
merits of the French merino, without its de- 
fects. 

The profits were bountiful and the harvest 
large, increased and enhanced, it is true, by 
our civil war, until the demand was greater 
than the supply, and prices such as sheep never 
reached before. Don't blame the breeders for 
that; their prices weie their protection. Too 
large! says one. Aye, too large they might 
have been, I don't deny that, but they were for 
a real thing, an article that was truly and de- 
monstrably meritorious! For a sheep was pro- 
duced that yielded a pound of wool in the 
grease to four pounds of carcass, and a pound 
of clean, scoured wool, fit for the cards, to a 
little over twelve pounds of carcass, and that, 
too, so even and fine that nearly one-half was 
of one kind, known to the trade as No. 1; a 
wool that enters moat largely into the manu- 
facture of the best of American cloths. Indi 
vidual sheep sheared as high as, ewes twenty 
and rams thirty pounds per head. Flocks of 
pure Spanish merinos were established in many 
parts of the West, breeders buying a few ewes 
and their stock rams in Vermont often replen- 
ishing their stock as they could afi'ord, (for 
these sheep were costly, and the good ones are 
yet,) in the laudable endeavor to become the 
ram breeders of their own sections, and im- 
prove the large flocks of grades and re-Spanish 
the many flocks of Saxons, raising their aver- 
age from two to six and even eight pounds of 
wool per head for large flocks kept for the pur- 
pose of wool growing alone, 

[To be Continued.] 



SF{EEf i^flo Wool. 



School Reform. 

Messbs. Editobs:— As the Americanpress 
claims to be the educator of the people, we 
think it is time that it should take hold of the 
matter in good faith. The people of this county 
have suffered a great loss this spring at the 
hands of the school ring. Now, on account of 
much rain and bad roads, we have to keep 
school from the fir.9t of April to the last of No- 
vember, as the State law compels us to keep 
eight months school in each year or lose our 
State and county funds. 

At a teachers' examination in the early 
spring, there were twelve applicants for ctrtifi- 
cfttes and only three obtained them, teachers 
were therefore scarce and salaries high. 

We had plenty of teachers with last year's' 
certificates in their pockets, and some immi- 
grants with certificates from other States, yet 
our school trustees were powerless, and a num- 
ber of our country schools were empty for three 
months, children running in the streets and 
lanes and the people taxed beyond endurance. 
How long will thinking men and women stand 
such a game as this? 

There is something rotten in Denmark. I 
think it is time the people of this State, bath 
inside the Grange and out, should look at this 
matter in its true light. The California 
gchool laws give primary schools the prefer- 
ence, but we find the graded schools with 
teachers and the ungraded country schools left 
without. 

I think the people had better take the schools 
out of the hands of the State and county 
boards of education, and let the trustees of 
each district judge of the qualifications of the 
teachers. I think we can have our schools 
taught equally as well for half the amount, do 
laway with the State and county boards, and 
Live the amount to the teachers 



Ferndale, Jane 12th, 1875. 



Jameb Smith. 



From San Luis Obispo County. 

Messes. Editobs:— We have just had a regu- 
ar January storm; it commenced raining 15th, 
ibout 9 o'clock, A. M., and rained hard and 
iteady until some time in the night. Hay is 
iither in the cock or stack, uncovered, and 
nost of the barley cut and stacked. Fears are 
>Dtertained that a great deal of damage is done, 
[be dry feed is certainly ruined, and should it 
'ain suGBcient to start the seed now on the 
ironnd, it will be a dull look for feed another 
rear. 0. 8. Clabk. 

Old Creek, June 17th, 1876. 



with transaotlons for some previous weeks. 
Recent sales include Ohio and Pennsylvania 
fleeces, XX and XXX, at 50(3^55c. ; Michigan at 
47c.; New York and Western fleeces at 45(^51o.; 
wa-thed, combing and delaine, 55(^G0c.; un- 
washed do do, 38(® 50c.; scoured do do, 54@78o. ; 
tub washed do do, 55(^5Gc. ; snper, C6c.; pulled, 
45(a)5tc.; spring, 20(g40c.; California fall, 22c. 
-Call. 



UsEfllL l^pOf\^i^T'01* 



Sheep Raising. 

[By Col. E. 3. Stoweix— Continued.) 

The improved Spanish Succeed the French 
Merinos. 

In 1844 and 1846, Mr. Edwin Hammond, of 
Middlebury, Vt., purchased of Stephen At- 
wood, of Woodbury, Conn., of his pure Hum- 
phrey merinos, in three several purchases, the 
basis of his flock since so widely and justly 
celebrated. And for twenty years he and h- 3 
contemporaries both in the Atwood (since 
called Infantado) and the Pauler branches of 
the Spanish merino, made rapid strides in im- 
provement, an improvement by "their perfect 
understanding and exquisite management of 
their materials," as great as that of Bake well 
in the coarse sheep of England, or Bates in 
the improved "Shorthorn." They "converted 
the thin, light-boned, smallish and imperfectly 
covered sheep that they found into large, 
round, low, strong-boned, well covered sheep, 
models of compactness and beauty in form and 
character," with which you are all so conver- 
sant, and a fleece such as the world never saw 
before— a fleece to which the famed " Golden 
Fleece," for which Jason sailed the world over, 
bore no comparison ; a fleece with a long, fine, 
even, lustrous, elastic, strong, stylish fibre of 
utnaost quantity, holding its quality even upon 
flank, head, legs and belly, compact, and finer 
to the touch, "opening like a boon," and show- 
ing a soft, mellow, pink skin between the 
cream tinted and water lined leaves. 

Early in this period the profits of breeding 
Spanish merinos were not large. The Ameri- 
can people had been misled and lost money in 
sheep. To be sure, they were Saxons, and 
their loss was owing to the unfitness of* those 
sheep to the American market, and the stupid 
policy of building np the commerce of a coun- 
try at the expense of her manufacturers. The 
people moved slowly and the breeders slowly, 
but surely ; they were creating from but mea- 
gre material a race, a breed, and a wonderful 
one it was, but the people didn't see it, the 
change was so gradual. Suddenly a bright 
light appeared, like a meteor flash ! The 
Taintor importations of French merinos, those 
huge models of bone and corrugated skin with 
their gross but uneven fleeccn, struck the eye, 
and the American people were thoroughly 
awakened, and with their characteristic unifi- 
cation rushed pell mell into their purchase. 
Alas ! to be again disappointed. The French 
merino was as much too much of a good thing 
as the Saxon too little. 

Meanwhile the breeders of the Spanish 
merino pursued the even tenor of their way, 
catching, it may bf, an inspiration from the 
advent of such a striking model as the French 
sheep presented, and availing themselves of the 
true breeders' prerogative 01 moulding accord- 
ing to will, and to almost any type, in form, in 
fleece, and all that goes to make up the perfect 



Eastern Wool Markets. 

New Yobk, June 26th. — There has been a 
rather improved demand for the finest grades 
of wool, but still the market lacks that life 
which dealers and buyers generally believe 
would prevail at this period of the season. 
Manufacturers are far behind in the total 
amount of fall grades manufactured so far this 
season, for though some lines are meeting with 
a fair demand, the goods market, generally 
speaking, is without life, with prices very 
much in favor ot purchasers. Foreign clothing 
wool continues depressed, and holders are in 
many instances shipping to Europe, as the 
condition of the Eoglish markets is reported as 
being far better than here. Fleeces arrive very 
slowly, as but few purchases have been made 
owing to the extreme views of farmers. Spring 
California is weak, but considerable business 
has been done at lowest prices and continues 
steady. Texas is being received quite freely. 
The choicest grades are sold above the views 
of purchasers. Coarse grades sell quite freely 
at steady rates. The sales hq.ve been: 275 
bales Australian at 45 and 50e.; 38,000 fcs. 
Cape, supposed at 33J^(§3ric.; 50,000 lbs. fine 
and medium Eastern at 30(^32%c.; 125,000 fts. 
low Western do. and Mexicm at 25%(g26c.; 
50,000 ft)3. Colorado at 27@2T%o. ; 50,000 fts. 
free spring California at 29(^35c.; 10,000 lbs. 
long staple do. at 39c.; 22 bags burry do at 
23%@24c.; 12,000 lbs. do. old at 21c.; 175,000 
S)3. fall at 18(^21c.; 8,000 lbs. X Ohio fleece at 
53%c.; 75 bags X pulled at 44(^45c.; 1,500 lbs. 
choice do. at 52%c. : 170 bags super do. at 45@ 
46*c.; and 105 do. lamb's do., 27 do. combing 
do., 6,000 ft)S. picklock fleeces, 2,000 fts. tub 
washed do., 10,000 Iba. unwashed do., and 
50,000 ft)3. do. Western, on terms not made 
public. 

Boston, June 26th. — The demand for wool 
has been fair, and sales have been up to the 
full average, comprising for the week upwards 
of 150,000 pounds domestic, spring California, 
combing and delaine fleeces, and unwashed 
fleeces. There is no change to note in prices. 
The market is now settled on a basis of some 
three to five centi per pound lower for all 
kinds than current rates some months ago. 
Miahigan fleeces, which formerly sold at 52@ 
52%c. would not now bring over i8@iSy^o. 
and fine Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces are 
fully five cents off from the highest point. 
Medium fleeces and combing and delaine 
fleeces are also ofl' from three to flve cents. New 
Ohio and Pennsylvania fleeces would not bring 
over 50(^50%c. per pound for good average lots, 
and parties who are purchasing in anticipation 
of an advanse on those figures a'e likely to be 
disappointed. The present excitement in the 
wool growing States is a matter of surprise to 
both dealers and manufacturer i, and it is be- 
lieved that this excitement can be bi»t tempo- 
rary, as wool could not bo bought at the prices 
ruling in the interior and disposed of in the 
Eastern markets except at a loss-. Transac- 
tions in XX-X Ohio have been principally at 
52(^53 %o., but these, prices are for desirable 
lots of old wool. The demand for California 
is good, and the manufacturers evidently find 
this wool the cheapest of any now on the miir- 
kot, it costing from 05 to 80c for sconred. Sales 
of the week have been 623,000 pounds spring, 
including some fancy clips, as high as 38@40c., 
but principally from 30@35o. for good and 
choice. Spring arrivals have been large, and 
holders are working off their atook as fast as 
possible, a^ prices are as high now as they are 
likely to be for some months to nome. In 
palled wool, very little bae b«eu dcue compared 



Who First Made and Named Kerosene. 

A correspondent mentions to us that the 
word "kerosene" originated with the Downe 
Kerosene Oil Co. of Bostqn. This is an error. 
It was Abrah:im Gesner, who, in 1844, distilled 
an oil from coal in Prince Edward island, 
and who was the first to give it the name of 
kerosene; while James Young, of Glasgow, in- 
troduced this manufacture into England. It 
was in 1847 that his attention was directed to 
the extraction of an oil from the petroleum 
which was found in a coal mine in Derbyshire; 
and when this was exhausted, he distilled the 
oil from Boghead cannel coal, and was quite 
successful in making, in 1854, 8,000 gallons of 
kerosene a week, which sold for five shillings a 
gallon, making half a million dollars per year, 
much of which was clear profit. 

This result increased the" ooal-oil works in 
Eugland, while in the United States the fltst 
coal-oil works were erected, in 1854, on New- 
town creek, Long ishtnd, by the Kerosene Oil 
Co., working under the patent of Mr. Young, 
who had also taken it out in the United States. 
In 1856 the Breckenridge coal-oil works made 
kerosene from the cannel coal found there; and 
the same was done in Perry county, Ohio. In 
1860 there were not less than twenty-five such 
factories in Ohio alone. The establishments 
along the Atlantic coast produced 200,000 bar- 
rels, while the total value of the kerosene thus 
produced was estimated to be over two million 
dollars. 

Then the pe'roleum excitement came, and 
all the estLiblishments commenced to make 
kerosene from crude petroleum instead of 
using coal. Kerosene being the only article 
for which there was any demand, the benzine 
sold at a very low price, while for the gasoline 
no price whatever could be obtained, so that in 
1861, the largest works then in existence in 
the United States, those of Cozzens Brothers, 
in Greenpoint, Long island, burned the gaso- 
lins all up by conducting it through a pipe to a 
safe distance and discharging it in a swamp, 
where in this way a Lirge fire was kept up, 
burning night and day for a long time. 



PoPOLAB Science with a Venoeanck.— It is 
one of the ma-it hopeful signs of the times that 
everybody is now supposed to kiiow a little 
science. Some of us know a very little. Others 
know a good deal, but the arrangement is some- 
what confused. We scarcely know to which 
class the compiler of the "Yorkshire Exhibi- 
tion Guide" belongs. Whatever amount of 
scientific knowledge he possesses, he certainly 
has the art of "combining his information" 
and presenting it to his leaders in a fresh, 
cheerful and interesting manner. He says: 
"A medal and plate formed of the new metal, 
palladium, will bo interesting to scientific men. 
The discovery of this metal a few years ago by 
Professor Graham finally settled the long dis- 
puted point as to whether or not the gas 
hydrogen was a m tal. . He proved that palla- 
dium was simply hydrogen condensed. This 
may be easily exemplified by placing a piece of 
the metal under the receiver of an air pump 
and exhausting the air. The solid metal at 
once flies off as a gas, and on readmitting the 
air it shrinks again into its former size. The 
little medal shown contains 100 times its vol- 
ume of the gas." We will only add, in trans- 
ferring this gem to our columns, that we hope 
it is not a ftiir sample of the teaching at the 
Lfleds Mechanics' Institute — the worthy ob- 
ject for whose benefit the Yorkshire exhibition 
is being held. 

Death Belt.s.— Frequently, in cases of ship- 
wreck, espe -ially in comparatively smooth wa- 
ter, life belts would furnish a means of tem- 
porary safety until boats were got ready on 
shore. Tuey would have done so in the case 
of the Norlhflrel, and in the still more recent 
instance of the Schiller. But the life belts 
must bj genuine, and not pretexts for the pur- 
pos-) of figuring in advertisements as proofs of 
the care taken by the own'frs for the lives of 
their passengers. Those found upon the bodies 
of the SchUkr's victims appear to hive been of 
the latter sort, consisting, as they did, of a few 
slabs of cork fastened t0i?other and to the per- 
son by one or two pieces of tape, and were thus 
worse than useless to a good sn-immer; for it 
is stated that those who recovered the bodies 
declare that in very many instances they were 
found with the head under water and h><els in 
the air, showing that the bolts had really drown- 
ed instead of 8up])ortiDg the unfortunates who 
had trusted to thorn, by dropping down to- 
wards their hips. In this way scores of dead 
bodies were picked up in the water wearing 
belts which, if properly constructed, woula 
have saved the life of the wearer. 



At the Atlaa works, Fitlsbnrg. Pa., they are 
making the largest ahears ever oonatruoted in 
this ooantry. They will weigh forty tona, and 
will shear void iron five inobea thiek. 



3^lirj^<t0^£«y* ^Jiu^BS« 



rjuly 3, 1875- 




TKE HXACaiTARTEBS of the CalUornla 
8teUi firuige u-e at No. 6 Lledeadorff street. In re»r of 
the Qrangere' Bank of California, No. 41.'i California 
street 8uu FrancUco. 



Or&nffe Clubs for the Bural. 

The Secretary (or eome other Patron) iB invited to 
act as club agent lor the Pacii'ic Rural Press in every 
Orange. Circular and eaa pie copies sent free, five 
or more names will coDStitute a club, at the rale of f3 
a year. No new svibscriptioua will be taken without 

Jayment In advance. We will pay the postage after 
anuary 1st, 1871). All club subscrlptionB iu Grangsa 
should end on the last day of the month. Old sub- 
scribers may join the club by paying the Secretary up 
to club dates. Every Patron farmer phould read a 
reliable agricultural paper. We need the support of 
all on this coatt. Help the Secretary (or club agent) 
to make up a large list In your neighborhood. Don't 
delay. 



Sscretariea will be supplied with a printed list of 
BUBcrlbers for this paper upon sending a list of the\r 
offices within the range of their Orange. Also with 
blank reportB, etc., for clubs. 

Oranee Directory.— A full list of officers of the 
State Orange, Deputies, names ot Councils, Subordi- 
nate Oranges, Ma.?t«r8 and Secretaries will appear in 
this department on the last Saturday of this month. 

MaNUAI. op JtmiSPRUDENOK AND OO-OPERATION OF THE 

P. OF H.— This valuable work of 200 pages, by A. B. 
Smedley, Master of Iowa State Orange, should be read 
by every patron. Price, $1.26. Now on hand at this 
office. 



Patrons of Husbandry. 

£ro. Patrons, Secretaries and Treasurers of 
Subordinate Oranges : — I desire to make a 
special request of you, and your uniform kind- 
neas assures me you will accede to it when you 
reflect upon it for one moment. 

The reports of both Secretary and Treasurer 
with ihe dues are to be sent to me, as I am re- 
quired to keep the accounts with tho Granges, 
and my request is that when the dues are for- 
warded to be particular to mark tbe packages 
with the Treasurer's name and the number of 
the Grange, as frequently packages come with 
out any notice or anything wliich indicates 
where they come from ; hence the difficulty and 
trouble in forwarding the receipts, which is now 
snch a fruitful source of complaint. Will you 
help? Yours Fraternally, 

W, H. Baxter, Sec. State Grange. 

San FraBcisco, June 30tb, 1875. 



The Grange and Our Agricultural 
leges. 



Col- 



Husbandry has ever been acknowleilgt d as 
tbe noblest of human employments. It. is the 
one of prime importance, and was the earliest 
of all arts or professions. The cultivation of 
the soil has ever been held iu high e:>teem by 
all civilized nations, and despised only by those 
of the lowest grade. Husbandry is a science capa- 
ble of almost infinite study and development. It is 
one, proficiency in which should be rewarded 
with as high honors as are met with in any 
other walk of life. But with these admitted 
generalities, and with facilities unequalled 
among the countries of the earth, our own 
country, until within a few years, has been be- 
hind almost all others, either in the estimation 
in which the husbandman has been held, or in 
the practical advantages which may be gained 
from a skillful practice of his calling. Thanks 
to the efforts of a few far-seeing, persevering 
men, this stigma upon our national character 
is fast being removed. The act of Congress 
providing means for the establishment of agri- 
cultural colleges in every State in the Union 
was the firbt decided efifort to this end. By it 
husbandry was raised at once to the dignity of 
a profession — or rather, its true status as such 
was fully recognized — and we now look confi- 
dently to the time as not far distant when an 
agricultural diploma will rank, among the pro- 
fessions, as fully equal in digtiity and superior 
in practical value to a parchment from a purely 
classical institution. 

The Order of the Patrons of Husbandry is 
an organization which h^a arisen just iu time 
to second, with a powerful band, the efibrts of 
the first earnest friends of agricultural progress 
who have nobly taken in hand the initiatory 
steps toward securing the educational facilities 
necessary to tbe higher position which it is de- 
signed agriculture shall assume among tbe in- 
dustrial pursuits of the land. The Grange is a 
school in which is inculcated a love for agri- 
culture among the masses. It is also a medium 
which, by a system of extended and earnest co- 
operation, will enable that industry to so con- 
centrate its influence that it will become a 
power iu the land which will command respect 
from all quarters. It has already, in fact, 
stamped it as tbe controlling industry of tbe 
country. 

We have an abiding faith in the power of the 
Grange to so elevate the moral and intellectual 
condition of our agricultural masses as in a short 
time to bring to an end any ground for the objec- 
tion now so frequently urged against our agri- 
cultural colleges that ihey cannot be supported 
or made practically useful, because as soon as 
tbe sons of otir farmers get a taste of literature, 
they almost invariably turn their backs upon 



the farm, and before the first or second col- 
legiate year is ended, change their proposed 
agricultural course to some other of the various 
professions which are more popular or promise 
greater honors or profits. The reason for this, 
in the past, has been that the agricultural 
masses were not prepared for tbe radical change 
contemplated. 

It is but a few years since agricultural papers 
and books were generally scouted by farmers 
as entirely useless for practical results. Since 
the general establishment of Granges through- 
out the country — say witbin a period of less 
than four years — the circulation of agricultural 
papers and books has been more than doubled. 
This has been brought about almost entirely 
by the educational efi'orts of the Patrons of 
Husbandry; and if that Order should cease its 
efforts to-day, the impulse which it has given 
in this direction, alone, will have accomplished 
more good than could have been done by any 
other possible appropriation of tbe same 
amount of money which that institution has 
coKt to date. 

The Grange is worth to-day almost as much 
to the agriculturists of the country as the com- 
mon school. It is, in fact, the only primary 
school we have which is devoted to agricultural 
education. It is there where our sons and 
daughters are first taught the importance of 
agricultural instruction; it is there where they 
are taught to love and take a pride in their 
calling; it is there where they are made to see 
possibilities in agricultural industry which past 
generations have never dreamed of , and it is from 
thence that an influence is to go out which in a 
few years will fill up our agricultural colleges 
with young men, and young ladies, too, with a 
class of students that will not turn their backs 
on the farm or seek other professions because 
of their supposed higher respectability or 
utility. 

Grange Work, Cotton Growing, and Min- 
ing in Fresno County. 

Messes. Editobs : — Our new brothers in Kings- 
burg Grange have gone to work in earnest to 
secure water for their next crops. Their land 
is the very best quality of sandy loam, is gener- 
ally level, and has the proper fall for irriga- 
tion. 

Our worthy brother, Wm. A. Sanders, Mas- 
ter of the Grange, has been selected to super- 
intend the construction of their ditch. 

They have made arrangements with the farm- 
ers around Centerville and Fresno City, to en- 
large and lengthen a ditch already constructed 
by the latter. Bro. Sanders is now devoting 
all his time and energy to this important enter- 
prise. It is fortunate that the conflict of inter- 
ests formerly existing between the company of 
farmers and company of capitalists, each tak- 
ing water from King's river, has been recon- 
ciled. Let us hope they can continue to work 
together iu harmony for the same purpose. 

Capital and Labor 
Certainly should always aid each other in good 
faith, when developint; valuable public enter- 
piises. Untortunaiely they cannot always work 
in harmony. 

Is not the want of will and efifort to do so, 
sometimes the main difficulty in the way ? 

The meeting with Garretsou Grange, No. 132, 
Thursday evening, June 10th, was a very 
pleasant one. This is the largest Grange in 
our county, having now more than 50 members 
on its roll. Bro. Joseph Burns, Master, and 
Bro. W. J. Hutchinson, Past Master, were 
both present 

I find the farmers along this part of King's 
river are cultivating no cotton this year. 

This is not because the land, when irrigated, 
does not produce a fair yield and a good qual- 
ity of cotton. Both bottom and up lands are 
found to do this. One farmer made more than 
375 pounds of lint cotton per acre on 45 acres. 
Other causes render it unprofitable. Cattle 
running at large, in spite of the trespass law, 
destroyed some of their cotton. They had to 
pay $100 a car to ship to San Francisco, 195 
miles, and then got only fourteen or fifteen 
cents a pound. 

Enough, however, has been done to prove 
that, when they can have 

A Cotton Factory Near Them, 
Cotton can be made a very profitable crop in 
Fresno county, as it can, no doubt, iu a large 
part of San Joaquin valley. 

An exoeriment made last year on the Chap- 
man & Friedlander ranch, near Borden, proves 
that, with the same amount of irrigation, our 
lands here will produce cotton quite as well as 
the King's river lauda. 

It may be considered an established fact that 
when capitalist? and farmers mutually agree, 
the former to furnish one or more factories on 
our coast, th6 latter to grow sufficient cotton 
by irrigation, cotton planting can become a 
very lucrative branch of agriculture in all of 
Southern California, and perhaps in some 
northern portions of the State. 

No Better Water Power 
Exists in tbe State for one such factory than on 
King's river. I am informed that one man of- 
fers free to any company that will establish a 
factory there, first-class water power, and, I be- 
lieve, a site for the building. It is certainly a 
worthy of investigation by capitalists 



matter 
and farmers. 

June 11th, as the meeting was not appointed 
for Adams Grange, No. 143, until half past 
seven p. M., and its place of meeting is only 
about fourteen miles from Centerville, it was 
determined to make a detour into the moun- 



tains, and by a brisk ride of about thirty miles 
in all, add to the pleasure of a Grange meet- 
ing, a visit to a new quartz mine, the oidy one 
now worked in Fresno county. 

Two of the members, Bros. Hutchinson and 
Jack, kindly volunteered to accompany me, 
and, well mounted, we started on our way be- 
tween eight and nine a. m. 

We hoped to reach the mine about noon, and 
as there is a dearth of hotels in that region, we 
calculated largely on getting dinner with the 
men who are at work putting up 
A Four Stamp Mill, 
For Messrs. Keys & Jensen, well knowing 
the liberal hospitality of a California mining 
camp. 

By noon, we were wending our way along a 
rough mountain grade, hunting the mine, and, 
thanks to the bracing horseback ride and pure 
air, getting ravenously hungry. 

Our only observation worthy of note, on the 
way, was the remarkable absence of any kind 
of feed along tbe foothills and mountain sides, 
consequent upon our extremely dry spring. 

It was after 1 p. m. before we reached the 
shanty where Messrs. Keys & Jensen txiard the 
men employed at the mine. 

Talk about men's hearts sinking within them ! 
Imagine, Messrs Editors, tbe sinking within 
our hungry trio when we found no one at home, 
not even a Chinaman. A well cleaned table, 
with nothing but the castors and syrup pitcher 
on it, told the tale. Dinner had been over for 
some time, and all had gone to their work at 
the mill. No one was in sight, and nothing 
but the blows of a distant hammer coming 
from 

A Deep Ravine, 
Indicated where tbe work was going on. 

One of our number knew Mr. Keyes lived 
near by, so while be went to reconnoitre for a 
dinner, hie comrades awaited his return in the 
shade of one of those noble California white 
oaks, so many of which grace our foothills and 
streams. 

He soon returned to add to our disappoint- 
ment by the news that nobody was there. 

It was a time for decided action, and we fol- 
lowed the advice of our experienced guide, 
which was to make a raid on the pantry, when 
hungry men find no one at home. 

No sooner said than done. Under the able 
leadership of one who had found the necessity 
for doing the like many a time when out assess- 
ing taxes in wild regions, a thorough search 
was soon made. First the discovery of some 
Chinese shoes revealed the fact that they had 
one of those ubiquitous cooks of the Pacific 
slope, a smiling, cnnniug John. 

On the shelves we found nothing cooked but 
a pan of rice, and another of stewed apples. 
No bread. Light dinner, this, for hungry 
"Melican men." We were about to attack 
these, when we thought of the stove, John's 
favorite place to keep cooked provisions. In a 
trice we there found, on the stove, a pot of 
well boiled beans; underneath, a stew pan half 
full of the nicest mashed potatoes; in the oven, 
a bake pan, containing choice bits and bones of 
rich, jaicy mutton. Soon a loaf of bread was 
found, nicely rolled in a cloth to keep it moist 
in our dry climate. 

The Scene Which Followed 

Requires no minute description. For each to 
supply himself with a piece of meat and a 
spoon to dive into the beans and potatoes with, 
was but the work of an instant. Around that 
stove we enjoyed, in moderately silent satisfac- 
tion, a hearty dinner, "with none to molest or 
make us afraid" — until when one of us finished 
his meal and walked into the front room he en- 
countered John, the cook, just entering the 
door. That was one astonished Chinaman, 
Messrs. Editors. So suddenly meeting a 
stranger in his domicile, and coming out of the 
kitchen, smacking his lips! He staggered back 
aghast, and said, 

"What For?" 

He then made a rush for the kitchen shed, and 
as soon as he reached the door and saw us two 
at the stove he knew "what for?" You ought 
to have seen him. He stood bolt upright, 
without uttering a word. His sharp; black, 
"celestial" eyes flashed fire, while he gazed in 
mute astonibhment. 

He found your correspondent with a leg-of- 
mutton bone in one hand and a spoon in the 
other, finishing up. Evidently there was no 
escape. John stood it better than we had rea- 
son to expect, »8 soon as he recovered from his 
first shock of surprise. We tried to be as 
polite and. explanatory as possible, and praised 
his good potatoes and mutton. But John 
seemed to be impervious to praise. There 
were too many of us for him to venture to be 
impolite, but he did not like the liberty we 
took, at all. 

No. 2 had finished, and I was about satisfied, 
still eating and talking to John, when he came 
up very quietly behin«l me, and without saying 
a word, looked into the pot of beans and then 
the potatoes, and at once covered both with 
their lids. John seemed to think his guests 
had eaten enough, and I stopped. So ended 

A Hearty Dinner, 
And a fruitful source to us for a hearty laugh. 
Worried as John was at first, when we finally 
explained, he refused any pay for our good 
meal. Our visit to the mine well repaid us for 
the ride. Mr. Oartwright, an experienced 
miner, kindly gave us all the information we 
desired. Their prospects are very flattering 
for success. Assays prove that although the 
ledge is not very rich, it is likely to pay well. 
The gold bearing vein where exposed, some 
forty-five feet below the surface, is about six 



feet wide, encased in talcose quartz, the latter 
about forty feet wide and eDolosed between two 
walls of slate rook. The miU is expected to 
commence omshing al>ont July Ist. Mor« than 
100 tons of the quartz was ready when we were 
there. More stamps will be added if needed. 
Silver ore is also found near by, and Mr. Cart- 
wright assured me that within three miles of 
that point he had discovered copper ore almost 
equal in purity to the noted "peacock" ore of 
the Lake Superior copper region, and this less 
than twenty-five miles from the railroad. 

All this promises a good development of II1& 
mining interests of Fresno county in the fnture. 
From the mine, on a mountain ridge, we dis- 
tinctly saw our handsome new court-house in 
Fresno City, some twenty miles distant.. 

That night we enjoyed the hospitality of 
Brother Thos. H. Nelson, bad a cordial Grange 
gathering, and enjoyed the pleasure of confer- 
ring tbe first degree on the Rev. L. Caiely, a 
gentleman well known and highly esteemed in 
many poriions of California, as well asiu the 
older States. 

We have good signs of an earnest Grange re- 
vival in our county. Yours fraternally, 

J. W. A. Wbiqht. 

Borden, June 28th, 1875. 



In Memoriam. 

Editobs Press: — At a meeting of the Sacno' 
mento District Business Association, held att 
Sacramento, June 23d, 1875, a committee of 
three was apfiointed to draft f-uitable resohi- 
tions appropriate to the death of our Brother 
J. J.Bates, a director ot the above association. 

WuEBK.\s, It has pleased our Heavenly Father to call 
from time to eternity our Brother, J. J. Bates. 

Raolved, That in the death of Brother Bates we have 
lost a faithful Brother and the community a good cit- 
izen. 

Raolved, That as a Patron and a director we miss his' 
presence and co-operation among us . We have found 
our brother always ready and willing to give a helping 
band towards any cause that related to the interest and 
benefits accruing out of our Order, and has always dis- 
charged bis duties as an officer becoming tbe posltloa 
hu held, and as a Patron true to the Order which ha 
belongs. 

Resolved, That we extend to his bereaved family and 
relatives onr heartfelt sympathy In this sad hour uf 
affliction. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions l>e for- 
warded to his bereaved family , and for publication to 
the Bdrai. Puss and Sacramento Valley A^culturUt. 
Obo. Rich, > 

L. H. Fassett, I Com. 
H.W. Johnson. ) 



In Memoriam. 

Tu the wembera of Beadinij Orange: — Your 
committee respectfully submit the following tO' 
the memory of our late departed Sister: 

Whxbeab, The relentless hand of death has taken 
from us one of our charter members, Sister Bawks. 

Resolved, That In the death of our Sister this Orange 
has lost a good and devoted member, and her husband 
a kind and affectionate wife. 

Resolved, That we, as a band of Brpthers and Rtsters, 
deeply sympathize with the bereaved husband, relatiTe» 
and friends of our deceased Bibter. 

Aesolced, That in token of respect to the memory of 
our departed Sister, that the charter of this Qranfce be 
draped in mourning for thirty days. 

Rtsolved, That these resjlutlons t>e Incorporated In 
the minutes of this Grange, and that a copy be for- 
warded to the Pacific Rural PitEss for publication. 
Mrs. a. Wood. ) 

Mbs. Mart Clark, | Com. 
Mas. A. WooDBim. ) 
J. J. Bell, Seo'y, pro lem^ 

Reading Grange, June 19tb, 1875. 



In Memoriam. 



Whereas, Tbe hand ot death has been laid heavily 
upon us, and the Divine Master has seen fit to call to 
hliiher work above, our worthy brother, Joseph Ralvh, 
it is therefore resolved by this Orange, 

First, That in the sudden death of Brother Ralfb, 
we arc afiain reminded of the uncertainty of life, and 
the Importance of remembering that death may over- 
take us at any moment. 

Second, Tiiat we deeply mourn the departure of our 
brother from our midst, feeling that in him we have 
lost a neighbor, who was indeed a nelghlmr in th» 
highest and most Christian sense. 

Third, That tbe sincere and heartfelt sympathies of 
this Orange be extended to the wife and children, 
Who in bim have lost the most that makes life dear. 

Fourth, That a copy of theae resolutions be banded 
to the family of the deceased, and one each to the Inde- 
pendent and Rural Press for publication. 

J. M. HOBITEB, 

L. E. OsoooD, J Com. 
S. I. Marstoh, 
Centerville Grange, Jane 26tb, 1875. 



Getsebville Grange. — Brother W. H. 
Baxter, Secretary of the State Grange, 
has consented to deliver the Independ- 
ence Day oration on Saturday, July 3d. Patrons 
from Healdsburg, Cloverdale and other Granges 
will be present. A good time generally may be 
expected. We hope to hear from a good many 
Grauge celebrations on the 3d or 5th. 

Gbanoe Hall andStobb. — The Sacramento 
Grange have under consideration the proposition 
to erect a building, at a cost of 320,000 ; the 
lower floor to be used for a Grange store and 
tbe upper to be fitted up as a hall for the nse of 
the Grange. 

The committee on the headquarters of the 
National Grange received little courage to lo- 
cate them at Chicago. 

A Grange cannot vote back to a member any 
portion of the membership fee, nor take any 
less. 



The Mississippi State Grange at its last ses- 
sion, decided to nave a college for the benefit 
of its members. 



July 3, 1875.] 



Harvest Feast— A Visit to the Buriin- 
game Tract. 

The annual picnic of the San Mateo Orange 
'(vas held ou Saturday laat at Belmont, and 
proved a most enjoyable occasion. The ampje 
grounds were in excellent order, the rains hav- 
ing washed the oabs and laurels so abundantly 
scattered through the canon, and the buckeyes 
were not yet out of bloom. Ballenberg's band 
(furnished music for the dancers, the feast was 
what Grangers' feasts were wont tobeinabund- 
iance and variety. TVe could not see that the 
.groaning tables were perceptibly lightened 
after an attack of two or three hours' duration. 
There were no literary exercises, every one 
dancing, feasting or enjoying a social chat un- 
der the trees as pleased them best. 

We took advantage of this visit to see the ex- 
tensive improvements upon the Burlingame 
tract, projected and urged forward with the 
energy which characterizes Mr. Kalston's vari- 
oi\8 enterprises. There could scarcely be found 
H spot combining more desirable features 
than this suburban toirn will offer when its 
.•youBg plantations are grown, and its pleasant 
■sites are ready for occupation. It was a master 
stroke of policy to create the landscapes before 
laying out the town; the laying out has been 
done with excellent judgment. We had heard 
vthat most of the trees were dead; if so, they 
must have had a reburrection, for tens of thous- 
ands are growing along the avenues with all the 
Tampant vigor which eucalyptus and cypress 
ore 'capable of. Along the county road the 
gum trees show scarcely at all, having been 
fplaaated younger than is usual, and mulched 
jHTetty heavily, but farther up, last year's plant- 
ing already makes quite a show. The rich, 
'well shaded dell near Mr. Kedington's is com- 
pletely filled with young nursery plantations 
which give one a key to the magnitude of the 
horticultural work projected. Numerous hot 
beds, cold beds and hardening houses are scat- 
tered about, and long thrifty rows of seedlings, 
among which we saw plenty of chestnuts, will 
irequire an army of laborers to dispose of them 
Twhen the rainy season commences. Thous- 
lands of cuttings of our best shrubs, veronicas, 
■cestrum and the like, are growing vigorously. 
■'The reservoir in the upper canon we did not visit ; 
at is said the -water supply will be ample for the 
fiew village. If it might be a village, a haunt 
«nd hiding place from business cares, a refuge 
from over exertion in house keeping, possess- 
ing a common bakery, a common laundry, a 
social hall, library and reading room, we too 
would like a cottage looking out upon the bay 
and the soft outlines of the San Bruno hills. 
The situation of Burlingame is quite similar 
an its natural features to the foothills back of 
'iTemescal. 

San Mateo gardens are in their prime, and the 
tflnest of our many rural homes, that of Mr. 
.A. Hayward, under the hands of a very com- 
petent gardener, exceeds anything we have aeen 
in that line on the coast. The plantations are 
of many years' growth, and have under Mr. 
Burns' supervision had some judicious thinning 
during the present season, letting in more sun- 
shine, and making every nook as bright and 
cheerful as color and shelter can make them. 
Mr. Haywnrd's place is level, and the effect of 
variety is all made by planting, the grounds are 
00 extensive that there is no end to these pos- 
sible variations. Some of the most picturesque 
live oaks are on this property; these have been 
religiously spared, and give the dignity of age 
to the estate. A beautiful avenue has been 
opened directly from Hayward's to the station, 
within the enclosure; the entrance on that side 
exhibits a magnificent piece of ribbon garden- 
ing along the drive. The edge is of box, next 
a row of golden feather, then verbenas in 
•irariety, back of these silver geranium, behind 
■which rises a bank of dark leaved scarlet gera- 
nium, now one blaze of fiery scarlet. The 
sweeping curves of this band of gorgeous color, 
are dehghtfully contrasted with the cool green 
•of the unbroken lawn, on the other side of the 
house. In the park are various kinds of deer, 
.among them the native Japanese, imported last 
year. He appears to like the country. You 
cannot walk a dozen rods in any direction from 
the house without starting the quail, who have 
increased like the leaves of their coverts. They 
Are very tame, and come out upon the lawn 
•with their young ones to get their daily rations 
of wheat. The wild turkeys are not yet per- 
mitted to run at large, as the gates of Mr. 
Hayward's rural paradise are never closed to 
the public. Probably no place on the coast 
furnishes a more complete illustration of our 
natural -wealth, and of the rapidity with which 
foreign plants and animals may be dome-)tioated. 
There is a Sleepy Hollow atmosphere still hov- 
ering over San Mateo, which the shriek of the 
locomotive hardly penetrates. The spirits of 
the old proprietors, who dreamed away the sum- 
mer days in their cool adobes, still lingers 
about the extremities of the Santa Clara and ad- 
jacent valleys, while a great interior city is grow- 
ing up in its heart. Another generation will 
see a continuous line of rural residences on 
both sides of the bay, from San Jose to the 
metropolis, the growth of plantations will 
soften the climate, millions of acres will be 
reclaimed, the Granges will be centres of social 
influence. These earlier planters woo have 
foreseen the good time coming, even now ait 
under their vines and fig trees, and hold their 
harvest feasts; the coming millions will com- 
plete and perfect their work. 

•Tkannb 0. Cabb, 
June 28th, 1875. 



From the Granges. 



Jackson Valley Grange. 

Editoes Press : — By invitation from Brother 
J. C. Hamrick, the Worthy Master of Jackson 
Valley Grange, No. 234, Amador county, we 
attended a harvest feast of that Grange, on the 
29th day of May last, having to ride about fif- 
teen miles over the foothills. The Grange was 
at work conferring degrees when we arrived 
there, my better half accompanying me, where 
we found several Brothers and Sisters of Wash- 
ington and Linden Granges, of San Joaquin 
county, in attendance. From the members of 
Jackson Valley Grange we received a hearty 
welcome, as their District Deputy. After con- 
ferring degrees and the usual work of the Order, 
we adjourned to a grove some half mile distant, 
where we found a stand erected for speaking, 
and seats for the accommodation of the audi, 
ence, many strangers being present as invited 
guests. After prayer by the Rev. Mr. Foster, 
and singing by the Patrons, Brother Charles S. 
Black, the Worthy Lecturer of Jackson Valley 
Grange, delivered the following address:* 

This was followed by short addresses from 
the Worthy Past Master of the Washington 
Grange, and by the Rev. Mr. Foster, when by 
invitation the audience adjourned to the tables, 
where some 200 Patrons and strangers satisfied 
the cravings of the inner man from the abund- 
ance spread before them. Now, Mr. Editor, if 
ever you should hear strangers say that the 
Patrons are poor providers, and the Sisters 
poor cooks, you just tell ttiem to fish for an in- 
vitation to a harvest feast of the Jackson Valley 
Grange, when if their eyes are not opened and 
they are not willing to acknowledge themselves 
mistaken, then set them down as given over to 
a hardness of heart, and past all good influ- 
ences. 

After the repast the Patrons met in their 
hall, when after the usual work the Grange 
closed. The members of the Fraternity hav- 
ing enjoyed themselves hugely started for 
home, leaving a few of their number with the 
strangers and youngsters to spend the balance 
of the day in dancing. The Grange has a good 
working force and her prospect is fair, and if 
we are not mistaken, Jackson Valley Grange 
No. 234, will give a good account of herself in 
the near future. 

Plymouth Grange No. 232, Amador county, 
is doing well, has a fair prospect ahead, has 
good attendance, have nearly doubled their 
membership since November last. Will cele- 
brate the Fourth of July with a harvest feast. 
H. Vanderpool. 
Plymouth, Amador Co., June 12th, 1875. 
[*rhe address referred to was minus some 
pages when it came to hand, which rendered 
its publication impracticable.— Editors Pbess.] 

Grangers' 4th of July. 

Editors Press: — Delegates from the various 
Granges of the district assembled on the 19th, 
and made arrangements to celebrate the Fourth 
of July in Granger style. Deputy W. S. Man- 
love was chosen Marshal for the Granger 
division ' and various committees were ap- 
pointed to regulate and systemize the business, 
so that everything would run smooth and all 
enjoy the natal day becomingly, not only as 
Grangers should do, but as a right of every 
American citizen. It is expected to have a 
large turn out. East park to be chosen, where 
everything will be put in readiness. Each 
Grange to appear clothed in their various or- 
ders and regulate themselves in procession as 
they were first organized, the Sacramento 
Grange leading. After marching all assemble at 
East park and spend the remair^derof the day, 
with music to enliven the occasion, and a good 
dinner to satisfy the fatigued body; meeting of 
friends and a pleasant occasion together wind 
up with a social dance. 

Sacramento District Business Association. 

Editors Press: — A large delegation assem- 
bled at the call from various Granges to elect 
new directors and take preparatory steps in 
forming a business association in our district. 
The subject has been agitated for some time, 
many feeling the want of some such object in 
a local form, and at the same time an auxiliary 
to the State Association. Eleven new direc- 
tors were elected, and they -will assemble on 
the 30th, to choose ofBcers and prepare to can- 
vass the district for subscription of stock so 
as to commence operation as soon as practica- 
ble. . G. R. 

Elk Grove Social— Dedicatfon of Hall. 

I learn that a social will be given at Elk 
Grove by the Granges on the eve of July 2d, 
and it is expected a rich treat will be enjoyed 
by all that assemble. These little gatht rings 
in our country granges generally are always a 
source of enjoyment, and too many cannot be 
given. To pass an evening socially as well as 
beneficial to all concerned, is one of tbe links 
of our order. G. R. 

Sacramento, June 22d, 1875. 

Stockton Grange. 

Messrs. Editobb: — As I have not seen our 
Grange mentioned lately in your paper, I 
thought I would report progress. Stockton 
Orange is in a flourishiug condiiion, aud re- 
eeivtB new members every month. Next :8at- 
nrday a class of four receive the fourth degree. 



when we have a harvest feast, to which we 
would cordially invite you; we always have 
"hosts of good things." We have a library 
connected with the Grange, composed of 
choice volumes of all the leading authors. The 
Rrain and hay crops will be below the average, 
though the late rains did not damage them any. 
Julia E. Allen, Sec'y, pro tem. 

Stockton, June 23d, 1874. 

[We tender to Stockton Grange our sincere 
thanks for their kind invitation, and would 
take this occasion to thank the brothers and sis- 
ters of other Granges that have remembered us 
in like manner, that we appreciate the compli- 
ment, and where we do not comply with their 
courteous and hearty requests, they should 
simply set it down among the impossibilities, 
and not charge it to any lack of interest or 
brotherly feeling on our part. — Editors Pekss. ] 
Ferndale Grange. 

Messrs EorroEa :— Ferndale Grange is still in 
good health. We have incorporated the Fern- 
dale Grange Business Association, with a capital 
stock of twenty thousand dollars. 

June 12th, 1875. James Smith. 

El Dorado Grange. 

Editors Press: — -We had a meeting to-day, 
and are still waiting to hear from the G. W. M. 
The rain has done much damage to the grain 
and hay in this section. T. B. 

El Dorado, June 19th, 1875. 

Rincon Grange, San Bernardino Co. 

The Secretary of this grange writes in acknowl- 
edgment of receipt of a printed copy of the by- 
laws, and adds: "Our Grange is in a flourish- 
ing condition, with a membership of thirty-six, 
and a prospect of more soon." 



If a member, who has received one or more 
degrees in a Grange, moves info the jurisdic- 
tion of another Grange, he may, if he desires, 
receive a dimit from his Grange and join tbe 
one nearest him, taking the same position as 
in his old Grange, and is entitled to advance- 
ment. 

A candidate should be allowed to withdraw 
at any time before a ballot is taken. 

When a person who is ineligible on account 
of occupation has been admitted, he is a mem- 
ber until expelled for good cause. 

The election of officers must be by written 
ballots and not by balls. 

Powers and Duties of Officers. 

65. In case of a vacancy in the office of Mas- 
ter, or any other officer of a Grange, it may be 
filled by an election for the unexpired term at 
the next regular meeting. The Overseer acts 
as Master until th ' vacancy is filled. 

66. In the absence of the Master, the acting 
Master is invested for the time being with all 
the powers of the Master. 

67. In the exemplification of the secret work 
or the interpretation of the written law of the 
Order, the decisions of the Master must be re- 
spected and obeyed, until reversed by decisions 
of the Master of the State or National Grange, 
or 1 y iKUion of the State or National Grange. 

68. Rulings of the Master of any Grange, 
National, State or Subordinate, are authorita- 
tive on all points over which his Grange has 
jurisdiction, until reversed by action of his 
Grange. 

[To be continued.] 



Grange Decisions. 

Bt the Masters and Executive Committees 
OF the National Grange. 

[-We select from the "Patrons' Parliamentary Guide" 
(officiall , the following decisions, as those most liliely 
to be of interest to Patrons generally. We publish 
tbem as revised and adopted at the 8th annual session, 
Ftb., 1875. Every Master should examine the "Guide" 
and the amendments and the additions thereto through- 
out. They can be obtained free on application to the 
Secretaries of State Granges.] 

[Continued from page 421, volume 9.] 

46. After a candidate has been legally elected 
he is entitled to initiation, and the degree must 
be conferred unless objection is made, the na- 
ture of the objection stated, and the objection 
sustained by a majority of the Grange. 

47. After a member has received one or more 
degrees he is entitled to advancement, unless 
charges are preferred against him, and he is 
expelled from the Order. 

48. If, after being elected, a candidate fails 
to present himself for initiation, the Grange is 
under no obligation to return the fee. 

50. A person must apply for membership to 
the Grange nearest his place of residence, un- 
less he obtains its permission to apply else- 
where. • 

53. Any member of a Grange who is in good 
standing is eligible to any office therein. 

56. A person who has lawfully become a 
member of the Order does not forfeit his mem- 
bership by changing his occupation if his con- 
duct continues to be such as becomes a good 
Patron, and is not hostile to the interests and 
objects of the Order. 

57. Members must be attired in the proper 
regalia of the Order while the Grange is in ses- 
sion. The sash is worn from the right shoulder 
to the left hip, and the pouch in front. 

59. A member in good standing who 
is clear on the books is entitled to a dimit or 
withdrawal card upon application therefor, and 
the payment of such sum (if any) as is fixed by 
the t State Grange. A member not in good 
standing cannot' be dimitted. 

62. A member is entitled, at any time, to a 
dimit as a matter of right, if in good standing 
and clear on the books. No member can ob- 
ject without preferring charges against the ap- 
plicant. 

If, however, the Grange -wrongfully withholds 
or refuses the dimit, the aggrieved member 
may appeal to the Master of the State Grange, 
who -will instruct the Grange in its duty; and 
in case of its persistent refusal, he will issue to 
the appealing member a certificate in the na- 
ture of a dimit, under seal of the State Grange. 
It will be his duty to present the offending 
Grange to the State Grange at its next meeting. 

Under this heading (Relation of Applicants 
and Members to a Subordinate Grange) the fol- 
lowing new decisions were adopted: 

A dimit simply disconnects a member from a 
Subordinate Grange, leaving him still a mem- 
ber of the Order. A withdrawal severs his 
connection from the Order wholly. 

In all cases where any State Grange has is- 
sued withdrawals for the purpose of enabling 
members to trausfertheir membership from one 
Grange to another, they shall be recognized as 
dimits until July Ist, 1875. 

A dimit can be given at any regular meeting. 
It is not necessary that the application there- 
for lie over. 

Members of a suspended Grange cannot form 
another Orange. 

A member who has received one degree, and 
refuses to take more, must be ret-iined on the 
roll until expelled, or dropped from the roll by 
action of the Grange. 

When a new Grange is organized, and in- 
cludes in its jurisdiction a member of another 
Grange, such member is not obliged to with- 
draw from the old Grange and join the new 
one. 



Scribner's Magazine. 

The contents of Scribmr's for July are un- 
usually interesting, and the illustrations quite 
profuse— numbering no less than fifty-six in 
all. This number possesses especial interest 
for Californians by reason of a lively and in- 
teresting sketch of the " City of the Golden 
Gate," by Samuel Williams, one of the editors 
of the Bulletin. His description of life and 
scenes in this city are truthful, and the illus- 
trations which accompany the article — twenty- 
four in number— are well chosen and admirably 
sketched. 

Tbe superiority of Smbner's fine illustrations 
is noticeable in comparison with those of any 
other magazine in the world. Its success in 
this direction is highly creditable to its manage- 
ment, for liberal expenditure, good taste and 
constant painstaking. 

There are some twenty articles in all in the 
number before us, and the topics are varied 
and well chosen. Col. Waring's " Farm- 
er's Vacation," this month, descriptive of the 
"Bight of La Manche" furnishes a very bright 
and racy article, with numerous illustrations. 
Dr. Holland's "Story of Seven Oaks" |i8 con- 
tinued, and Frank B. Stockton writes about 
"The Girl at Rudder Grange." The "Essay on 
Darwinism," by J. B. Drury, is well worth a 
perusal. This number more than sustains the 
previously well earned reputation of this maga- 
zine, and the publishers give assurance that 
there shall be no falling off of interest during 
the summer months. 



At a meeting of the Board of Directors of 
the Sonoma and Marin railroad company, held 
in Petalnma last week, contracts were let for 
grading thirteen miles from that point and con- 
structing the tunnel near San Rafael. 

A committbe have been appointed to make 
inquiries among the land owners, and to raise 
funds for the right of way in that the Santa 
Cruz narrow gauge railroad may bo extended 
to Watsonville. 



A NEW schooner called the Mary E. Russ was 
launched at Eureka, Humboldt county, on the 
22d nit. 



Coming Fairs and Exhibitions. 

[The following list will be published monthly hereafter 
OfiBcers of indastrial societies will please inform ue of 
their approaching fairs and exhibitions.] 

Twenty-second annual fair of the California State Ag- 
ricultural Society, to commence on tbe 15th and end on the 
2.'jth of September, 18".'), at Sscramento 

Tbe Oentcnnial International Exhibition, at Fairmount 
Park, Philadelphia, will open on the 19th of .Vpril, I87fi, and 
close on the 19lh of Octolior following. 

Internalionul Exhiiiiiion of rhilB. .Sanliiigo. will onen 
nominiilly August I."). 187.^ co'iliMiiing until A|irll 2, ISTU. 
Officially'from September 16. m!>, to .January 1, 187(i. Arti- 
cles f"r I'lhibilion may be entered at any time Irom tbe 
1,5th of August to the Ifilh of September and can remain 
on exhibition if the eihililtor so desires until the 2d ol 
April followink'. ... . , „ . . . , . 

Tenth Industrial Klhibition of the Mechsnios Institute 
of Siin Francisco, commencing Tuesday, August 17, 1875, to 
continue open nt loftst ono month, 

American Pomologlcal Society, Fifteenth sehslon. at 
Chicago, Wednesda.v, September 8, 187.'). continuing for 
three davs. „ „ , . , ^ 

"The Alabama State Grange Fair, iit Selraa. Alabama. 
Tuesday. October 2S, 187.5. continuing five days. 

Fifteenth Annual Fair ot the Oregon State Agricultural 
Society, at Salim, commencing Monday, October 11th, 
187.5. and continuing six davs. , ,_ „ „ „ , 

The sixteenth annual exhibition of the Santa Clara val- 
ley Agricultural S-cletv will commence Oct. 4th, 187,5, at 
San Jiise, and continue for six diiys. 

The second annual Fair "f tlio Nevada State Agricultural 
Mining iind Mechanical Society will commence on the 4th 
and end on the !ith of dctolior. IH7.5. 

TlIK Wa hiiigio'i Torriliiry fair, commend ig on Mon- 
(Ifiy llrtober ISih. anil cloning on Saturday, the 23d. 

Ihe ninth annual exhibition oi the Nebraska Slate Ag- 
ricultural Society, at Omaha, commences Tuesday, Sep 
tembor -ilst, and closing Friday, the 24th, 

-Montiina's Territorial Fair begins at Helena, Montana, 
Sept. i7 187'5, and continue BIX days. The premium list 
IS liberal, amounting to $7,U00. Special premiums are also 
given, amounting to over $2,300. 

Sonoma and Marin Agricultural Society Fair, comineno 
ing Ootrbor 4lh and eontinuing six days. 

Annual Fair of the San .loaouln Valley Asricultural 
Society nt Stockton , .'^oplemhor 6lh to llih , Inclusive. 

Santa Oiu^ < I rangers' Foir at .Santa Oroz, oommenomg 
Octnber 7tli anil lusting three (lays, 

Tne Napa and Solano Agrii ullural and Mechanical Arts 
Society will hold their Fourth Annual Fair in Septemh»r, 
187,5. commencing Tuesday, the 28th, and continaiog (our 
days. 



[July 3. 1875 




If We Knew. 

If we knew the cares and crospes. 

Crowding round our neighbora way, 
If we knew the little loeees, 

Borely grievous day by day, 
Would «e then «o oftnn chide him 

For hia lack of thrift and gain, 
Leaving on hia heart a shadow. 

Leaving on our Uvea a statu? 

U we knew the clouds above us. 

Held by gentle blessings there, 
Would we turn away all trembling 

In our blind and weak despair? 
Would we ahrink from little shadows. 

Lying on the drowsy grass, 
While 'tis only birds of Eden, 

Just in mercy flying past ? 

If we knew the silent story, 

Quivering through the heart of Cain, 
Would our manhood dare to doom him 

Back to haunts of guilt again? 
Life hath many a tangled crossing, 

Joy hath many a break of woe. 
And the cheeks, tear-washed, are whitest, 

This the blessed angels know. 

Let us reach into our bosoms 

For the key to other lives. 
And with lova toward erring nature. 

Cherish good that still survives, 
80 that when our disrobed spirits 

Soar to realms of light again, 
We may say, dear Father, Judge us. 

As we judge our fellow men. 



Husband and Wife in Kansas. 

(Written for the Pbess by Mas. C. I. H. Nichols.] 
In the RuBAL. of April 10th, I find the fol- 
lowing: "In Kansas, the hnsbaijd and wife, 
nnder the law, enjoy equal rights and piivi- 
l»gea in all things, save the right to elective 
franchise. The wife holds all the property 
she had at the time of her marriage, and all 
she acqtiires afterward in her own right, the 
same as the husband does. The wife may buy, 
sell, trade and carry on bn~iness in her own 
name, the same as her husband. And when 
she dies her property descends, one-half to her 
husband and one-half to her children, and if 
no children, then the whole goes to her hus- 
band. The same rule applies to wife and 
children in case of the death of the husband." 
The statement that, "in Kansas, husband 
and wife, under the law, enjoy equal rights and 
priyileges in all things, except the elective 
franchise" is not true, and nevtr can be of any 
State in the Union, while the fandamental law 
of civil marriage is that of the English ' 'com- 
mon law." Proudly in advance of all the 
States, in the absolute equality of the sexes in 
educational rights and privileges, Kansas must 
blush for her marital code in presence of 
Louisiana. 

In the treaty by which our Government ac- 
quired Louisiana, it was stipulated that the 
English common law of marriage should not 
supersede Spanish law and custom in that ter- 
ritory. And nowhere are the social amenities 
of the domestic relations more marked than in 
the homes of Louisiana, where as wife or 
widow or mother, woman is the peer of man in 
those relations. 

As far as it goes, the above statement of 
Kansas law is correct, but the writer neglected 
to state — was perhaps ignorant of the fact — 
that the property accumulated, or preserved 
intact, by the joint industry of husband and 
wife, is the husband's, to manage, use or give 
away (except to his wife), at his pleasure. If 
the husband neglects to defend it, the wife 
may sue and defend, in her own name, as if 
single. At the husband's decease, one-half of 
his property — the joint earnings being pro- 
bated, as part and parcel of his property — de- 
scends to tiis widows, who enjoys it, not as a 
wife's right, but a widow's. He cannot by 
will, dispossess her of this. If she dies first, 
her share of the joint earnings is not divided to 
her children by him even. But at his decease, 
his children take half; and if he leaves a sec- 
ond wife, the second wife's children by him. 
t«ke the share of the joint earnings, which, if 
probate laws had distributed the estate at her 
decease, as at his, would have descended to the 
first wife's children. 

The Kansas widow holds the homestead, if 
there be one, till she marries, or till the young- 
est child is twenty-one years of age; in either 
case the homestead is divided, and she receives 
one-half. Or if it cannot be divided without 
detriment to the interests of the heirs, it can 
be forced to sale, and instead of a hemi- 
"sphere" endeared to her by the sweetest as- 
sociations of her life, the widow — too old, per- 
haps, and feeble to make and beautify a new 
home — receives one half of the proceeds. 
("Very hard cash," even though it may be ex- 
pressed by legal tender notes.) 

The widower may marry a dozen women in 
funeral succession, and all his children attain 
their needed majority, yet he is not disturbed 
in his possession of a "home-sphere" of 160 
acres, with improvements of unlimited value. 
(The Louisiana widow holdti one-half the 
•state, her "dot" or dower, which oould not be 
alienated from her or embarrassed during her 
knsband's life, in her own right, and the use of 



the other half during life, with the custody and 
support of the minor children.) 

All personal property exemptions vest in the 
husband, as "head of the family." He may 
sell, mortgage or give away exempted personal 
property— from the "milch cow" to the notor- 
ious "bed and board" — without consent of the 
wife, if they were not bought with her sep- 
arate funds. At decease of the husband, the 
personal property exemption, which, in Kan- 
sas, is very liberal— vests in the widow, if she 
maintains the position of head of a family. 
(And here let me call attention to the fact, that 
a large class of wives — especially in the great 
centers of commerce and manufactures — whose 
husbands are renters only of real estate, enjoy 
neither homestead rights, nor equivalent secu- 
rities in personal property.) 

It ii true that the Kansas wife "holds all the 
property she had at the time of her marriage, 
and all she acquires afterward, and may buy, 
sell, trade and carry on business, the same as 
her husband." But her right to acquire is 
subject to the "common-law" right of the hus- 
band to her personal services and the avails 
thereof. And this right of the husband holds 
against all wives, since the statute right to hold 
property, buy, sell, trade, etc., does not exempt 
any wife from her obligation of personal ser- 
vice, nor divest any husband of his right to 
manage, use and dispose of the property accu- 
mulated by such service; or of his right to 
dictate a place and mode of living, and home 
associations — to which his wife must conform. 

Most women marry before they are of an age 
to have acquired property by their own efforts. 
But all wives under this law of personal service 
contribute to the estate in common, earnings 
equivalent, at 'least, to the wages received by 
unmarried women for like services. But to 
gain legal control of any portion of these earn- 
ings they must become widows. 

A few women have property at marriage, and 
a small proportion of the whole number acquire 
property afterward by inheritance, bequest or 
gift. To such, the right to hold and use prop- 
erty is of inestimable value. It is both capital 
and credit. It is more — it is legal existence, 
springing — phcenix like — from legal death. For 
this woman, who, without property in her own 
right, was — in judicial phrase — "dead in law," 
is made alive by its possession; she can sue 
and be sued in its interests, as if she were a 
single woman. But so far as the mass of mar- 
ried women are concerned — those who have only 
earnings in the common estate, with no surplus 
energies, and no genius for remunerative indus- 
tries, outside of the kitchen and nursery — the 
ri^t to "buy, sell, trade and carry on business 
in their own name," is about as valuable as a 
600 acre sheep ranch in the mountains of the 
moon, with not a sheep to put on it. Their 
time and energies may bo taxed to the utmost 
in rearing children and keeping the house; yet 
these women — the first necessity of home and 
State— are virtually paupers! They have no 
property rights; board, clothing and medicine— 

The Pauper's Provision, 
Being the sole legal claim of the wife, in every 
State, except Louisiana, in consideration 
of housewifely service, rendered to the hus- 
band. The personal services of the wife, be- 
ing the right of the husband, she cannot legally 
acquire anything in such service. Even with 
the right to buy, sell, etc., she cannot hold so 
much as a pet lamb — the gift of her husband — 
against his creditors or heirs, even though it 
be made to appear, that at the time of the giv- 
ing, the estate of the husband was greatly in 
excess of his indebtedness, and his heirs 
abundantly able to provide for themselves. 

A bill which was introduced in the Kansas 
Legislature empowering husband and wife to 
deed property and make gifts to each other, 
nnder conditions guarding the rights of credi- 
tors, was defeated, the most weighty objec- 
tion reported, being by a gentleman of refine- 
ment and culture, that he "didn't want to make 
men of xconien!" As if — poor imbecile! — he bad 
the power. 

The constitutional provision recognizing the 
right of the wife to her properly and earnings 
is general in its terms and explicit enough to 
justify the enactment of equal laws; and I be- 
lieve now as I believed when laboring for its 
adoption, that divested of their Dred Scott 
frame of mind, Kansas courts would sustain 
the appeal of a wife in behalf of all her rights 
in property and earnings, as a constitutional 
franchise. The present Chief Justice, the first 
elected under the constitution, and whose in- 
fluence on legislation i.s the natural result ot 
his official position, was a member of the con- 
vention and bitterly opposed to "women's 
rights." 

As the writer of the article in question con- 
fined hia statement to property, rights, I have 
done the same, only noticing the wife's per- 
sonal status in its property connections. 

The spirit moves me to add, by way of con- 
clusion, that our law of civil marriage, the 
growth of an age in which brute force ruled, 
whether for good or ill,and weak men and weak- 
er women found their best estate as vassals and 
wards of the stronger, which law descended 
to us from monarchical England, like a dead 
fly embalmed in honey, is now the "bend s'mis- 
t' r" of our RepubUcan Government. 

When the person and property of the wife 
were the husband's to fight for and die for, as 
against his neighbors and follow subjectp, her 
rights of person and property were, by com- 
mon consent, vested in him, as were the rights 
of minors in parents and guardians; both 
classes being the wards of those on whom they 
were dependent for protection. The orphan 
diinghter of the noble, though p^st her mi- 



nority, was the ward of the king, who gave her 
in marriage to whom he pleased. This, then, 
when humanity's best was achieved and held 
by brute force, was woman is best estate. But 
in an age when humanity's best is achieved and 
utilized by christianized moral and intellectual 
forces, of which forces woman is the leserve 
corps, to hold every Thermopylw against licensed 
and unlicensed sin and shame, when brute 
force has become the last appeal and the lowest 
rung in civil government, and the citizen may 
no longer use it to avenge wife or child, but 
must rely upon civil powers for their protection 
and his own, to remain the ward of irresponsi- 
ble guardians (which under the common law 
husbands are), and be legislated for on the 
base of a barbarous non-age, is woman's worst 
estate; and the legal impersonality of the wife, 
in view of the increased responsibilities and 
needs entailed by marriage, is as impolitic for 
the State as it is unjubt to her. Let the chief 
magistrate of any State in the Union, officially 
recommend, and persist in advocating, the en- 
actment of laws giving the personal custody 
and earnings of adult single women to father, 
brother, or friend, to be held and controlled by 
such relative or friend, so long as they remain 
single — and he would be consigned to an in- 
sane asylum. But this is just what our law of 
civil marriage does for every single woman, 
(who in every State of the Union enjoys the 
same personal and property rights as a single 
man, ) the moment she marries, with this dif- 
ference, that only by divorce or widowhood can 
she regain the custody of her own person and 
personal earnings — rights enjoyed by men, 
married or single, during life. 

Why onr fathers, in thrusting the British 
yoke from their own shoulders, should have 
left the halter of the serf around the necks of 
their wives, is not difficult to answer. Just as 
the Kansas Constitutional Convention, which 
had a clear majority in favor of woman suf- 
frage, dared not drop "male" as a qualification 
for the elective franchise lest the adaption of 
the constitution should be defeated by its po- 
litical opponents, so our revolutionary fathers 
—strong in the co-operating trust and devotion 
of the women of the Colonies— under the ap- 
prehension of endless discussion and disaffec- 
tion of a domestic and theological character, 
which would have complicated and possibly de- 
feated their efibrts for the establishment of a 
federal government, very naturally trusted the 
burden of woman's enfranchisement to the nn- 
couquered future. For it should be remem- 
bered that marriage, as an Anglo-Saxon insti- 
tution, was not o.nly the creation of civil power 
that recognized might as the superior right, 
but it was also the ward of an equally despotic 
church. And civilian and churchman, though 
merged in free church and free States, had not 
yet cast their subjective habits and customs, 
but carried the prejudices of both, side by side 
with their improved theories of free govern- 
ment. 

Does the reader ask for the remedy, as seen 
from a woman's standpoint of experience and 
observation? An earnest believer in the divine 
unities of the marriage relation, I answer— it is 
that husband and wife be legally recognized as 
joint partners and proprietors in the common 
estate; their rights, responsibilities and obliga- 
tions in their relations to each other and to 
their children, the same and equal; no notes, 
endorsements, or other obligations affecting the 
common interest, to be valid without the signa- 
ture or consent of both ; at the decease of either, 
one-half the estate to become the property of 
the survivor, with the management and use of 
the other half and the guardianship and sup- 
port of the children. Or that the present law, 
compelling the settlement and distribution of 
the estate at the decease of the husband, be 
annulled, and the widow — like the widower — 
be left in undisturbed possession of the home 
which is declared to-be her " sphere," and the 
children her '• peculiar responsibility." 

Weighed in His Own Balance. — A shop- 
keeper pnrohased of an Irishwoman a quantity 
of butter, the lumps of which, intended for 
pounds, he weighed in the balance and found 
wanting. "Shure it's your own fault if they 
are light, " said Biddy in reply to the complaints 
of the buyer. "It's your own fault, sir; for 
wasn't it with a pound of your own soap I 
bought here myself that I weighed them with?" 
The shopkeeper had nothing more to say on 
that subject. 

A NABBOw guage man who has been laboring 
since the passage of the Wisconsin State law, 
finally produces the following: 

Broad is the gauge that leada to death. 

And thousand 31 sink their money there; 
But Wisdom shows the narrow path 
That saves — on freight and passan — ger. 

Malibban used to say that the greatest com- 
pliment she ever received — far greater than the 
bouquets thrown upon the stage amidst the 
bravos of enthusiastic audiences — was when 
upon one occasion, as she was riding through 
some green lane near Highgate, and humming 
an air from Maid of Artois, two drovers 
stopped, listened, and exclaimed, "Well, she 
can sing!" 

A Cow WITH A Wooden Leo. — An English 
country paper records the following fact: A 
young cow on the farm of Mr. Wilson, in Bor- 
rowdale, Cumberland, recently broke her leg. 
It was amputated, and a wooden leg supplied, 
and she is now walking about and doing well. 

The Common Council of Springfield have 
passed an order that all the doors in the school 
houses in that city shall open ontward. A good 
idea. 



SincctlAb Antipathies.— CAomierf' Journal 
notices some aurious aversions with which va- 
rious eminent people have been afflicted — for it 
surely is an affliction to be unable to endnre 
the scent of fragrant flowers or the sight of de- 
licious fruits. The aomposer Gretry and Lady 
Heneag (bed-chamber woman to Queen Ehza- 
b6th) could not remain in a room which con- 
tained a single rose, and it is said of the latter 
that her cheek was once blistered by having a 
white rose laid upon it while she slept. The 
Princess deLamballe was well-nigh thrown into 
convulsions by the sight of a violet ; tansy was 
abominable to an Earl of Barrymore ; Scaliger 
paled before water-cresses, and there is authen- 
tic record of a soldier, otherwise brave, who 
would incontinently run from a sprig of rue. 
" To these instances," says the Bostwi Adver- 
tiser, " we can add one equally strange, which 
came within our own knowledge. The late 
General Richard A. Fierce, who was Inspector 
General of Massachusetts during the latter years 
of the war, and who was also tbe commandant 
of the recruiting rendezvous at Readville, oould 
not bear to look at an apple of any description. 
His aversion to this wholesome fruit was .so 
great that he oould detect its presence in a room, 
even if it was concealed, and it is said that 
when a boy at school, he has been made ill by 
sitting in the seat with a companion who had 
apples in his pockets. It is within our knowl- 
edge that his servant once having inadvert<>ntly 
placed a dish of apples on the table with the 
dessert. General Pierce was obliged to ex- 
cuse himself to his guests and leave the room." 



The Giel Who Wins. — The time has passed 
when woman must be pale and delicate, to be 
called interesting — when she must be totally 
ignorant of all practical knowledge, to be called 
refined and well bred — when she must know 
nothing of the current political news of tbe day, 
or be called masculine or strong-mindea. It is 
not a sigu of high birth or refinement to be 
sickly or ignorant. Those who aftect anything 
of the kind are behiod tbe times, and must 
shake up and air themselves mentally and phys- 
ically, or drop under the firm strides of com- 
mon-sense ideas and be crushed into utter in- 
significance. In these days, an active, rosy- 
faced girl, with brain quick and clear ; warm, 
light heart ; a temper quickly heated at intended 
insults or injury, and just as quick to forgive ; 
whose feet can run as fast as her tongue, and not 
get out of breath ; who is not afraid of freckles, 
nor to breathe the pure air of heaven unre- 
strained by the drawn curtains of a dose car- 
riage; and, above all, who can speak her mind 
and give her opinion on important topics which 
interest intelligent people— is the true girl who 
will make a good woman. 

This is the girl who wins in these days. 
Even fops and dandies, who strongly oppose 
woman's rights, like a woman who can talk well, 
even if she is not handsome. They weary of 
the most beautiful creature, if she is a fool. 
They say : " Aw, ya-as ! she is a beauty, and no 
mistake. But she won't do for me — lacks 
brains !" for which commodity, it would seem, 
shetould have little use in her aseociation with 
them. However, to please even an empty- 
headed fop, a woman must have brains. 

Ants versus CatertiIxLabs. — The Belgian 
Official Journal, referring to the ignorant con- 
duct of those who destroy all kinds of birds and 
insects indiscriminately, insists on the necessity 
of children in primary schools being taught to 
distinguish between useful and noxious insects, 
and thus to exercise their destructive faculties 
against the latter only. The writer proceeds to 
say that the ant, which is very disagreeable and 
inconvenient in many respects, does excellent 
service in chasing and destroying caterpillars 
with relentless energy. A farmer who had no- 
ticed this fact, and had had his cabbages literally 
devoured by caterpillars, at last hit upon the 
expedient of having an ant hill, or rather nest, 
such as abound in pine forests, brought to his 
csobage plot. A sackful of the pine points, 
abounding in ants, was obtained and its contents 
strewn around the infested cabbage plants. 
The ants lost no time, but immediately set to 
work ; they siezed the caterpillars by their 
heads. The next day heaps of dead caterpillars 
were found, but not one alive, nor did they re- 
turn to the cabbages. The value of ants is well 
known in Germany, and although their eggs 
are in great request as food for young part- 
ridges, pheAFants, and nightingales, there is a 
fine against taking them from the forests. The 
ant is indefatigable in hunting its prey ; it 
climbs to the very tops of trees, and destroys 
an immense quantity of noxious insects. 

In removing the spire of a church at Port- 
land, Me., the hermetically sealed copper ball 
on its summit was opened, and found to eon- 
tain a variety of odds and ends not altogether 
of a religions character. It would seem that, 
before the ball was sealed, the workmen emp- 
tied their pockets into it, as among its contents 
werd old newspapers, play bills, pamphlets, 
political posters, by-laws of a fire company, a 
wine card, and a variety of other matters has- 
tily deposited there. 

Monmouth, Oregon, is a village containing 
only forty houses, and yet boasts of nine or- 
gans, three pianos, and a musical instrument 
not classified— a cross between a piano and a 
melodeon. There is also a band of fourteen 
performers and a number of guitars, violins, 
flutes and so fort h. 

Mb. AxvAH DoDOK, of Antrim (N. fl.), has 
a calf four weeks old which has no tail, site on 
his hind legs and jumps like a rabbit — so says 
an exchange. 



July 3, 1875.] 



The Army Overcoat. 

Tb«re are many in this vicinity ■who wear 
blue army overcoats. We went down to the 
wood market the ether day to buy a load of 
wood. Among the Grangers there our heart 
went out toward one with a tattered, soiled, 
blue army overcoat. We gazed at his weather- 
beaten face and thought, "It is to such as 
these that the nation owes its life. That 
strong arm may have upheld the flag at Gettys- 
burg, or a ball from its trusty rifle may have 
unhorsed a rebel commander, and turned the 
tide of battle in the Wilderness." As we bar- 
gained for his load of wood and saw his eye 
k nd'e with the old flame, we did not hesitate 
to trade wiih this hero. We thought it was 
more blessed to give a dollar to a soldier for a 
load of scraggy wood than to dwell in tbe tents 
of the wicked, and as he drove up the street 
with the wood, we followed him with much the 
feeling of a private following a victorious gen- 
eral. When tht) wood was unloaded we said 
to him: 

"Comrade, tell ns in what department you 
served your country during the unholy rebel- 
lion?" 

The old flame came again to his eye, and 
as he stood upon the biod end of his wagon 
and with his whip tickled the off mule's ear, 
he said: 

"Kebellion! I went to Canada before tbe 
first draft. I traded a bottle of whiskey for 
this overcoat with a veteran who lost both arms. 
G'iang, Beecher! Get up, Liz!" 

And the hero left us sitting on the ra 
edge of that four dollar water elmwood si 
ing. But he was out of reach of those box- 
toed shoes. 

Oastino Out the Devil by Electeicity. — 
The recent celebrations at Northumberland 
and Birmingham, of tbe oentenuary of the dis- 
covery of oxygen by Dr. Priestley, brought out 
many curious incidents in his career, and num- 
berless anecdotes; we select the following as 
obaracteristic: While he was a minister at 
Leeds, Massachusetts, a poor woman who la- 
bored under the delusion that she was possessed 
by a devil, applied to him to take away the 
evil spirit which tormented her. The doctor 
attentively listeued to her statement and en- 
deavored to convince her that she was mis- 
taken. All his efforts proving unavailing, he 
desired her to call the next day, and in the 
meantime he would consider her case. On the 
morrow the unhappy woman was punctual in 
her attendance. His electrical apparatus being 
in readiness, with great gravity he desired the 
woman to stand upon the stool with glass legs, 
at the same time putting into her hand a brass 
chain connected with the conductor, and hav- 
ing ohaiged her plentifully with electricity, he 
told her very seriously to take particular notice 
of what he did. He then took up a discharger 
and applied it to her arm, when the escape of 
electricity gave her a pretty strong shock. 
" There," she eaid, "the devil's gone; I saw 
him off in that blue flame; and he gave me such 
a jerk as he went off. I have at last got rid of 
him, and I am now quite comfortable." 

Woman and Wobk. — The late Mrs. Henry M 
Field said: "Work, and if you cannot work 
with your brain, work with your hands, brave- 
ly, openly, keeping your self-respect and your 
i ndepeudence. Work was never meant to be a 
curse or a sham; it is the surest element of 
growth and happiness. With woman rests es- 
pecially the power to right her own sex as to 
this absurd prejudice, by working herself, 
when gifted with great powers, and recognizing 
with a real sympathy the work, however hum- 
ble, of other women. If she posseses wealth, 
talent, or station, let her greet with womanly 
gentleness tha timid young teacher, the obscure 
artist, the humble sewing girl, quick to recog- 
nize with unerring feminine toct signs of edu- 
oation and refinement- indulgent to the want 
of it. 





Kebearsin? his Pieoa. 

THE rOTTBTH 



After the Celebration. 



OF JtTLY ORATOR. 




QOOD HEi^LjH. 



Despondenct. — What is the cause of des- 
pondency? What is the meaning of it? The 
cause is a weak mind, and the meaning is sin. 
Natare never intended that one of her creatures 
should be the victim of a desire to feel and look 
the thunder-cloud. Never despond, for one of 
the first entrances of vice to the heart is made 
through the instrumentality of despondency. 
We cannot expect all our days and hours to be 
gilded as sunshine, we must not, for mere mo- 
mentary griefs, suppose that they are to be en- 
shrouded in the mist of misery, or clouded by 
the opacity of sorrow and misfortune. 

The newspaper is the handmaid of civiliza- 
tion. No family can maintain its place in so- 
ciety without it. The man needs it for infor- 
mation about markets and politics; the woman 
needs it as a diversion from her household 
cares and family duties; the young need it both 
for amusement and instruction. Thousands of 
families can take but a single newspaper; and 
that one should be commended to their consid- 
eration which best meets all their needs. 



To an ordinary Mpssachusetts man, his 
home is now as nothing unless he has hanging 
behind the stove "the 'riginal fiint-lock that 
grandfather fired the first shot o' the revolu- 
tion with." 

It is easy enough to start a daily or weekly 
paper. Keeping it going is what exercises the 
inventive genius. 

What is that of which some will be left even 
when you have taken the whole? The word 
wholesome. 



IVlittens. 

Do you want to know why little children 
wear mittens, and not gloves, like grown per- 
sons ? Listen, and I will tell you. 

Once upon a time a mother went out, and 
said to the five little fingers: "Children, when 
I am not at home, behave well, and do what I 
tell you. If you are kind and obedient I will 
bring each of you a little house, where you 
can live when it is cold winter." 

"O mother ! " exclaimed the five fingers, we 
will mind; only tell us what we must do." 
Then their mother answered: — 
"The foreflnger must point abroad. 
The middle iinger can only nod, 
The third finger strict guard must keep, 
Less the liitle one into mischief creep, 
And the baby thumb must watch and see 
That all the rest obedient be." 

"Now go, mother dear," said the foreflnger, 
" I'll certninly be attentive, and point prettily, 
if you will only bring me something." 

Then the middle finger cried out, " I will 
promise to be polite and bow nicely if you will 
bring me a little house, too, for I'm the big- 
gest one !" 

"I will certainly keep watch, that my little 
brother does not get into mischief," cried the 
ring finger; my house must be the prettiest !" 
"No, mine!" exclaimed the little finger; 
"mine must be prettier than all the rest — and 
then I won't make a bit of noise." 

But the baby thumb only said, "mother, 
dear, I will do jtlst what you say!" 

But their mother had only been gone a few 
minutes, when the forefinger exclaimed — 

"It is very stupid and tedious to be so good, 
and to point all the time. I want to rest a 
minute." So he lay down. 

"Ah, you lazy thing!" replied the middle 
finger; "it is much more fatiguing to be so in- 
dustrious, and bow all the time," and he was 
going to lie down, too; but the forefinger 
jumi-cd up, and gave him a blow, crying, "how 
dare you find fault with me! You are lazy 
yourself, yon wicked boy?" 

Then the middle finger struck him again, the 
forefinger returned it; and who knows how 
long they might have fought, if the ling finger 
had not called out: 

"Arn't you ashamed of yourselves! One of 
yon is as bad as the other. See how I torture 
myself, and stand here, keeping watch all the 
time. I mean to stop and rest, and let you great 
fellows keep guard ov<*r your little brother!" 

"Wbat!" exclaimed the forefinger and mid- 
dle finger, "you little rogue, do you pretend to 
dictate and find fault withyour brothers? there, 
stop nowT' 

'Ihen they both began to beat the ring finger. 
He turned with all his strength, and struck the 
little finger, which he had tbe care of. The 
little one gave a dreadful scream, and began to 
scratch, as well as he could. But just as they 
were in the hottest of the fight the door opened 
and the mother came in. 

Oh, how frightened the naughty fingers 
were ! They hung their heads, and were so 
ashamed they could not speak. 

Finally, the middle finger said that the fore- 
finger was lazy, and he would not allow it. 
But the foreflnger laid the blame on tlie mid- 
dle finger, and said he began the quarrel. The 
ring finger blamed them both, and the little 
finger complained of all. 
Then the mother spoke, and said-: 
" You arefour naughty, disobedient children, 
who deserve to be punished. Spe here, wbat 
I have brought for you !" And she drew a 
beautiful glove out of her pocket. On it was 
found five houses, just as large as tbe five fin- 
gers. One was for tbe thumb, one for the 
forefinger, one for the middle finger, and one 
for the little finger. 

" But you cannot have these pretty houses 
now," said the mother. Then she went out, 
and soon returned with another kind of glove. 
"Look !" she exclaimed, "this has only one 
separate house, which belongs entirely to little 
thumb, because he is good and obedient. You 
others must live together, and as soon as you 
become kind and obedient, then you shall have 
a house of your own." 

And there it was; tbe four fingers might en- 
treat as much as tbey could, it would not help 
them. Ever bince this lime, so many little 



Duration of Human Life. 

The opinion has become very prevalent among 
many that of late years human life has become 
shortened beyond what it was a thousand 
or two or three hundred years ago. But 
well authenticated facts contradict such opin- 
ions. 

It is stated, in a recent German periqdical, 
that while in Republican Rome the average 
duration of life among the upper, always the 
longest lived classes, was only thirty years, 
among the same classes in the present century 
it reaches fifty years. In the sixteenth century 
the mean duration of life in Geneva was 21.21 
years; between 1814 and 1833 it had reached 
40.68 years, and at the pr^sent time as many 
people live there to the allotted term of seventy 
as ttire hundred years ago lived to forty-three. 

The rapidity with which the mean rose in 
England, even in its earliest period of extension, 
is shown by tbe comparison of two financial 
transactions in that country, one in 1693 and 
the other in 1790. In the former year Gov- 
vernment made considerable profit by borrowing 
a large sum of money on terminable annuities, 
based on the mean duration of life at that time; 
in the latter another loan, based on the same 
tables, resulted in a serious loss. The average 
duration of life in England at the present day 
is about forty years for males, and forty-two 
for females. The ratio is of course higher 
among the better-to-do classes, lower among 
the working classes and the poor. The aristoc- 
racy and annuitants are exceptionally long- 
lived; and a 'much larger number, of people 
than is generally supposed reach the age of one 
hundred years and upwards. 

There can be no better test of the ameliora- 
tion which we qwe to modern civilization than 
the increased length of man's earthly span as 
compared with the age attained in ancient and 
mediieval times. 



0®[iESTic EcQflopiy, 



Bucl(wheat8 and How to Make Them. 

Buckwheat cake, properly made and of suit- 
able ingredients, is not only a very harmless 
little circular institution when decently and 
rightly dressed, but a very excellent and healthy 
adjunct to the morning meal for five or six 
monihs of the year as well. I would not, how- 
ever, and do not, make them from buckwheat 
alone, for tbe simple reason that tbey are not 
so good by balf, leaving the question of hygiene 
out of the account. My cakes are made of 
buckwheat flower. Graham flour from white 
wheat, and wheat middlings equal parts, or 
the two former in equal proportions, and I am 
of the opinion that no other combin-ition of 
grains or meals now known can surpass this 
for the purpose intended. A little oatmeal in 
place of the middlings does well, but it is not 
so good. We think our cakes are always good 
when they have had proper attention, and I 
will submit the formula to your readers for 
confirmation. 

Always mix in a covered earthen jar, with 
suitable' spout for pouring, and never in tin. 
Mix at bedtime one quart of the flours and in 
the proportions above mentioned; three table- 
spoonsful soft yeast; a teaspoonful salt; suflB- 
oient buttermilk or other sour milk to make a 
rather thick batter. Let this stand in a mod- 
erately warm place until morning, and when 
wanted for use, thin slightly with cold water, 
add a teaspoonful of saleratus or soda, and 
bake immediately over a brisk fire to Aunt 
Chloe's "golden brown," and serve pretty 
warm, with the baking heat slightly dimin- 
ished, and by no means steam them under a 
tin, and wait till all are baked be'ore eatin?, as 
is frequently recommended. Then if a liitle 
gravy is relished no harm will ensue, if prop- 
erly made, but there is a vast difference be- 
tween lard oil and a juicy meat gravy. If syrup 
is used, pure sugar drips, or better still, maple 
syrup if obtainable should be used, and not 
sulphuric ''golden drips," which has recently 
found its way into the market and is poisonous. 
When tbe batter is once started as above, and 
cakes desired each morning, all you have to do 
is to leave a small portion of the batter each 
time, let it stand over night as before, and add 
the necessary flour, milk and saleratus in the 
morning and the trick goes on repeating itself 
admirably and only net^ds entire renewal at 
long intervals— Country Oentleman. 



Lime Vapor in Membbanocs Cboup. — Dr. 
John Bartlett, in the Chicago Medical Exam- 
iner, recommends the following method of 
using lime vapor: The patient is placed in a 
tent extemporized with bedclothes and clothes 
horse. In this is placed a tub, and in the tub 
a bucket, filled with hot water. Patient being 
seated in the tent with nurse, unslacked lime 
is dropped into the water. From time to time 
the physician estimates the state of the vapor, 
increasing the steam and lime by dropping 
into the water pieces of lime. The quantity of 
lime required is large. The doctor's exijerience 
in the use of this bath has been a happy one. 
The onward march of the disease seemed 
checked at once, and a real improvement to 
take place. 

Neevous Sympathy. — Our readers • have no 
doubt noticed the verification of the phrase 
"gapes are catching," and it would seem by 
the following singular statement that fainting 
is catching also: "A young lady recently, while 
in conversation on matters verging on the hor- 
rible in Strouse's corset factory. New Haven, 
wi;h a number of comrades, fainted. Singular 
to say the faint was contagious, and girl after 
girl fainted, and even one man employed in the 
shop succumbed. How long this would have 
gone on, it is impossible to say. Mr. Morris, 
the foreman, ordered a stoppage of work, and 
thus ended this singular and unparalleled dem- 
onstration of nervous sympathy." 

Cube fob Htdbophobia. — M. Lebeau, a vetr 
erinary surgeon of Paris, claims to have dis- 
covered a cure for hydrophobia, and submits 
the cure to an experiment, as follows: On the 
23d of May he inoculated with hydrophobia 
virus sixteen d i)gs, in a hospital. Eight of 
these dogs will bo kept securely without treat- 
ment; the other eight will be treated with the 
remedy, and the practitioner is confident that 
that his eight will remain sound, while the 
others will die. 



Another Method or Making Cob-Liver Oil 
Palatable.— Mr. P. L. Simmonds, iu the Lon- 
don Chemist and Druggist, suggests the follow- 
ing: Take equal parts of ground coffee and 
bone black; mix thbm in ten times their com- 
bined weight of cod-liver oil, and digest for 
balf an houi at a temperature of about 130o 
children wear mittens; but when they grow I Fahr.; then place the mass on a filter and drain 
tall, and become good, then they can wear I the oil off, and you will have its nauseous fast* 
gloves. — New OovenmU. I changed into a pleasant coffee flavor. 



Put Flowers on Your Table. 

Set flowers on your table — a whole noisegay 
if you can get it, or but two or three, or a 
single flower, a rose, a pink, a daisy. Bring a 
few daisies or buttercups from your last field 
work, and keep them alive in a little water; 
preserve but a bunch of clover, or a handful of 
flowering grass — one of the most eleg mt of 
nature's productions— and you have something 
on your t^ble to remind you of God's creation 
and give you a link with tbe poeis that have 
done it most honor. Put a ro.se, or a lily, or a 
violet on your table, and you and Lord Bacon 
have a custom in common; for this great and 
wise man was in the habit of having flowers in 
season set upon his table, we believe, morning, 
noon and night— that is to say, at all meils, 
seeing that tbey were growing all day. Now 
here is a fashion that will last yon forever, if 
you please — never change with silks and velvets 
and silver forks, nor be dependeut on caprice, 
or some fine gentleman or lady who have noth- 
ing but caprice and changes to give them im- 
portance and a sensation. Flowers on the 
morning table are especially suited to all. They 
look like the happy wakening of tbe creation ; 
they bring the breath of nature into your room ; 
they seem the very representative and embodi- 
ment of the very smiles of your home, the 
graces of good morrow. 

Two Good Recipes. 

We clip the following from the correspond- 
ence of the Germantown Telegraph: 

Steweu Wateb-Cresbes.- It may not be gen- 
erally known that water-cresses are vtry de- 
licious when stewed. They should be placed 
in strong salt and water to free them from all 
insects, after which they should be carefully 
picked over, all the water drained off, and tbtn 
put into a stew pan with a lump of butter and 
a little salt and pepper— a few minutes will 
suffice to render the cress quite tender. A lit- 
tle vinegar may be added just before serving, 
but this must be according to taste. The cress 
stew made thin, as a substitute for parsley and 
butter, will be found an excellent adjunct to 
boiled fowl. 

SoBAP Pudding.— Put the scraps of bread, 
crust and crumb, into a bowl with sufficient 
milk to cover them. Cover with a saucepan 
lid or a plate, and put into the oven to soak 
about half au hour. Take out and mash with 
a fork till it is a pulp; then add a handful of 
raisins and as many currants, a teacnpfnl of 
brown sugar, half a cup of milk, some candied 
lemon-peel and one egg. Stir up well, grease 
a pudding dish, and pour the pudding in. 
Grate over a little nutmeg, put into a moderate 
oven, and let bake for an hour and a half. 

A Good way to clean black kid gloves is to 
take a teaspoonful of salad oil, drop a few 
drops of ink in it, and rub it over the gloves 
with tbe tip of a feather; then let them dry in 
the sun. 



WSMEWEQ W 



[July 3. 1875 




PCBLieHED BT 

DS'W£:ir ^sc GO. 

1. T. DBWXZ. W. B. EWBB. 0. H. STBONQ. ». L. BOOSB 

Prihoipal Editob W. B. EWER, A. M. 

Otpiob, No. 224 SanBome street, Southeast coroer of 
OaUfomia street, -where friends and patrons are Invited 
to onr 801ENTIFIO Pbess, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing establlsbmont. 

StTBBoniPnoNS payable In advance— For one year, $4; 
six months, $2.26; three months. $1.23. Remittances 
by reglBtei»d letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advebtisino Rates.— 1 toe«fc. 1 month. 3 months, lyear 

Perllne 25 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

One-halfinch $1.00 $3.00 $7.50 24.00 

Onelnch 2.00 6.00 U.OO 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 

Sahplf. Copies.— Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited 
by subscribins; for it, or willing to astist us in extend- 
ing its circulation. We call the attention of such to 
our prospectus and terms of subscription. 

Wo QuAOlc Aclvortlsenients inserted 
In those coliiinns. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 3, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



GENERAIi EDITORIALS. — " The Glorious 
Fourth," Old Ladies' Home, Page 1. Our Tenth 
Volume; Unsatisfactory Seed; The Flying Fox; Raisin 
Culture in California; Provide for the Sheep, 8. Our 
Wagon Wheel Class; A Pleasure Trip to the Fa«B'- 
lones. 9. California Geology; Patents and Inven- 
tions, 12. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— The Agricultural liuilding at 
(he Centennial. 1. An Excursion Party off the 
Farallones, 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes from Fresno Co.; 
EHects 01 the Rain; War Against the Squirrels, 2. 
From Chino; School Reform; From Kan Luis Obispo 
f'ounty; No Rattleweed in Salinas Valley; Abouf the 
Weevil, 3. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Sheep Raising; Eastern 
Wool Mart.its, 3. 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — Who First Made 
and Named Kerosene: Popular Science with a Ven- 
geance; Death Belts, 3- 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — The Orange 
and Our Agricultural Collcg, k; Grange Work, Cotton 
Growing, and Mining in Fresno County: In Momo- 
riam, 4. Harvest Feast — A Visit to the Burlinghame 
Tract; From the Granges; Grange Decisions, 5. 

HOIVIE CIRCLE.— Husband and Wife in Kansas; 
Weighed in His Own Balance; A Cow with a Wooden 
Leg; Singular Antipathies; The Girl who Win»;Antii 
vs. Caterpillars, 6- The Army Overcoat; Casting 
Out the Devil by Electricity; Woman and Work; De- 
spondency. 7- 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.-Mittens, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH. -Duration of Human Life; Lime 
Vapor in Membranous Oruup; Nervous Sympathy; 
Cure for Hydrophobia; Another Method of Making 
Cod.Liver Oil Palatable, 7. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Buckwheats and How 
to Make Them; Put Flowers on Tour Table; Two 
Good Rfoipre, 7. 

HORTICULTURE.— Water Gardens, 9. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from varlong coun- 
ties in Oalitornia and Washington Territory, 12. 



Our Tenth Volume. 

This, the first number of onr tenth volume, 
comcB to the readers of the RdralPrkss greet- 
ing. It is our determination to make the vol- 
ume which it commences, at least equal in 
merit to any that have preceded it. Thankful 
for past favors we beg the continuance of the pa- 
tronage, good will and co-operation of our many 
friends; and hoping that nothing may occur to 
make onr intercourse hess pleasant than here- 
tofore, we commence our half-yearly task. 

A Hkad or Babley.— A subscriber at Wash- 
ington Corners sends a head of barley and asks 
its proper name. We bave shown it to various 
parties, some of whom pronounce it ball bar 
ley, others call it a "sport," a cross between 
barley and rye grass; while others still declare 
it to be the winter, or beare barley, and we are 
of the same opinion. The beare or "square" 
barley, as it is sometimes called, is quite hardy, 
but is not considered very profitable to grow. 
In Great Britain it is quite differently esti- 
mated in different parts of the kingdom. The 
iiials.ers in the southern division are of the 
opinion that this barley does not answer thoir 
purpose so well as that more usually cultivated 
among them; while in Scotland this idea is 
considered to be an unfou nded prejudice. 

O.v File. --"Notes from Colnsa," C; "What 
are They?" G. W. M.; "Yellow Jackets,".!. B.; 
"A Power Washing Machine," C. M.; "En- 
quiry About Calves," J. R M.; "Letters to 
Boys" and "Woodford Papers," J. E. .T.; 
"Cultivation of the Sugar Cane," B. H. 

Thk Comniissioi.er of the General Land 
office 1ms granted a patent to the rancho Santa 
Rita, confirmed to .loel 11 imou Mais, contain- 
ing over 12,000 acres in Santa Barbara county, 
Cal. The patent was neiit out on June 
28th, to the Surveyor General of Cabfomia. 

The Portland Journal is urging the oonstruc- 
tiou of a canal from I he Oregon City Falls to 
Portland, a distance of thirteen miles, to be 
iserl for water power for driving uiaohintry. 



Unsatisfactory Seed. 

A subscriber writes that he has procured the 
seed of the Australian gum tree from several 
nurserymen, and all of them have proved a 
failure. We apprehend much of the disap- 
pointment attending the propagation of the 
eucalyptus is attributable to injudicious manage- 
ment. People very naturally suppose, that be- 
cause trees of this family are very rapid grow- 
ers, and are hardy and tenacious of life, they 
are, therefore, easy of propagation, and that the 
seed may be planted as they would plant com- 
mon garden seed. This is a mistake; they are 
extremely exacting in regard to propagating ad- 
vantages, and during the early stages of their 
growth require close attention and judicious 
management. 

For the benefit of those who need instruc- 
tions in this matter, we reproduce directions 
given through the Press of January 2d, by Dr. 
W. P. Gibbons: Plant your seed immediately 
— that is, in Japuary — in a bos twelve inches 
deep, containing eight inches of clean, rich 
loam, by dropping the seeds on the surface 
about an inch apart, and covering them with a 
quarter of an inch of sawdust, or by sifting 
vegetable mold over them to a like depth. The 
common method of placing the seed in three or 
four inch depth of soil is objectionable, as the 
roots soon penetrate to the bottom of the box, 
and are bent off at right angles to the axis 
of the plant. This distortion prevents the 
tree from having such a firm hold in the soil 
as it otherwise would. Hence so many euca- 
lyptus trees blow over after having a growth 
of four or five years. 

Their germination may be facilitated by soak- 
ing them for twenty-four hours in a pint of 
warm water, in which a piece of saltpeter or 
carbonate of amm'inia about the size o{ a marble 
has been dissolved. Place the box in your 
kitchen or some other location where sunlight 
will reach it, cover it with glass or a piece of 
board, and keep the soil watered every day suf- 
ficient to give a decidedly moist character there- 
to; if possible, keep up a temperature of about 
703 P. during the daytime until the seeds sprout. 
When they arc half an inch high remove the 
covering and give them sunshine. They will 
grow more slowly, but the plants will be more 
hardy and vigorous. When they are four 
inches high they should be seasoned to outdoor 
temperature; then they will be ready to plant 
as soon as the frosts disappear. You will then 
bave trees from four to six inches high, growing 
in a depth of soil which will insure straight and 
vigorous roots. 

Our correspondent expresses a desire to ob- 
tain some good, fresh eucalyptus seed. We 
have made inquiries among seedsmen, and are 
told by some of them that they have seed of 
the growth of 1874, and that they will guarantee 
their growth if directions are properly carried 
out. 

The inquiries of our correspondent concern- 
ing hops will be answered in our next. 

The Flying Fox. 

Among the many prominent objects of in- 
terest in San Francisco during the past few 
weeks is a winged animal, in a cage hanging in 
front of T O'Connor & Co's. seed warehouse, 
426 Sausome st. It is called — somewhat arbi- 
trarily, but we think quite properly, a " Flying 
Fox." Its body, head and physiognomy are 
decidedly foxy ; the fur also resembling that of 
the red fox. Its wings are of a black, skinny 
texture, like those of the bat, resembling satin 
in their gloss and fineness ; and when full 
spread are three feet, two and one-fourth inches 
(rom tip to tip. The small cage in which it is 
confined forbids any attempt al flying, but from 
the size and formation of the wings it is reason- 
able to suppose that the animal would be able 
to sustain a long continued, and, pcssibly, up- 
ward fliiiht, and that it is not, like a flying squir- 
rel, provided with wings that merely enable the 
animal to make a flying leap from tree to tree. 
Its wings are jointed like those of a bird ; and 
when taking a position of repose it folds them 
gracefully about its body, much as a child folds 
its arms. 

The body of this singular beast is about tht 
size of a common black or grey squirrel of tbe 
Ea^tern and Northern States; though the foie 
quarlerK, hke those of tbefo^, arc larger than 
lue binder parts. 

Its ftvurite, and almost permanent position, 
is hanging from the top of the cage by its himl 
feet, which are like those of a bird. Oranges 
and bananas are its principal food, and vben 
these are placed on top of tbe cage, it raises its 
body with an easy, graceful movement, takes a 
few bits, then lowers itself down to its former 
position ; all the time clinging to the top wires 
with its claws. 

This interesting animal is from Australia ; and 
was brought to this city by the " Cili/ of Mt'.- 
bourne" about thne weeks since. It has been 
encased two years and is extremely docil . 
Nearly every hour in wl i;h "Jte" — for suob la 
its name — is hurg out at the door, the sidewi:lk 
is crowded with spectators ; its siogular forma- 
tion, queer habits and intelligent, pleasing 
countenance, making it an object of great in- 
terest. 

The present owners of the flying fox, O'Con- 
nor <fe Co. , have been offered seventy dollars for 
it, but they hold it a value somewhat higher. 



Raisin Culture in California. 

The expectations that raisin culture would 
soon become one of our great interests are not 
likely to be disappointed. The matter is pro- 
gressing carefully and as rapidly as could be 
expected. Within the present week we have 
been visited by several parties who are making 
preparations for growing and curing raisins. 
One of them is connected with a first class 
company that is about taking hold of all sides 
of the business. Other parties were in search 
of practicable methods for curing on a moderate 
scale. 

Another promising feature of this business 
is the fact that it is attracting due attention 
in oommercial quarters. This part of the sub- 
ject has been ably treated in the S. F. Bulletin 
in a oommercial article, from which we give the 
following: 

The manufacture of raisins is not a new thing 
here. A small quantity has been made each 
season for several years. The first real earnest 
work, however, was commenced last year, when 
at one time it was thought there would be 50,000 
boxes produced. An unseasonable rain, which 
occurred during the curing season, prevented 
the realization of these hopes. Some parties 
lost their entire crops, and nearly all suffered 
in a great measure. The quantity actually pro- 
duced last year is not definitely known, but 
probably did not exceed 15,000 boxes. The de- 
liveries here, so far as we have been able to 
keep run of them, are a little under )i,0O0 boxes. 
It is probable that a large quantity has arrived 
in disguise. The largest manufacturers are 
Messrs. Briggs &: Blower of Davisville; S. R. 
Chandler, Slarysville; Bowe & Dickson, John 
T. Burnham, C. D. Brooke, C. W. Albrechtand 
I. S. Bamber of Placerville. Some of these 
parties have had considerable experience in the 
business, and all of them did better last year 
than previously. The raisins made by these 
gentlemen are all sun-cured. There has aUo 
been a small quantity made by tbe Alden pro- 
cess, factories for which are located at Sonoma, 
Vacaville, San Lorenzo, San Jose and Los An- 
geles. The general agents for these factories 
report 230 boxes of twenty-five pounds each 
received during the season, chiefly from ' the 
Souo&a faQtory. There was a considerable 
quantity produced at the Lus Angeles factory 
which did not come to this city, having been 
purchased for the Arizona trade. 

The Alden process, as applied to raisins, is 
yet an experiment. The flavor of the grape 
seems to be well pre.served, but the luster is not 
there, and this prejudices the buyer against 
them. It is possible that this may wear ofi' in 
time, and a preference given to ihe Alden pro- 
cess. Enough has been accomplished in the 
matter of sun-cured raisins in California to af- 
ford reasonable assurance that the business can 
3bo conducted here on a large scale and with 
profit. The results of last year alone abun- 
dantly demonstrate this fact. The product has 
xaet with comparative ready sale, considering 
the heavy stock of Malaga raisius, and the 
great depression in price which resulted there- 
from. The price of the foreign de.'icription has 
not been so low in several years ^s during the 
past season, and yet our manufacturers have 
been able to undersell the imported article. 
The price of California raisins during the past 
year has varied from ten cents to fifteen cents; 
and some manufacturers claim that they can 
get a profit oat of them at seven cents; while 
one party says be can afford to sell them as low 
as five cents. There is no limit to the quantity 
that may be produced here. The graperies of the 
State are still comparatively in their infancy ; and 
the quantity to be devoted to raisin making will 
be governed chiefly by the demand. There is 
a large market opened to producers, provided 
they can make as good a quality as the Malaga 
raisins and sell them as cheap. Our manu- 
facturers have nothing to fear from competition 
in any other part of the United States. This 
at once gives them the entire local market; 
while the cost of transportation is the only 
thing to bo considered in the way of supplying 
the remainder of the country. San Francisfo 
annually imports the equivalent of 30, OO'I boxes 
raisins, either direct from Malaga or by way o( 
New York. The quantity received last year is 
stated at 35,000 boxes, against 27,700 boxes in 
1873 and 30,300 in 1872. These boxe.-* average 
twenty-five pounds raisins, and have sold from 
first hands at $3.25 to $4 per box. Tbe great 
distributive point of the country is New York. 
The imports of raisins there last year amounted 
to over 1,500,000 boxes, frails, etc., against 
1,200,000 boxes in 1873. It will be seen that if 
we can command only a moderate portion of 
this trade, there is an immense business in 
store for California raisin makers. One of onr 
enterprising shipping firms took occasion last 
fall to forward samples of California raisins to 
Chicago, New York and other points, and very 
encouraging reports have been received from 
these ventures. 

The st) le of package can be considerably im- 
proved at a slightly increased expense. The 
iresent boxes are exceedingly uninviting. 
There is no need to imitate the Malaga box 
in weight, but its general appearance may be 
followed with great advantage. We think the 
weight chosen makes a better division for frac- 
tional sizes than the foreign standard. More 
attention ought to be paid to the style of the 
boxes. The ends should be champered down 
and illuminated with the name and brand of 



the mannfaotnrers. and the linings ought to b« 
of fancy paper. These little details add very 
materially to the sale of the goods. Our mer- 
chants ought also to exert themselves more to 
introduce California made raisins among their 
customers. It is in thfir power to contribute 
largely to the volume of trade; and the im- 
portance of the business demands some little 
sacrifices on their part to give the enterprise a 
good send off. 



Provide for the Sheep. 

The reverses of the season will probably be 
felt tuore severely by sheep owners than by any 
other class. California sheep came out of the 
past winter in superb condition, and the lamb- 
ing season was of unusual abundance and 
favorable to rearing the young stock; but the 
coming winter can hardly be otherwise than 
trying to this department of our agriculture. 
As onr readers have been informed, the most 
serious damage inflicted by the late unseason- 
able rain was npoti the dry feed. Immediately 
following the storms came a general alarm for 
the fate of nearly all crops. The anxiety in re- 
gard to ever\ thing except dry feed rapidly dis- 
appeared, as the community learned that grain, 
hay and fruit were scarcely any worse for the 
rain ; while other valuable crops — potatoes, to- 
bacco, corn and hops — were greatly benefited 
by the storm. 

There has, however, been no favorable 
change in the reports from the dry feed. It is 
to be hoped that our sheep owners fully real- 
ize the situation and they will besin at once to 
prepare for the coming winter. Sheep will be 
in greater need of shelter, and will also require 
more food, from having been stinted in feed 
during summer and autumn. Improved shelter 
will lessen the requirements for food; and 
while such improvement is a necessity, this 
year it will prove a permanent advantage. The 
present supplies of food should be strictly 
economized, and every endeavor should be 
made to open up new resources. 

There is a danger that a prevailing convic- 
tion that a good many must necessarily 
be lost, will oanse a sort of callousness, or sense 
of fatality, and restrict the efforts of ameliora- 
tion; the resnlt being a far greater loss than 
was really necessary. There is no reason for 
fearing more than one season of this discour- 
aging character, while we have every reason to 
hope for a favorable re-action which will give 
new vigor to the sheep interests of the Slate. 



Tea Seed. — Tbe recent publication of some 
interesting articles on tea culture has induced 
our worthy seedsman, B. F. Wellington, of 
425 Washington street, to send us a package of 
fresh Japan tea seed, ready for planting. These 
seeds are about the size of small nutmegs, 
round, with a flattened side and covered with a 
delicate brown bloom. They have a thin shel', 
which is well filled with a kernel having a thin 
brown skin, the meat being white, tender and 
quite bitter to the taste. They are from a case 
just received by Mr. Wellington from Japan, 
and are apparently in prime condition. 

An opportunity is here offered to those who 
wish to try the experiment of growing the tea 
plant in California, as they can obtain the seed 
in large or small quantities from this establish- 
ment. Aside from all visionary projects for 
supplying the world with California grown tea, 
we should, in justice to the country and to 
agricultural science, endeavor to obtain more 
definite kuoWledge of the capacity of our soil 
and climate. We may succeed in prodncing a 
satisfactory tea foliage, though unable to tarn 
it to any profit on acoonnt of the condition of 
the labor market, though indirect profit would 
certainly result from this and similiar experi- 
ments, for in proviugthat the climate isadapted 
to some plant that may be profitless as a pro- 
duct, we are enabled to take hold aright of 
other plants, of the same requrjements, and 
which present tangible inducomeiata for cultiva- 
tion. For the benefit of those who wish to 
procure tea seed we would state that they are 
offered at $1.50 per pound. 



Death of M. QursBT. — The celebrated 
.American apiarian, M. Quinby, died at his home 
in St. Johnsville, N. Y. , May 27th. We doubt 
whether any single laborer, in any given de- 
partment of agriculture, has surpassed Mr. 
Quinby in the value of services rendered to the 
country. He was extremely practical in all 
his teachings, but he was so in sympathy with 
the interesting objects of his care and observa- 
tion, that he has succeeded in infusing a^ood 
proportion of sentiment in the good sense that 
pervades all his writings. He was aevar ob- 
trusive or dogmatic. We have on many occa- 
sions met him in discussions before the Cen- 
tral New York Farmers' Club, of which he was 
a member, and always found him good natured, 
genial and alike ready to give or receive in- 
struction. With an assuronce of a high regard 
for the worth of the deceased, we off-jroir sym- 
pathies to the bereaved family. 



iNniR-vuTioN Wantkd. — C. Burnett (Jnder- 
wood eame to f'aliforiiiu in 1853. He is about 
forty-five years of age. If any of our readers 
possess any iufoimution concerning his present 
whereabouts they will confer a favor by sending 
the same to the office of this paper. 



July 3, 1875.] 



Our Wagon Wheel Class. 

We have received four comnjunicationa in 
answer to an article which appeared in the 
RtjRAi, Press of June 19th, entitled "A Wheel 
Within a Wheel." That article, it will be re- 
membered, was in answer to the question 
' 'does the td^ of a wagon wheel move faster 
than the bottom while the wagon is in motion?" 
All the above communications are writ- 
ten to prove that the top of the wheel moves 
faster than the bottom. 

Now, we still fide with the lower side of the 
wheel, partly because we don't like to take ad- 
vantage of anything when it's down, but prin- 
cipally from a consciousness of occupying the 
right position, and that we shall be "at the top 
of the wheel" in due time. Our friends now 
astride the top of the wheel, endeavor to estab- 
lish their position by sticking an upright stake 
opposite the wheel, marking spots at the top 
and bottom, leaving it stationary while the 
■wheel is moving forward, and when it has 
moved through a section of the circle, measure 
the distance from these sijots and see if the top 
one is not farther from the stake than the bot- 
tom. Why, bleps your little hearts, this is no 
test, for the lower mark, in performing its cir- 
cuit, is compelled 
to pass the stake, 
and is really ap- 
proaehing it -_ 

while the other ._-^ '-- 

mark is going ^^.i.—-^ - 

from it. though 
both are bound 
for the same des- 
tination and are 
moving at pre- 
cisely the same 
rate of speed. 

Every member 
of the class ad- 
mits that a wheel, 
while revolving 
without any for- 
ward motion, 
moves with equal 
rapidity at all 
points of the cir- 
cumference, but 
^hen the circular 
and forward mo- 
tions are com- 
bined, they claim 
there is a partial 
delay in the part 
nearest the 
ground, while the 
■other is goina on 
its way rejoicing. 
It is true that 
one is going to 
town while the 
other is reallv 
wending its way 
homeward, but 
you will find on 
driving up to the 
cross-roads gro- 
cery that it per- 
formed its mis- 
sion as efficiently 
as its rival, pass- 
ing just as rapid- 
ly through every 
section of its rev- 
olutions. 

One particular- 
ly Strong bov in 
the course of his 
recitation de- 
clares that in the 

rotation of a'wheel upon a surface by frictional 
contact, every portion of the circumference of 
the wheel successivelybecomes for an infinitely 
short space of time a fulcrum, about which the 
wholewhef-1 moves, and as that part of the cir- 
cumference which is at the top is farthest away 
from the fulcrum, it will of course move the 
fastest. 

Now, it's no use for this lad to qualify this frac- 
tional delay by the term infinitely, for he might 
as well say five minutes as the five millionth 
part of a minute, for the delay at one point 
necessarily produces a corresponding delay in 
the opposite point. If a wheel were subjected 
to the slightest variation from this rule, it 
would at once be thrown out of circle and be 
no wheel at all. If our young friend can con- 
struct a wagon wheel, one part of which is de- 
layed by friction while all the other parts are 
really increasing the rapidity of their motion 
in order to gain time for their turns at the 
friction, and still have no hitch in its move- 
ment, we would advise him to apply for a 
patent through Dewey & Co. 

Or suppose for the sake of reducing the circle 
of our suijject, we take our turn at the grind- 
stone, as one' of our pupils asserts that this im- 
plement while revolving on its own axis and 
grinHing the axes of its owner, is a very ditftr- 
ent thing from a wagon wheel on its way to 
church. Now, we think we can see as far info 
a grindstone as our neighbors, but somehow 
we fail to see how either this or the wagon 
wheel can evade this fixed law and still remain 
a circle; and we would like to have you sub- 
jeot the old grindstone to both motions. This 
can be done by one boy taking hold of each end 
-of the frame and carrying it toward the tool 
houge, while a third boy turns the crank, and 



the old gentleman holds the ax to the face of 
the stone— to supply the friction suggested by 
the aforesaid Strong bov — and having pre- 
viously made little "nicks" in opposite sides of 
the stone, and while it is in this double motion, 
see if they do not revolve with the same rapid- 
ity. 

The trouble all lies, dear lads, in your at- 
tempt to reduce a circle to a square, and in 
your hot knowing how to combine rotary and 
forward motion. There is no cause whatever 
for mortificatian in this endeavor to subvert a 
rule which is as fixed as the law of gravitation. 
Older and wiser heads than yours have worked 
over similar puzzles. It will be remembered 
by our readers that a few months since the 
quesi ion was asked through the Kukal Press 
whether there is any loss to the buyer of wood 
by having it piled on a side hill, 'the subject 
was turned over to an expert in angles, and he 
proved by drawings that a measured cord of 
wood on a side hill would not be a cord of 
wood on level ground. We were never quite 
satisfied with the disposition of this matter, but 
these angles are difficult things to get around, 
so they were allowed to pass, but since this 
wagon wheel has been running through our 
head, we have been enabled to see where the 
mistake came in. Our friend illustrated his 
position by sticking two pieces of wire upright 
in a piece of board, these wires to represent the 
end stakes of the cord of wood, then press 
these wires down to any given angle, to corre- 
spond with the supposed slope of the side hill. 



A Pleasure Trip to the Farallones. 

The experience of most pleasure seekers of 
San Francisco, who have ever taken a day's 
recreation on the bosom of the noble Pacific 
ontside the Golden Gate, is such that they sel- 
dom care to repeat the trip. They find little 
poetry in the rolling billows, and are firmly 
convinced that the man who named that ocean 
Pacific, did it without ever having been upon 
it, and with a striking disregard of the appro- 
priateness of names. The English channel. 
about which so much has been said, is a mill 
pond compared with the gentle Pacific oflf San 
Francisco harbor during the summer months, 
while the strong northwest trades prevail. 

Once or twice a year, however, generally 
about the 4th of July, we hear of an excursion 
party to the Farallone Islands; then the excite- 
ment calms down and another year passes be- 
fore some venturesome crowd again attempts to 
make a pleasure trip in the same direction. It 
is very seldom that there is even one of a for- 
mer party on the next expedition. Heavy sea, 
strong wind, cold fog, sea sickness and general 
dampness are enough to reconcile any one to 
stay ashore for the remainder of his natural life. 
Our citizens prefer looking at the Pacific from 
the Clifi" House balcony, to makmg a close ac- 
quaintance from the deck of a steamer, or a 
pilot boat. 

Onr engraving represents a view on the deck 




AN EXOtTRSION PARTY OFF THE FARALLONES. 



and you reduce the space between them and 
consequently the quantity of wood which it 
was supposed to hold. Now, no one but a 
mathematician could have committed such a 
blunder. Why, the right way is to leave the 
aforesaid stakes standing upright and elevate 
one end of the board to correspond with the 
supposed side hill, and then see if the space is 
contracted thereby. Suppose you are hauling 
a cord of wood along the road, is it any less in 
measure when you are going down or up hill 
than when you are on level ground? While 
the wagon is on the side hill the relative posi- 
tion of the wood to the surface of the ground is 
precisely the same as when on the level road, 
with the stakes standing at the same angles. 
No, this bending down the stakes is not treat- 
ing a cord of wood in an upright manner, and 
in California phrase, we think we "have the 
dead wood" on our opponents in this matter. 

But in newspaper writing the laws of stop- 
page are sometimes of more importance than 
the laws of motion, and we shall therefore ap- 
ply the brake to the aforesaid hind wagon 
wheel. There are, however, several popular 
errors of a kindred nature that we would like 
to handle at some future time. 



Blind Staooebs and Nose Kot. — Mr. N. 
Samuels, of Rio Vista, informs us that sheep 
and hogs may be cured of blind staggers by 
bleeding in each nostril with a sharp knife, not 
too deep, however. He says he has practiced 
this treatment fifteen years in Alabama and is 
confident of its efficacy if applied in time. Mr. 
S. desires to be informed through the columns 
of the RuBAL Pbkss of a cure for nose rot in 
sheep. 



t|©i\TicdLjili\E. 



Water Gardens. 

In Mr. Henry Wetherbee's garden at Fruit- 
vale, I noticed a week or two since two lovely 
buds of the white water lily, ( Nymphea odorala) , 
nearly ready to open, and I wondered why 
more of our transplanted New Englanders do 
not thus strive to gather around them the 
sacred flowers of the old home. I once planted 
a lily garden in a cove or bend of the river, at 
low water, and the plants grew and flourished 
for many a year, with blue pickerel weed, 
jewels, and a host of odd beauties which nature 
added to my 'prentice work. Out of this hint 
grew a dainty aquarium, which formed a win. 
dow landscape in my basement dining room 
and as some one may like to put these hints 
into practice, I will briefly describe a cheap 
garden aquarium which any one may have for 
the trouble of making it. 

Sink a hogshead or strong barrel into a hole 
deep enough to contain it, the bottom of the 
hole being filled with large stones to the depth 
of a foot. It is good to have one or more stout 
plugs in the hogshead which can be removed 
from the inside; have some stones filled in 
around the plugs, also. If you wish to use 
ti e biirrel for a tank, it is thus easily cleaned, 
by whirling a stiflf 
broom in the bot- 
tom, and lettirjg 
out the impure 
water at the 
holes. Unless 
some provision of 
this kind is mnd(, 
any water tank is 
a breeding place 
for mosquitos. 
Lily roots are 
easily obtained in 
shallow ponds in 
the Eastern and 
N orth western 
States, and may 
be tent packed in 
moss, without 
danger of spoil- 
ing- Around 
Prairie du Chien, 
and in many 
places in Iowa, 
the nelunihium, or 
Indian rattlebox, 
a very interesting 
aquatic, may be 
had, also ^;a,s(;7iio 
pdtata, or the 
water shield, Val- 
lUneriii, a lovely 
green vine which 
looks like pea- 
weed. Pickerel 
weed is a fine 
blue, as rich as 
larkspur, and has 
an abundance of 
seed. Wild rice 
can be obtained 
anywhere in the 
Northern stnams 
and lakes, or of 
the Indians, and 
it is one of the 
most cbaimingof 
grnfsfrs. Two 
plants of each of 
the above men- 
liomd vaiifties 
■^ould stock a 
boj-sLend. In 
the middle 
should be feet a 
upright log will 



of an excursion steamer off the Farallones, and I pillar] of stone, 'llj or' 

the expressions on the faces of the majority of do, not long enough to take up much room. 



the jovial crowd is a sufficient indication 
of their internal feelings, outwardly ex- 
pressed, to show how they enjoy the fun. A 
few enthusiastic individuals may enjoy the 
scenery or the fishing; but most of them are 
filled with astonishment that they ever came, 
and resolution that they will never come again. 
Lunch is not in demand, and the fish get so 
many varieties of second hand breakfast that 
the anglers, sport is spoiled as well as the 
breakfasts. When the Master Mariners, re- 
gatta comes off on the Fourth of July, none of 
these deluded individuals can ever be induced 
to even look at the race, for the recollection of 
one day at the Farallones on a crowded excur- 
sion steamer is sufficient to sicken moat of 
them of salt water for the rest of their lives. 
The only pleasure experienced is when smooth 
water is struck inside the harbor, and when 
the steamer grinds up against the piles at the 
wharf, indicating the end of the voyage. 

Spi-endid Oranges. — Pentland Bros., of 
Oakdale, Stanislaus county, send to the Kubal 
Press a box containing a pair of oranges of 
unusual size and beauty. We have weighed 
one of them and it brines the scales down to 
the notch that indicates IS?^ ounces. For rea- 
sons not worth explaining, we deferred explor- 
ing the interior of these globes, but have no 
doubts about the results. Thanks to the con- 
signers. 

San Josb In8Tit0tb.— This popular institute 
will commence its 27th session on the 2d day 
of August next. It is in a flourishing condition 
i and opens again under favorable auspioea 



but strong enough' to hold a rustic vase about 
half the diameter of the hogshead. This vase 
should hold rich earth, decomposed turf or 
its equivalent, and should be filled with our 
own and any foreign semi-aquatics, the 
finest of which is DarlimjUmia Californica. 
Samcenias, Drosmts, the snowy SayitOtria, or 
arrow head, would cheerfully respond to the lov- 
ing care of any cultivator who would let a tiny 
thread of water, the smaller the better, trickle 
over the plants in this vase. Now imagine this 
little plantation. First, you have the vase full of 
semi-aquatics— the insect feeders which philoso- 
phers living in towns have just begun to notice, 
then you have the real aquatics bedded in 
eighteen inches of congenial mud, reaching up 
and filling the lower story; the wild rice tassels 
making a graceful fringe, among which the 
flowers are hidden. Outnide should be half a 
dozen of our best ferns, to catch the surplus 
moisture, and cover the raw edges of this cheap 
structure with their priceless grace. A couple 
of yards of lead pipe, and a few honrs' labor 
would secure all this beauty. The plants can 
be obtained with little trouble. Mr. J. G. 
Lemmon. of Sierra valley, knows the haunts 
of the DarUngtonia, and would no doubt fill 
any orders for the roots, or of another valu- 
able plant for such uses, viz., Saxifrw/apeltata. 
I can furnish the addresses of parties who 
will send En«tern roots for a reasonable com- 
pensation. Indeed, in many places {£uite a 
trade has sprung up in fern roots and wild 
plants, which shows an increased attention to 
the beautiful bnt neglected favorites of nature. 
Jkanne C. Cabb. 

Ratb detest chloride of lime and coal tar. 



10 



[July 3» 1875. 



DEWEY & CO. 



American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICE, 224 8A.N80ME STREET, 8. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and Assignmentf 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph ; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventort 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the public through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby faciUtating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secures 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign coiintries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Bussia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland, Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Boman States, 
Wurtemberg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Br^il, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
should be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are familiar with the re- 
qviirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 
ents, in all cases, will always be as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We cm and do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
BooNEB than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience in obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventioBS 
already patented; hence we are fiequently 
ablf to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
application by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. We are 
always free to advise applicants of any 
knowledge we have of previous a^ipUcatious 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business and professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our office. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mis- 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened that 
appUcants have not only lost their money 
but their inventions also, from this cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ourselves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted to our agency. 

The principal portion of the patent business of 
this coast has been done, and is still being 
done, through our agency. We are familiar 
with, and have full records, of all former 
cases, and can more directly judge of the 
value and patentability of inventions discov- 
ered here man any other agents. 

Situated so remote from the seat of government, 
delays are even more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of the Pacific Coast than to applicants in 
the Eastern States. Valuable patents may be 
lost by the extra time consumed in transmit 
ting specifications from Eastern agencies back 
to this coast for the signature of the inventor. 

ConfidentiaL 

We take great pains to i)reBerve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, and applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations and business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in our own office, and 
all faciUties for producing line and satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons in bringing their valuable i s- 
ooveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 
United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scieatific Frees and the 
Pacific Rural Press, '.224 Sansome St., S. F. 



To the Public:-- 

I am the original inventor of a tube attauhmeut to 
the furuacea of engines for the ptirpoee of feeding 
Btraw to the furnace for fuel. My first patent was 
IsHued to mc by the United States Patent Office, on the 
11th day of February, 1873. Subsequently, on the 20th 
of May, 1873, 1 obtained a second patent for improve- 
ments in said tubes. The first patent covered a tube 
having a revolving partition or door outside of it, so 
that the Btraw cunld be puehed in nnder the partition, 
and tht> opening or passage in the tube kept closed, In 
order to prevent a draft of air from entering through 
the tube when the straw was being lutroduced. My 
second patent covers a tube provided with a valve or 
hinged door, which closes the passage through the 
tube. Finding that certain parties had commenced to 
infringe upon my rights by attempts to evade my pat- 
ented claims, I have recently, to wit, May 4th, 1875 
reissued my first patent, and being the first person who 
ever used a horizontal tube through which straw or 
fuel was fed to a furnace, was enabled to cover broadly 
any horizontal tube or its equivalent which may be 
attached to the doors of boiler furnaces for the pur- 
pose of feeding fuel through, no difference whether th 
tube has a door, valve, partition or other device for 
closing the passage through it, or whether it is simply 
an open tube whioh Is kept filled with straw. 

Messrs Treadwell & Co., corner of Market and Fre- 
mont streets, San Francisco, 0.1I., are my agents fur 
the Pacific Coast. Any person who desires tu attach a 
horizontal tube feeder to the furnace of a boiler or 
boilers, or is desirous of making and using thom, can 
purchase the privilege to do so from my agents, and 
will receive a plate with date of patents marked on It, 
and which must be riveted upon each tube in use. AH 
tube attachments for feeding furnaces not provided 
with this plate will be considered as infringements, 
and will be dealt with accordingly. 

DAVID MOREY. 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



A. NEW DISCOVERY 

To Save Time and Liabor. 

The Magical Efiect of 

ENGWER'S PURE BORAX SOAP 

Is wonderful. Washes without much rubbing. Every 
one knows the value of 

AMMONIA and BORAX 

For Washing Purposes; 

This Borax Soap is principally composed of the com- 
bination of the two ingredients, so that it entirely does 
away with hard labor. A trial will convince any one 
of its supirior qualities. Warranted to give satisfaction 
and not to injure the finest fabric. ABk your Grocer 
for 

Engwer's Pure Borax Soap. 

IF HE DOES NOT HAVE IT, ASK HIM TO GET IT. 

GRANGER SOAP. 
Once TJsiod , Al-wayw XJsed.. 

Manufactured by 

FALKINBURGH & CO., 

Oregon Street, near Front, San trandsco, Csl 



The Dr. Bly Artificial Limbs 

10«» Tehama street. 

COR. OF THIRD, BETWEEN HOWARD & FOL80M, 




THE "ANATOMICAL LEG," WITH A UNIVERSAL 
ai.klcmoiion: the above cut is its illustration. This 
artificial leg approaches so much nearer an imitation 
of the functions of nature than any other, that it stands 
without a rival among all the inventions In artificial 
legs, old or new. (The very latest announced new in- 
ventions duly considered.) 

Address, BLENZO SFRINQ, 

16« Tehama street, San Francisco, Cal. 

6v:iO.Iam-bp-Sm 



IRRIGATED LANDS. 



Sure Crops and Large Yields— Water Com^ 

mnnication with San Francisco and 

Cheap Freigrhts. 



,s 



■WILL SELL 



St 



Three (3) Tracts of Land on Statcn Island. The Jersey 
Tract, 4,000 acres, on San Joaquin River. The Brad- 
ford Tract, 2,230 acres, on San Joaquin River. Also, 
offer other Tule Lands in tracts to suit purchasers, 

IS" These are the most desirable grazing and farm 
lands in the State. Partly cultivated, improved and 
easy of access. 

L. C McAFEE, Real Estate Agent, 

411 a CoUfornia street. Room 4, S. F. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Frulto: ftleo for the sale of Butt«r, Kgff( 
CheeBe, H.ip-j Green and Dried Fruit", ptc, l,*) Warrei 
Bireet, N6w\ork. Kefor to Anthony Halttey, CoAhit^r. 
lYadusineu's National Bauk,N. Y.; Kllwaag^r «£ Barry, 
Rocbeater, N. Y. ; O. W. R«ed, tsacramento, Cal.; A 
Lask A. Oc, raoifio Fmit Market. Man Franoleco. Cal. 



SAFE IMVESTMEUT. 

The Pacific Coast Twelve Per Cent. 
Consols. 

NEW METHOD WITH ASSURED AD- 
VANTAGES. 



A rapidly growing interest is being taken In the 
Pacilii- Coast Twelve Per Cent Consols, in consequence 
of the many advantages offered in regard to invest- 
ment. Interest and dividends. So much uncertainty 
exists in connection with nearly all mining and other 
speculative companies, there is something very abaur- 
ing in an incorporation which not only guarantees 
twelve per cent, per year to all stockholders, but pro- 
vides for the honest payment of dividends. The Twelve 
Per Cent. Consols were incorporated on the 12th of 
February last, for the purpose of transacting a general 
business in buying and selling mining properties, city 
real estate, and agricultural and other lands, in the 
States and Territories of the Pacific Coast. Deter- 
mined to do only a strictly legitimate business, the 
Directors rejected the old method in vogue by mining 
companies gonerally, and adopted a new one which 
secures to all part.es who become shareholders, equal 
advantages in the business transacted. By the provis- 
ions of the by-laws, 

A Sinking Fund 

Is to be made of one-half the proceeds of the total cap- 
tal stock, which shall be sold on the Joint account of 
the original co-owners. The stock will be classifiad as 
follows: Sinking Fund, mining property, city real 
estate and agricultural lands. Before any stock is 
issued in any class, the property will be appraised by 
the owners, and the stated value entered upon the 
bo ks of the Company. Shares for not more than fifty 
per cent, of the valuation will bo issued in any of the 
classes, and the amount of shares ofiVreii for sale in 
any one class, exclusive of the sales of stock in the 
Sinking Fund, will not be allowed to exceed 60,000. 
if sold at less than the par valuoMf a dollar per share. 

Guarantees of Safety. 

In regard to the Sinking Fund, which will constitute 
fifty per cent, of the par value of the stock, all moneys 
recel\'ed as the proceeds of sales of stock on account of 
the fund will be deposited with some solvent banking 
institution, which pays interest on deposits invested 
in interest bearing stocks, bonds and other securities, 
which can be realized on in thirty days, and in no case 
will it be lawful for the directors or trustees to invest 
any moneys of the Sinking Fund in the purchase of 
stocks, bonds or other securities of any incorporation 
whatever, which shall have failed to pay interest or 
dividends for a period of six months preceding any 
proposed Investment pertaining to the Sinking Fund 
of the Company. 

Payment ot Interest. 



The by-laws further make positive provision for the 
payment of interett monthly on all stock Issued in 
vach claSK at the rate of twelve per cent, per annum, 
pavable on the 5ih day of each month. Another im- 
portatit concession is that any shareholder has the 
'iption to take st<<cli in payment for interest at par 
value In any class thnt may be preferred. No asxess- 
ineut will be levied until the total stock of the Sinking 
Fund shall have been sold and paid ost as provided by 
-'he by laws. Indeed, ko secure is the plan of the Com- 
pany that in ca^e the whole capital stock of the Company 
^i.out'i be sold immediately aud the Sinking Fund in- 
v(•^ted as IT >vided, the proceeds would b-< sufilclent to 
pay the int'-rest for eight yenr'* and a half on the total 
-apital ttock. Perhaps no < ther ccmpany in the world 
has ever been able to present so brilliant a certainty. 

Dividends. 



Stockholders will not only bo sure of their twelve 
per cent, per annum, but will share in all the surplus 
profits. The dividends will be paid from the profits 
and sales of property, and only on shares of consols 
that have been issued for property valued and entered 
on the books of the Company. As there can bo very 
little question that the ti*ansactionH of the Company 
will be very extensive, and thst the profits will rapidly 
reach something handsome, the dividend prospect 
i^hould serve as a strong Inducement to stock pur- 
chasers, for perhaps in no other direction can they be 
positive of receiving one per cent, a month for money 
inve«ti'd, and almost a certainty of large yearly divi- 
dends in addition, 

A further provision can be made at any time by the 
Company by setting aside the percentage agreed upon 
of the 811 les of the properties of the Company. The 
main object of the directors is to incorporate a more 
legitimate and assured method of transacting business 
in mining and property than has hitherto obtained on 
this coast. They are therefore resolved to touch noth- 
ing but bona fiJe investments, and to make it a rule to 
have nothing to do with speculative values. Every 
possible care will be taken to protect the interests of 
shareholders; aud in order that they may be conf tantly 
posted in the transactions of the Company, a monthly 
statement of affairs will be prepared by the officers, 
and the books will be at all times open for inspection. 

Shares for the first series issued for mining property 
in Washoe, Storey and Lyon counties, and on the Corn- 
stock lode in Nevada, aud for account of Sinking Fund, 
will be ready for delivery to subscribers and purihasers 
to-morrow, at Orcenbaum & Co 's, 306 Montgomery 
street. The set selling rate vrill be one-twenty, aud the 
buying rate one-nineteeu. The principal office of the 
Company is at 306 Montgomery street. T. Phelps Is the 
President, and W. 8. Reynolds the Secretary. 
my2'2eowbp 



SI7PPORT HOUE INDUSTRY. 

WH E ATE N STARC H, 

MAKtTFACTUBED BY 

a. jroMNW-Toiv. 

CALIFORNIA. 



SAN JOSE, - - - - 

This starch is made from the best of wheat, and is 
used by the laundries and hotels, who pronounce it 
Superior in Strength and Fine Satin Olosg to any im- 
ported starch — one pound being equal to one and a 
half pounds of Eastern starch. 

Dewey & Co. U,f^^ st} Patent Agt's. 




1875. 



H 



PROCLAIVIATION, 
July 4tli^ 1875. 



KADQ,UARTER8 GRAND MARSHAL, NO. 

127 Montgomery street, San Francisco, California, 
June 17th. 187S. 

FELLOW CITIZENS: The near approach of tha 
Ninety-ninth Anniversary of the Declaration of Ameri- 
can Indapendence Is the signal to Invoke good citizens 
to aid in perfecting the arrangenaents for a fitting cele- 
bration of the honored day. 

Having been distinguished in the appointment of 
Orand Marshal by the unanimous choice of the Oom- 
mitteo of Arrangements, I desire to extend to all mlli- 
tarj- organizations, civic bodies, societies, and to all 
classes of citizens willing to organize for the purpose, 
a warm and hearty invitation to join in the memorial 
honors of the day. 

Without partizan or gectlomtl bias, looking only .to 
the glorious national meinorlea of the past, and to the 
prosperous future stretching far before, let us, dwellers 
by the Western sea send back a loyal greeting to onr 
fellow-citizens nearer the birthplace of National 
Freedom. 

The first century of American freedom draws to ita 
glorious close. National trl. Is and struggles for exist- 
ence have not shattered the noble fabric of Republican 
self-government— cemented as has been by the blood of 
our Revolutionary forefathers. Looking backward to the 
early vicissitudes of our national existence, the Amer- 
ican citizen sees In the blgh-souled patriotism of the 
Revolution the grandest model of duty and self-devo- 
tion. Let us fittingly honor the day, the men, the 
deed. The Independence of America I its proclamation 
gave hope to suffering millions: its achievement has 
gi ven happiness to a great nation in weal tb aud numbers 
far surpassing the most sanguine hooej of the manly 
heroes who fongbt for posterity, who died that we 
might be free. In peaceful enjoyiuent of the freedom 
so dearly purchased.let us as a gratefnl body of fellow 
citizens forget any dividing line In the proud boast 
thnt we are Americans. 

Special invitations will be extended to all aocesslblet 
associations, and it is enjoined upon all classes of our 
citizens to organize under chosen officers and receive a 
proper place in line. 

Announcement is made of the appointment of Major 
R. H. Savage as Chief Aid to the Orand Marshal. 

ComiLittees on Finance will be duly announced, and 
in their visits to our fellow-citizens, the generous re- 
sponse peculiar to California is invoked for the neces- 
sar}' support of such a celebration as will do our loyal- 
ity credit. 

JOHN McCOMB, Grand Marsbal. 



14 



OZ, 



GEo.vi.(;i?Ai\!Tc^ca 

raiI.ABEI.PBIA. 



The Candles sold under the above well knows 
'brand" are made only of Pure Stearic Acid, twice 
hydraulic pressed, are not cheapened by adulteration 
with crude material, and npon burning, give a large 
and brilliant flame, without running. 13v9-2ambp 



SANBORN 




Mechanics' Mills, Ulsaion Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
tha country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivorj Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 3Sv8-8m-bp 



ALEX. BTJSWELIl,, 

BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTrRER. 

621 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books Ruled, Printed, and Bound to Order. 



FAXUEBa write for yoiu: paper. 



Oint of onr most valued exchange* U the P^oino 
Rca/iL Puts, pnblisbed by Dewey k Co. .Ban Franciaco, 
California. Kvtry number containa a large amount of 
general news from the far west, beside* much valuable 
information In the way of Hrange news.— Tk* Fmrmer't 
TrimA, il»ekanie$bvrff, Pa. 



July 3, 1875.] 



Bl\EEDBE\s' Dll^ECTOF^Y- 



POTTBCHASEBS Or STOCK WILL FIND !> THIS DIEECTORI 
THE NAMEB of some OF THF. MOST BELIABLE BBEEDEBS. 

OCB Kates.- Six lines or leoa inserted in this directory at 
M ots a line per montb, payable quarterly. 



cmLE. 



K- ASHBTTK.NEB, Baden station, San Mateo Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short horn cattle. Pure Bred Bulls 
for sale, from cows of choice milking strains. 



J. BREWSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Co. 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



J. D. CAHR, Gabilan, Monterey Co., Cal., breeder 
of Trotting Horses, 8hort-Horn Cattle, Thoroughbred 
Spanish Marino Sheep and Swine. 



A. MAILLAIRD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Oal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Oalveg for sale. ^^^^ 



W. li. OVERHISEB, Stockton, San Joaquin Co., 
Oal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle and Berkshire 
Swine. 



PAOE BROTHERS, 3U4 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Grades. 



STANTON & POWERS, Sacramento, Cal. 
Breeders of Jersey Heifers and Bull Calves at low 
rates. Address L. 0. Powers, Sacramento, Cal. 



HOSES WICK, Orovllle, Butte Co., Oal., breeder 
of Short-Horn Cattle. Young bulls for sale. 

SHEEP AND GOATS. 



H. r. BUCKLEY, Hopeton, Cal. Thoroughbred 
also % a nd ^ CotBwold grade sheep. 

UBS. ROBERT BLACOW, ObntervlUe, near 
Niles Station, Alameda Co., Oal. Piire-Blooded 
French Merino Sheep for sale. 



N. QILMORE, El Dorado, El Dorado Co., Cal., im- 
porter and breeder of Angora Goats. 



LiANDRtriU: & RODQERS. WatsonvUle, Santa 
Cruz County. Pure-Bred Angora Goats and Cotswold 
Shoep for sale. 

SEVERANCE & PEET, NUes, Alameda Co., 
Oal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep, 



A. O. STONESIFER, Hill'sFerry, Stanislaus Co., 
Oal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Shoop. 



L. tr. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



POULTRY. 



O-ftO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Oastro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 



ALBERT E. BURBANK, 13 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fsney Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. 



K. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese, 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



WILLIAM KNOWLES, Brooklyn, Alameda Co., 
Cal., has for sale Eg;g8 for Hatching, carefully 
packed, from pure-bred Bronze Turkeys, at $7.50 per 
dozen; Brown Leghorns at $4.00 per dozen; Houdans, 
White Leghorns and Buff Oochlns at $3.00 per dozen; 
two dozen for $6.00. Sent C. O. D. to any address. 

Mra. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara. Premium 
Fowls. White Leghorn, S. S. Hamburg, Game Ban- 
tams, and Aylesbury Ducks. Also, Eggs. 21v8-3t 



Live Stock Notices. 



GA.Bi3L..A^N n:Erir> 



SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 



I have just piirchased of Mr. George Hammond, of 
Vermont, three car-loads of Spanish Merino Sheep, 
(335 head, Ewes and Bucks) 
which, with others that I 
purchased last Fall, (also 
direct from Vermont) 
makes my band of Tbor- 
^ oughbred Spanish Merinos 
about 650 head. 
I am prepared to sell 
both Bucks and Ewes, of Pure Blooded Spanish Merinos 
— as good as can be had in the world — so says Mr. 
EUmmond. Parties Interested will please give me a 
call. I am ten miles from Salinas Olty, Gabilan P. C, 
Monterey county. 

J. D. CARR. 

N. B.— I have also Good Graded Bucks for sale, and 
can dispose of some Good Graded Ewes. J. D. C. 




Thoroughbred Spanish lyierinos 



FOR SAI^E. 



60 one and two-year old Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Rams, California bred, from Ewes Imported 
from Vermont, and sired by Severance & Feet's Cele- 
brated Bam "Fremont," and by their Ram "Green 
Mountain," which took the first premiums at the Bay 
District and State Fairs. Last shearing — 38 34 lbs — 
years' growth. 

Also, about 100 Ewe and Bam Lambs, all of "Green 
Mountain" Stock, bred this year. 

B. r. WATKINS, 

Santa Clara, Cal. 



12 Short-Horn Bulls, 

fat and sleek, thoroughbred, just from 
Kentucky, at SAXE'S Stables, 36 Ritch Street, between 
Folsom and Harrison, two blocks from Grand 
Hotel. Inquire at SAXE'S Stables, or Boom 82 Russ 
Hooae. 3v9-3m 



FOR, JSAX^E. 

400 Pure Blood French Merino Rams, 

On the Orlstlmba Ranch, six miles west of Hill's 
Ferry, Stanislaus County, Oal. All Bams delivered at 
the railroad, free of charge. Terms easy and prices 
liberal. 

A, a. STONESEFER. 




Pure Blooded French Merino Rams 

For sale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Centerville, 
Alameda Oou'ity, Cal., near Nlles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Rambouillet, and are equal. 
If not superior, to any of this breed in size and quality 
of wool, and are proved to be the heaviest shearers in 
the world. 



IMMiaRANT BUREAU. 

I. G. GARDNER, Assistant- 

123 Oalifomia Street, 
Second Floor, _ _ - san Francisco, Cal. 

To the Immigrants Seeking Homes, 
Labor and Information. 



There is ample room in our State for all that arc 
arriving to find homes, and there is plenty of work for 
willing hands to do. By the Information we expect to 
give through this Bureau, we anticipate no difficulty In 
finding homes and employment for all who may come. 
This office will be furnished with maps of Government 
and other desirable lands for sale, with full informa- 
tion relative to location, soil, climate, etc. 

The simple object of the Bureau is to protect the 
Interests of Immigrants, giving reliable information 
where the new comer can find employment, and homes 
on lands with perfect title, free of charg'e; and since 
the Bureau will be in correspondence with reliable or 
similar Bureaus throughout the State, it cannot fail to 
accomplish the object Intended. 

Mayor JAMES OTIS, 
I. FBIEDLANDER, 
0. J. CRESSEY, 
C. ADOLPHE LOW, 
JOHN MORTON. 

The Committee having selected the appointed Agent 
ef the Grangers' Immigrant Committee and the late 
Business Agent of the State Grange as their Manager 
and Assl&tant, shows a friendly disposition and desire 
to unite with us In our enterprises as Grangers that we 
should not ignore; and as this institution is to be sus- 
tained by the people at large, we therefore appeal to 
Grangers, and ask their co-operatiou aid support, and 
to take immediate action in selectinp some person in 
their Grange to receive orders for help and send the 
same to this office, that we may fill them, also to whom 
we may refer those seeking homes and situations. It 
Is desirable that we have full description of lands for 
sale and to rent. 

J. EARL, Hanager. 



Averill Chemical Paint, 

UANTrFAOTUBED BY THE 

Oal. Oliemical Paint Co. 



PURE WHITE, AND ANT SHADE OR COLOR. 

This Paint is prepared in liquid form, READY FOB 
APPLICATION— requiring no thinner or dryer, and will 
not spoil by standing any length of time. 

It Is Cheaper, more durable, more Elastic, and pro- 
duces a more Beautiful Finish than the best of any 
other Paint. 

It will not Fade, Chalk, rCrack, or Peel off, and will 
last twice as long as any other Paint. 

In ordering White, state whether for Outside or In- 
side use, as we manufacture an Inside White (ITlat) for 
inside use, which will not turn yellow, and produces 
a finish superior to any other White known. 

Put up in M,, J4, 1,2 and 5 gallon packages, and in 
Barrels. Sold by the Gallon. 

For further information send for Sample Card and 
Price List, or apply to the office. 

OFFICE and DEPOT: FACTORY; 

117 Pine Street, near Front. Cor. 4th & Townsend Sts. 



3v9-eow-bp-ly 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 




% COOLING, REFRESHING, AND 
INVIGORATING ARE THE 
EFFECTS OF 

ROWLANDS' KALYDOR 

On the face and skin of all exposed 

roMPTEXlON I , to the scorching rays of the sun 

c>"'^iiS^°'''f'f» ■ and heated particles of dust. It 

" '*^**^ "S eradicates Freckles, Sunburns, 

r.yn , ff Tan, and all Cutaneous Eruptions, 

t^3 ,'■(!? ^D*! produces a beautiful and del- 

;'.-' ' icato complexion. In cases of 

stiugs of Insects it is of the great- 

■ est value. Bold evei^where by 

, all chemists, druggists, and patent 

; medicine dealers. 

Ask for Rowlands' Kalydor, of 
'20, Hatton Garden, London, and 
avoid imitations. 



Oeo. W. Chapin, Real Estate Arent, 434 
Montgomery St., San Francisco, bavs and selln Rimohes 
n all parte of the StAte. Oity Real Kstate exchanjKed for 
ountryPro per ty . MoHEi Loaned. Post Offic« Box 1120 



For Washln? and Oleanin? Pui-poses. 



For Sa,le by a.11 Grocers. 



This article is universfllly used in Europe, and, recentv 
introduoHil for general family use in San Francisco and 
neighborhood^ is already in preat demand. It i-* row the 
intention of me manHfacturf rs fo introduce it all ever the 
Pacifle O' ast, at prices which will bring it within the reach 
of every household. 

It is unequalled for cleanstne Woolen Fab'-ics. Cutlerv, 
^^arpet? or Crockery; for Scrubbing Floors. Washing Paint, 
Beniovin'; Grease Spots. Shampooing or Hathing. 

It renders water soft, and imparts a delightl'ul Bense of 
coolnpB-s after washinfj, 

DIRErTIONS.-For Laundry, use two to four tablc- 
spooonfuls to a washtub of water. For bn'hiog, use one 
tablespoonful in the bath tub. For removing greitse spots, 
apply with a brush, undiluted, and wish with wa'er after- 
wara. For stimulating the growth of plants, use a few 
drons In every pint of wa'er used in watering. 

PRICE. -Per Pint Bottle. 25 cents; per quart Quart Bot- 
tle, 40 cents; ner Halt Gallon. 7S cents. 

Also, SULPHATE OF AMMONIA for chemical pur- 
pose, fertilizin?, and the prrparation of artificial manures. 
AMMONIAOAL PREPARATION for the p'evontlon and 
removal of boiler .scale. CRUDE AMMoNiA for general 
manafacturing. and POR' LIQUOR and AQUA AMMO- 
NIA for chemical and pharmacentical purposes. 

^^Manufactured by tile 

SAN FRANCISCO GAS-LIOHT CO. 

eowbp 



Tile Qrang'ers' Scandinavian American 
Employment Office 

Has been removed from 6 Liedesdorff to 608 Clay street, 
and Consolidated with the Pacific Coast Emplnyment 
Office. This office is In constant communication with 
Grange Headquarters, and is the only one in the city 
conducted by members of the Order. Our facilities for 
furnishing MALE and FEMALE help of all kinds are 
imexcelled by any office in the city. Great care taken 
to select reliable help. Chinese Orders for Servants, 
In door and out, promptly filled. 

In ordering help, be particular in describing work, 
wages, fare, etc.. Real Estate and General Business 
Agency. 

PHILIPS & FLIOGLE. 

The Employment Office of Talbot & Co. has no con 
nectlon whatever with the Granges. 

I. G. GARDNER. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 
r>. r>. T.— ises. 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
every family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family fijds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches, Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

Stockton, Cal. 



The National Gold Medal 

WAS AWARDED TO 

BRADLEY & RULOFSON 

FOR THE 

BEST PHOTOGRAPHS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES, 

AND THE 

VIENNA MEDAL 
FOR THE BEST IN THE WORLD. 

No. 429 Montg'Omery Street, 
eowbp San Francisco, Cal. 



CHARLES CLAYTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants 

GRAIN, 

FLOUR 

and WOOL, 
N. E. COR. FRONT & CLAY STREETS 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

J.M.NEVILLE. G. H. BRYANT 

NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 1 14 Commercial Sts., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

BAGS of All Kinds, 
TENTS, All Sizes and Dosoriptions. 
HOSE for Hydraulic Use. 
CA.1WAS, All Numbers. 
TWirVE for Sowing, Etc. 




X..I O O li. 1 

ALBERT E. BURBANK, Impor- 
t»r and Breeder of Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Babbits, otc. Also Jlggs 
tor bitching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. Eggi and Fowls at 
reduced pric«s. >end for Pri<* 
List. 

ALBERT Ik'. BUKBANK, 
lv8-8m 13 & 4/ Oal. Market S.f 



Banking and Insurance. 



Grangers' Bank of California. 

(Incorporated April 27th, 1874.) 
Offices, 415 California street, San Francisco. 

CAPITAL authorized, S.'i.ono.OOO, in 50,000 shares of 
$100 each. Subpcrlbcd, 12,668,700 (Number of 
shareholders. 1,671) . Paid up, $481,200. 

DIRECTORS— J. v. Webrtkr, President; Calvin J. 
Cresset, Vice-Pr«siileut; C. S. Abbott, J. P. 
Chrisman. G. W. Colby, J. H. Hill, J. Lewel- 
LTN, THOS. MoCOMNtLL, J. O. Merbyfiku), A. F. 

WaLCOTT, F. J. W( COWARD. 

OFFICERS— Managing Director, Calvin 3. Cbessey; 
Cashier, Alexander Watson; Secretary, Frank 
A. Cbessey. 

The bank was opened on the Ist of August, 1874, 
for the purpose of affording additional banking 
facilities to the producers of the State, and for 
the transnctiOD of ordinary banking businesB. 

CURRENT ACCOUNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way, and interest allowed on the minimum 
monthly balance at the rate of three per cent, per 
jinnnm. 

CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT are issued in sums of 
$60 and upwards, payable on 30 days' notice of 
withdrawal, bearing interest at ]ates varying 
with tho current rate of discount. 

TERM DEPOSITS arc received in gold, silver or cur- 
rency, and interest allowed as follows, namely: 
Three months, six per cent, per annum; six 
months, seven per cent, per annum; one year, 
eight per cent, per annum. 

COLLECTIONS are made throughout the State on the 
moe^ favorable terms. 

DISCOUNTS— The bank advances on real estate in the 
different counties, on merchandise and grain in 
warehouse, etc., with a fair margin, charging a 
uniform rate of one per cent, pec month. Dis- 
count days, Tuesday and Friday. 

ALEXANDER WATSON. Cashier. 



Anglo-Californian Bank. 

LIMITED. 

Successors to J. Seli^man & Co. 

London Office No. 3 Angel Court 

San Francisco Office No. 412 California street. 

Authorized Capital Stock, $6,000,000, 

Subscribed, $3,000,000. Paid In, $1,500,000. 
Remainder subject to call. 

DiEECTOBS IN London— Hon. Hngh McOulloch. R«nhen 
D. Sassoon, William F. Scholfield, Isaac Seli^man, .lultua 
Sington. 

Manarebs: 



F. F. 



I>aw and ICNATZ; 8TKINHAKT, 

San Feancisoo. 



The Bank is now prepared to open accounts, receive de- 

Etasits, make collections, bay and sell Exchange, and issue 
ettere of Orcilit avaitahle thioughout the world, and to 
loan mone.v on proper securities. 2v27-eowbp 



California Farmers Mutual 
Fire Insurance Association. 

Office, 6 Leidesdorfr St., - San Francisco. 

Directors: 

A. Wolf, A. W. Thompson, I. 0. Steele. 

I. G. Gaudneb, J. C. Mereyfield, J. D. Blanohab. 

G. P. Kellooo, Treas. 

Finance- Committee: 

I. G. Gardner, J. C. Merryfield, A. W. Thompson 

Trustees: 
J. M. Hamilton, Lake Coll. C. Steele, San Mateo Co 
■J.C. MERBYFIELD.Solano Co A. B. Nallet, Sonoma Co 
G.W.Colby, - - Butte Co O. S.Abbott, S'taBarb'a Co 
H. B. JoLLEY, - Merced Cu A. W. THonrpsON, Sonoma Co 
A. Wolf, San Joaquin ColE. W. Steele, SL Obispo Co 
3. D. BLANCHAB, Pres't. W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 

This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of safely 
Insuring against loss by fire, at actua 1 cost of insurance, 
without being connected with city risks. a822-tf 



LAND PLASTER. 

{Sulpb.ite of Lime.) 

This fertilizer is especially well adapted to California 
lands and climate, and Is destined to bo used to Im- 
mense advantage. 

PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 

In bnlk, $10 per ton; In barrels or bags, $12.50. 

Goiden Gate Plaster Mills. 

LTJOAS GESNEB & CO., 

215 and 217 MAIN STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



CARD. 

EXCELSIOR FORCE PUMP 
greatly improved. Copper Lined 
Brass Valves and Valve Seats 
every way equal to a BRASS 
PUMP. Prices reduced. Send 
for Circular. BRITTAN. HOL- 
BROOK & CO., Agents. 



In the Riverside, Now England and Santa Ana Col- 
onies, in the valley of the Santa Ana river, San Bcrnar- 
dino county, Ciiliforuia, twenty thousand (20,000) acres 
of clean, rich, Itvil, valley land, with an aluindiincc of 
water for Irrigation. There Is no bitter land In the 
State for tho orange and all other scrai-troplcal fruits, 
and no finer climiite in the world. Inquiro of W. T. 
SAYWAUD, 420 Montgomery street, San Fraiicisi;o: 8. 
C. EVANS, Fort Wayne, Indiana: 0. I. HUTCHINSON, 
SU California strict, Hnn Francisco; L. UPSON, General 
Agent. Riverside, San Bornardiuo county, Cal. 

A. W. THOMPSON, 
A-ttovney at La-w, 

No. 6 Leldesdorff Street, S. F. 



12 



[July 3. 1875- 



^qi^icULjjRi^L floTES. 



BUTTB. 

Sale op Fokbestown Ditch : — The Oroville 
Mercury states that Forbestown ditch has been 
sold to parties who will divert the water, and, 
conveying itacroas to Sicard Flat in Yuba Co., 
use it for mining purposes. The Mercury esti- 
mates that many thousands of dollars damage 
will be done to the agricultural intert sts of that 
section by this diversion of water, and demands 
that the matter be brought to the attontion of 
the next Legislature. It seems that many pliteo.s 
had been permanently improved, orchards 
planted, vineyards started and gardens laid out. 
on the supposition that a supply of water for 
irrigating purposes could be had from this ditch. 
Now by the action of the owners the imjrove- 
meuts have been brought to naught. 

CONTBA COSTA. 

Harveshng. — Antioch Leclr/er, June 26: 
Farmers between Antioch and Point of Tim- 
ber are now in the midst of their harvest labors. 
Most of the tjrrtin has been cut aud probably 
one-half thrt shed aud sacked. While the yield 
as a whole is not large, yet there are many in- 
stances reported of bountiful crops. Mat Ber- 
linger, of Point of Timber, averages on his 
farm one and a half tons to the acre of excep- 
tionally clean, plump wheat. .Joseph McCabe 
will grow as much wheat on eighty acres, sum- 
mer (allowed, as his neighbors on two hundred 
acres, winter sown. Wm. Newman, adjoining 
town, expects his ranch of one hundred and 
fifty acres will yield twelve hundred bags of 
wheat 135 pounds each. 

The farmers of the Pacheco and Diablo val- 
leys are now harvesting. According to the 
Gazttte these valleys will average from twelve 
to fifteen centals per acre, and the Sau Bamou 
di'^trict will do a little better. 

Barby Baujwin, says the Gazette, is erecting 
a substantial warehouse on his Hastings 
ranch purchase, with storage capacity of 1,000 
tons or upwards. The builning is some 300 
feet back from the bank of the slough, from 
which a slightly inclined railway track will ex- 
tend, through the whole length of the ware- 
hou)^e. The slough is quite broad and deep 
enough for vessels of 200 tons capacity as far 
as the warehouse. 
FRESITO. 

An Irrigating Canal. — From the Expositor, 
23d inst , we learn that the trouble heretofore 
existing between Mr. W. S. Chapman and the 
Fresno canal and irrigating company has been 
amicably settltd, and that the former will at 
once proceed to excavate a canal from the 
Fresno company's works to his laud. This 
will be good news, not only to the farmers, 
but to the public generally, as it was greatly 
feared another big legal contest was about to 
spring up. This adjustment will enable the 
woik to be pushed rapidly ahead, and before 
the clo«e of the year a large additional scope of 
land will be afforded facilities for irrigation. 

KEBN. 

Another Ditch. — Couriir, June 26 : The Stine 
diicb is now constructed eight miles from its 
source, and will be completed in about four 
weeks more. Its entire length will be about 
twelve milts. It is taken out at a point about 
a mile west of Bakersfield, and runs in a south- 
erly direction through to the slough, connect- 
ing Kern and Buena Vista lakes, and will irri- 
gaie all that large tract of land lying west of 
the Kern island irrigating canal, aud east of 
Old river. If is thiriy feet on the botttmi, and 
will have a carrying capacity of seventy feet of 
water. The work is under the direction of Mr. 
Walter James, and the character and progress 
of the work bear gratifying testimony to his 
akill and eflSciency. The Washoe excavator is 
employed on this ditch with the most protitablti 
and pleasing results. Mr. James informs us 
that it will excavate 800 cubic yards of soil a 
day, and at a rate not to exceed three cents per 
yard. 
UEBCBD, 

A SuBPLrs FOB Export. — San Joaquin Val- 
ley ylryus, June 26; Farmers are busily engaged 
now in harvesting their crops. Threshing has 
not ytt commenced generally, and we have 
heard no estimates as to the probable yield of 
grain. There will be a large surplus for export, 
however, considering the dryness of the Sf iisou 
through the months of March, April and May, 
when it is reasonable to expect showers. 
FliAOEB. 

Bilk Worms.— The Anjuti has an interesting 
notice of the work being done by one of its 
citizens, Mr. Bernhardt, iu the raising of silk 
worms. That gentleman now lias 15,000. This 
season be expects they will make about thirty 
pounds of raw silk, which is worth from five to 
ten dollars a pound in France, bringing a 
higher price than that raised in that country. 
Mr. B. had some sent there to be tested, and it 
was pronounced superior to their own, from 
the fact that their worms are diseastd, while 
those of this country are perfectly healthy. 
The eggs produced iu this country bring $« 
per ounce iu Fiance, the disoaso in tluir own 
rendering them ahuost worthless. The first 
year of Air. B.'s experience with the worms 
was very nearly a failure on account of not 
having enuugh mulberry lewes to feed them, 
but being belter prepared the second year he 
met with reasonable good success, while this 
year he ejpects to prove that the business cau 
be suecesHtully prosecuted in this country, and 
especially, he thinks, are th6 foothill counties 
of Oaliforuis adapted to the business. 



SONOMA. 

Good Prospects.— Democrat, June 26: It is 
admitted, now that the efifects of the late 
storm may be more fully estimated, that it will 
result in more good than injury. The grain is 
said to be filling out in a manner unexpected, 
while the growth of corn, potatoes and late 
grain has been greatly stimulated. Those best 
informed think that the yield of grain in this 
vicinity at least will be fully up to, if it does 
not exceed, an average. 

A distressing accident is related by the 
Democrat. A son of Mr. W. Tarwater attempted 
to ride an obstinate mule. After getting upon 
his back the mule reared and fell backward, the 
boy underneath. The horn of the saddle went 
into young Tarwater's stomach and injured 
bim so severely that he died iu his father's 
arms before the house was reached. 
STANISLAUS. 

A Grain Stack B^bned. — Newn, June '25: 
Some time dniiog the afternoon of Monday 
last a grain stack belonging to Mr. B. B. Sned- 
igar, some 9 miles from this place, near the 
Stanislaus, was discovered to bo on fire. A 
person seen leaving the immediate vicinity was 
overtaken, arrested, and brought to town. The 
Boan appears to be a perfect stranger, aud gives 
bis name as Hogan. 

Washington Territory. 

Vegetation Freshened.- -Walla Walla Union, 
June 21: Grass is better now than it has been 
at this season for a number of years, in this 
valley. The rains have freshened it up and 
one could almost cut hay on the hills lying a 
few miles away from the city, where hundreds 
of head of stock graze daily, and where only 
2 or 3 weeks ago they were almost bare. 

We learn that during last weeks' rains there 
was some loss of sheep that had just been 
sheared. The rain was quite a cold one, and 
the weather had been very hot just before. So 
that sheep that had just been sheared suffered 
considerably, and, in some instances, died. 
This, however, was only iu unprotected local- 
ities, where the wind had an unusually good 
chance to blow their light out. 



California Geology. 

The Great Plunge in the Tertiary. 

At the last meeting of the California Academy 
of Sciences, Mr Amos Bowman, formerly of the 
State Geological Survey, read a paper on the 
above subject, as follows: 

I wish to call attention to the facts, which 
may be observed and confirmed by residents of 
nearly every portion of the State, going to 
show that California has risen out of the sea 
at the dawn of our creation, that is to say, the 
creation of the mammalians of the tertiary 
period, and that since this comparatively recent 
event it sank out of sight again, under the sea, 
bodily. 

Only the mountain tops of the coast counties 
rose above the surface. The movement was 
gradual, and aft'ected at least ten degrees of 
latitude along the shores of the Pacific slope. 

This conclusion is so well borne out by the 
record that, however novel or unsupported it 
may appear when stated for the first time, I 
advance it fearlessly, though at present with- 
out attempting to follow it up by an elabor- 
ate array of proof. It is one of those great 
truths which, when once announced, can be 
studied and verified by everybody, and which 
will stay true for all time. 

It first interpreted itself to me during my 
coal reconnoissance last autumn, when, stand- 
ing upon one of the highest summits of the 
coal measures at Nortonville, in the Monte 
Diablo coal region, I got a bird's-eye view of 
the p-ges of the overlying tertiary between the 
coal mines and Saisnn bay, there opened up 
like a book. 

A horiz'in of marshes, bogs and forests is 
seen swallowed up by the sea, buried under 
aud covered up by half a mile's thickness of 
sea scdimen*, in the upper strata, densely im- 
pregnated with the remains of marine life. 
Like a dash the similarity in position aud of 
subsidence under the sea of a d .zen difi'erout 
coal regions widely apart, which I had visited, 
bearing the same relation to the underlying 
cretaceous and the overlying tertiary rocks, 
then for the first time occurred to me. 

The last, and most interesting addition to 
this page of our geological history came to my 
notice more recently. 

A few weeks ago I presented to the Academy 
of Sciences some stone relics of the earliest 
kuowu inhabitants of the globe. This conclu- 
sion, as a matter of fact, is not stated on my 
own authority uuhupported, but on that o"f 
paleontologists, which I will not dispute, be- 
cause I see no reason for disputing them at 
this time. It rests in the fact that the forma- 
tion is identified as upper tertiary or pliocene. 
The authority is Lesquereun principally, who 
determined the palms aud other extinct forest 
leaves of our ancient rivers, and Whitney, in 
volume one of the Geological Survey. 

The locality from which these stone mortars, 
pestles, stone knives, ornameiits, etc., were 
derived, as wa'< stated when they were pre- 
sented, is the Oroville and Cherokee mesa of 
Butte county. I remarked, in presenting the 
stone knife, that, of my own knowledge, the 
formation was pre-glacial. 

Coal deposits and coarse gravel underlying 
the Oroville mesa, succeeded by finer material, 
the upper portion of which is an auriferous gold 
bench, preceding in age the volcanic and the 
glacial periods of California, testify to the 
same convergence in the early tertiary, aud to 



the same grand plunge into the sea during the 
middle and the latter part of the tertiary, the 
proof of which I saw in so many places in con- 
nection with ooal regions explored last autumn. 

The contemporaneousness of the submersion 
in Butte county, and elsewhere in the interior, 
with that at Monte Diablo, and throughout 
the coast counties, is based not merely on the 
fact that there are coal beds of wide distribution 
marking the former emergence, found alike 
in both places, but that the underlying rock is 
cretaceous, so determined by marine fossils, 
and that tbe formation at both places com- 
pri.'ies the tertiary which were deyo>ited 
before the advent of the volcanic period. The 
latter constitutes a sort of geological landmark 
in California, of the end of the tertiary and of 
the lowest subsidence of the land, since which 
time we have had the ice period, and a new 
emergence of 2,000 feet, which is still in pro- 
gress. 

The stone relics of human origin here pre- 
sented — to which I add to-night another, of a 
curious trough-shaped utensil of granite, given 
me by E. J. Davis, of Cherokee — show that 
the country was inhabited during the latter 
part of this subsidence, these relics having 
been covered up by 600 feet of brackish and 
fresh water submarine sediment. It is safe to 
say brackish in general, because in portions of 
the great valley, as at Livermore pass, brack- 
ish water shells have been found in the same 
formation, while at other places where tbe tide 
could ebb and flow, as at Kirker's pass, salt 
water miocene and pliocene shells are im- 
bedded, the fresher waters further in the in- 
terior having destroyed, in the upper beds of 
the tertian, the marine and brackish water 
mulluscae that flourished there when the lower 
and tbe underlying cretaceous strata were de- 
posited. 

The formation of Oroville and Dogtown 
Table mountains extends over hundreds of 
square miles, as far into tbe interior as Shasta 
county, and consists of sandy clays and gravels 
horizontally bedded and generally conformable 
as near as the eye can make out to the under- 
lying cretaceous. 

The particulars concerning the ancient beach 
dwellers of Cherokee, belonging to the forma- 
tion just described, are published in the 
"Overland Monthly" for July. It is only iu 
consequence of the fact that the streams of 
that vicinity, Dry creek and Cherokee ravine, 
have cut through the volcano capping, and ex- 
posed in Mesilla valley a fine geological section 
through the entire tertiary series, beginning 
with the auriferons strata on top, to the coal at 
the bottom, including a portion of the creta- 
ceous, that hydraulic mining is rendered prac- 
ticable along the edges of the mesa, and that 
ancient Cherokee was ever discovered. 

Probably fi'ty of these mortars have been 
unearthed at Cherokee. They are too common 
to be of any value, or to be a curiosity there. 
Allowing one stone mortar for each tribe or 
family, there must have been people enough 
living near that beach whose mortars did not 
all get covered up by the waves, to have enti- 
tled ancient Cherokee to a town charter. 



Patents & 1nvention& 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Paoiflo Coast Inventors. 

[FaoM OmoiAi, Repobtb fob the HiNiNa and Boie!)- 
una Pbess, DEWEY & CO., Pubushebs and 

D. 8. AND FOBEION PATENT AOENTS.) 

By Special Dispatch, Bated Washlnsrton, 
D. C, June 29th, 1875. 

Fob Week Ending Jdnk 15th, 1875." 
Paint Compodnd. — Isaac L. Merrell, S.F., Cal. 
Plow.— Christian Myers, Marysville, Cal. 
Carbureter. — John C. Hei derson, S. F., Cal. 
HoBHE PowEB. — Horace Parkhurst, Oakland, 

Cal. 

Trademarks. 
Fob Salted, Pickled and Pbesebved Salmon. 

J. W. and V. Cook, Clifton, Oregon. 
For Anti-i'biction Metal. — Geo. S. Hunt, 

Sacramento, Cal., and Benjamin Hunt, St. 

Louis, Mo. 



IMMIGRANT BUREAtT, 

12a Califoknia Street, 

8an Francisco, Cal 

For tbu purpotie of directing Imrai^ants, tbla Burean 
desires iDform&ttoD of all Irrigating ditches In process 
of construction. 

We can, with safety, send Iminigrante tu neighbor- 
tiooels where land can be irrigated. 

Please state dclinitely where such ditch Is taken out 
from the river or stream, and the laud through which 
it paHses or will pass, and, if possible, send also a 
description, by section, of the land proposed to be 
brouRht under the influence of the water. 

Huch information, it given to the Burean In detail, 
will be used in directing Immigrants to the lands, and 
will tend to settle the country so designated. 

tsr" If you have or can procure a map of the vxact 
location of the ditch ii will be of great service. 

Thanks for Prompt Attention. 

Stooktoh, Jane 26, 1873. 
Messrs. Dewey d: Co., S. t'.: — 

I have received the patent for my Invention in wagon 
brakes, which you prosecuted for me; patented May 
U, 1875— No. 163.046. Thanks to you for your prompt 
attention to the case; you will hereafter be my attor- 
neys iB such caaes. I recommend all inventors on tbe 
Pacific coast to give you a call, which I think they will 
never have any causa to regret. Very truly yours, 
GEO. G. BUOKLAND, 

Stockton, Oal. 

Oetze's School for the Parlor Organ has the recom- 
mendatioD of almost countless teachers; the liook has 
merit Price, $2. So 



1874. GUIDE AND CATALOGUE 1876. 
FREE. 

To persons contemplating purchasing I will send 
my IixusTRATED, Desobittive Catai/joce and Guise 
to the Veoetable and Flower Garden wrraoTrr 
cbaroe. It contains the most extensive and valuable 
list of 




Flowering Bulbs, Koots and Plants, Saml- 
Tropioal Trees, Ornamental Shrabs, Pniit 
and Shade Trees, etc., ever offered in this market. 
It tells how to successfully grow the Australian 
Blue Oum. the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., aud the proper method of Cnltivating' To- 
bacco on this Coast. 

^r"My stock of Meeds is In part my own raising 
and in part direct importations from the best Etiro- 
pean and Eastern growers, and is unsurpassed In all 
res|>ect« by that offered by any other establishment. 

100,000 Australian Blue Oums and Uon- 
terey Cypress in boxes at from $30 to $50 per 
1,000, raised at my own Nursery at Ban Rafael. 

K. J. TKTTMBtTLL. 

Grower, Importar, Wholesale and Retail Dealer In 

Seeds, Shrubs, Trees, etc. 
20v8-6m.l6p 427 Sansome street. 8. F. 



irrigating, 
chinery. 



The Simplest and Host 
Powerful 'Wine, 
Cider, Lard, Pa- 
per, Tobacco 
and Hide 
Press 
in Use — Quaranteed. 

Fruit drying apparatus. 
Knowles' Steam Pumps for 
All kinds of new and second-hand ma- 

A. I.. FISH & CO.. 
Nog, 9 and 11 First street, San Francisco. 




SAN JOSE 

Institute and Business College. 

A day and boarding school for both sexes. 

The 27th session will commence Aug. ad, 1876. 

THE INSriTUTE, under the superrision of Isaac 
KnfLEY, has been carefully graded, and a thorough 
academic course has been added. Students sompleting 
the course will receive diplomas. 

THE BUSINESS COLLEGE, under the direction of 
Jas. Vinhonhaler, is complete iu all its appointments, 
and in thoroughness and efficiency ranks with tJie best 
businohs colleges in the State. Those from a olstauco 
have the privilege of boarding in the Institute build- 
ngs. Letters relating to the lustltute should be 
addressed to 

ISAAC KINLEY, 
Superintendent San Jose Institute, 

San Jote, California. 

Letters relstiuR to the Business College should be 
addressed to JAMES VINSONHALER, Principal of the 
Business College, San Jose, California. 



UNIVERSITY of CALIFORNIA, 

BERKELEY, near Oakland. 

COLLEGES OF AGEICULTOKE, 

CHEMISTRY, MECHANICS. 

MINING, ENOINEEBING 

and LETTEB8. 

Examinations for Admission, August lltb and ViOx, 
at lOb'elook a. h. 

Tuition free. Circulars sent on request. 
bp-td 



Tbe Pacific Ritbal Press is, for the Pacific Coa8t,ithe 
most valual>le paper published in the TTnion. It is 
precisely adapted for this r»rt of the world. As an ex- 
change it is invaluable, giving a complete view of cli- 
mate and crop all over the coast. The only fault about 
it IS that the mailing clerk forgets us sometimes. Will 
he take a htot'!— Southern Califomian, February IStli. 



LOCKE & MONTAGUE, 

IMPOKTEKS OF 

Stoves, Ranges, 

Tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Iron Pipe, 

House Farnishinir Hardware, 

PlaiB Japanned, 

Planisbed and Stamped 

TIN \^ARE, 

112 and 114 Battery Street, 

SAN FBANOISOO. 



July 3, 1875.] 



13 



S. p. Pi^F^KEJ ^Ef»OI\7. 



Weekly Market Review. 

DOMESTIC PRODUCE, ETC. 

San FaANOMOo, June 30, 187S. 

We have little change to note in the crop prospect 
uince our last. A San Francisco dally, after a careful 
review of the situation and from all the informaiiion 
obtainable, estimates the amount of Wheat available 
for export the present year at 7,882,000 centals. If this 
estimate should prove correct, it vrould not show a 
very great decline from last year's exportation, 8,616,- 
800 centals. An estimate is also made of the Barley 
aurplns, placing it at 2,768,000 centals. 

There is no doubt but that there will be a sufficient 
number of vessels to take this surplus, or a much 
larger one. Besides the fleet already in port there are 
a good number of vessels on the way here. The new 
Maine-built ship W. A. Holcomb, called after our fel- 
low citizen the well known grain merchant of that 
name, cleared from Boston for this poit with a miscel- 
laneous cargo on the 28th inst. 

Freights to Liverpool are nominal. Vessel owners 
■want £2 lOs. ■ Shippers have offered £2 7s. fid. 

Oalifornia Wheat in the Liverpool market is quoted 
to-day at 83. 10d.@9s. 2d. Club at 98. 2d.@9s.6d. 

Under date of the 29th the Mark Lane Express says: 

The market is hardening because of the floods in 
France and the unfavorable American reports. North- 
western Europe is favored with plenteous rains; but 
Eastern and Southern Europe are suffering drouths. 
The prospects are favorable to general abundance. 
Germany and England have the best prospects; Russia, 
Hungary and France the worst. 

The following, gleaned from a table of statistics 
lately published by the Department of Agriculture, 
may be of interest to those of our readers interested in 
the commercial advancement of the country. The 
first shows the value of Breadstuffs exported from the 
United States for forty-nine years: 

Wheat. Flour. 

1826 to 1870 ... $389,595,61 2 $587 ,29 1 ,848 



1871 45,166,434 

1872 38,915,1)60 

1873 61,452,85i 

1874 101,421,459 



24,903,184 
17,965,684 
19,381,664 
29,268,094 



Breadstuffs. 

$1,318,990 499 

79,403,689 

84,616,041 

98,762,891 

161,225,931 



aens we quote at 2H®3c 'iH K. Cabbage at $1.60 ^ ctl. 
Qreen Com at 10®20o ^ doz. Suiumer squanh at 60® 
7)Sc^box. String beans at l)4@2o ^ B. Oreen Pep. 
i>rs at 10®lfio V 115. Tomatoes in good supply at 90c 
(3(Q ■¥> box. 

Wlieat— Receipts since our last 44,658 ctls. The 
rearket is very Arm and prices have advanced. The 
^ceipts of new are auite limited. Farmers appear 
Olsposed to hold on to their crops. What Is bought 
for shipping has cost the purchasers from $1.62}^ to 
SI .65. We hear of several transactions in old milling 
Where $1.80 was paid for choice lots. We quote $1.70(3) 
$1.80 as the extremes of the market. 

"Wool— Receipts since our last 763 sks, as against 
686 sks the previous week. Considerable of that re- 
oeived is from Oregon. We quote good shipping at 16 
(|>18, choice long at 24@27, burry at 13@16. heavy free 
at 14@16c ?> ft. For information in regard to the 
Eastern markets see our Wool Department. 

For other quotations see our tables below: 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 

I WHOLESALE.] 

Wednrsdat m.. June 30. 1875. 
OtilOSiS. 




JCK. 



14 

20 

25 
24 
20 
22 

,9 18 00 



Total, 49 yrs.. $626,527,809 $677,980,472 $1,742,908,059 
The second statement taken from the report shows 
the average prices of Wheat and Flour during forty 
years preceding 1870, given by decades: 

1840. 1850. 1860. 1870. 

Wheat, per bushel... $1.04 $1.19 $1.35 $1.3.^ 

Flour, per barrel 6.06 5.41 0.23 7.22 

For information in regard to crop prospects in the 
State see our "Agricultural Notes." 

Bagrs — The prices of bags have undergone no change 
since our last. Merchants represent this busiuess as 
being brisk. 

Barley— Receipts since our last, 8,477 ctls. There 
is considerable doing. We quote $1.35@1.47)4 as the 
outside figure for Coast. 

Beans— Receipts since our last, 517 sks. No change 
in the quotations for choice lots. 

Corn- The market is quiet. We quote white at 
$1.63@1.55; yellow at 1.41@1.42. 

Dairy Produce— The Butter and Cheese market is 
dull. The demand and supply keep about the same, 
and we have no change to note since our last quota- 
tions. California Butter is worth from 27 JiSc to 32;«c, 
and from fancy dairies 85c '^ ft. Cheese ranges from 
12>«o. to 14c for Oalifornia, with 15@2(ic for Eastern, 
according to quality. Eggs are quoted at 24(3)250 for 
tresh. 

J;eed— Receipts of hay since our last, 1,432 tons. 
The market remains about the same as last week. Wo 
qaote $14<3)18 as the outside figures, thuugh choice 
lots bring a trifle more. Considerable hay which was 
damaged by the lute rain is now coming in. Some lots 
are almost entirely uninjured, while others are con- 
siderably lessoned in vaiue— all depending upon the 
care taken by producers in spreading and curing after 
the hay was wet. Other classes of feed are unchanged. 

Flour — The market is more active. Receipts since 
our labt, 22,254 qr sks, as against 17,553 qr sks the week 
previous. A good deal has arrived f rum Oregon. The 
mills have advanced prices here. We quote extra at 
*5.25@5.62 a ; Superftne at $4.5ii@5 ^ bbl. 

Fresh Meat— We note a decline of H cent in the 
best quality of beef, quoting it 5ii(g)6c ^ ft. Other 
meats quiet at last week's quotations. 

Fruits- Peaches are in good supply at 76c@$2.25 ^i^ 
box. Apples are quite plenty at 6U@90c Ifi box. Tahiti 
Oranges we quote at t30(§)35. Strawberries in small 
supply at $10(§)12 :if» chest. The following information 
concerning this year's fruit crop is condens'^1 from the 
BuUetin: Cherries are selling lower now than for years 
past, notwitiistanding the fact that the early frosts 
almost entirely destroyed the crop in certain sections, 
and thus greatly diminished the supply. Black Tar- 
tarian cherries have^en sold as low as 6^ cents per 
pound this month, while in April they realized 4Uc to 
45c per pound. Alameda county has furnished the 
bulk of cherries this season. Pleasant valley, Solano 
county, have thus far supplied this market with the 
bttk of apricots, that section having the largest crop 
ever known there. A few apricots have within the past 
week been received from the Sacramento river orchards. 
The opinion seems to prevail that the wells In Santa 
Clara are gradually giving out, which necessarily in- 
terrupts Irrigation. And the strawberry plants have 
been propagated so long that they are nearly worked 
out, and a new variety will have toTje obtained. Seven 
years ago Longworth's variety was set out, and from 
that time they have been propagating ever since. The 
land is giving out, becaHse in irrigating it the nutri- 
ment is being continually washed away by the running 
streams which are distributed over it. This nutriment, 
■the very life of the berry, is not replaced by any arti- 
'ficial stimulant, and, consequently, the fruit is sadly 

deteriorating. 
Honey — New Honey is being received in coneldera 

ble quantity. It is believed that the crop will equal 

that of last year. If the season had been entirely favora- 
ble, the production would have shown a heavy increase 

over last year, when our shipments to New York. 

Boston and other Eastern markets were 20 car loads, or 

400,000 lbs. We quote oomb at 20(^250 ^ ft ; strained 

at 6@10c If) ft. 
Hides— Receipts since our last, 2,368. We quote 

dry at 16(^170. Wet salted at 8@8 )4 . 
Oats— We quote the range of the market at $1.90@ 

2.12)4. 
Onions— Receipts since our last, 747 sks. We quote 

red at $1.25, an« silver skinned at $1.50 ¥ ctl. 
Potatoes— Receipts since our last. 6,227 sks. We 

quote the range of the market at $1@1.S0, according to 

scarcity and quality. 
Provisioas— Market quiet and unchanged. 
Poultry— The market is well supplied with all 

kinds of Poultry. We note a decline In bens, quoting 

them at $6.eO®7.S0 V doz. 
Vegotatoles- All kinds plentiful and lawer. Aspar. 



Bayo 

Batter 

F-ea 

Pink 

Sm'l wh. per fi>.. ^., „ 
BKOOM CORN 

Perlb 2,H(® 

COTTOK. 
Qal. 1874.11b.... 12J^i 
1 DAISY PRUI> 

BUTTER. 

Oal. Choice lb.... 27!^® 

Firkin 27^fffl 

Oregon 20 @ 

CHEESE. 

Oheese, Oal 12)^@ 

Eastern 15 S 

EOQS. 

aal. fresh 24 a 

IJucUs' 22>^@ 

Eastern — @ 

Oregon 20 @ 

F£EII. 

Bran, per ton — 

(lorn Meal 34 00103b 50 

H ay 14 00'318 00 

N iddlinga @30 00 

Oil cake meal... @35 00 

Straw,* bale...— 60'g- 6.') 
F1,UUR. 

Extra.. .5 25 (35 62)4 

Superfine 4 50© 5 00 

FRJE»H MKJkT 
Beef Ist quality D). hisf^ 

Second do 

Thirddo 

U amb 

Ulutton 

Pork, undressed 

do, dressed 

Seal 

eRAiN. 

H aney, coast. 

do brewing 

f1 uckwheat... 

Horn. White.. 

do. Yellow.. 1 41 @ 1 42 

iliats 1 9.5 (g) 2 VZH 

lltye 1 7:Tyid> 1 30 

'fV'heat shipping — @ 1 45 

do milling.. 1 70 @ 1 75 

HOP». 

c California, 1874.. 27)^@ 

tast'rn. '74.cli'ce 3.5 (ai 

HOlVKlf, ETC. 




30 
37H 



&eeswas.ver lb. . 26 

iloney in e-^mb.. 20 

doStrainetl .... 6 

ULIiDKS. 

Illidea.dr.v.. 17 

Co wet saitod 8 .._ 

srvxs-jouBiNe. 

Mm'dsh'rdsh'i. 8 

do. soft shM. .. 20 

IBrazil do 14 

Oal. Walnuts.... H 

IPeanutsper lb.- 12'-^'i 

Ithile Walnuts.. 9 

4'iltierts 17 (ai 

H'ocaiiuts 1.5 (3) 



Rod.perct. — (2)125 

Yellow d'. - fal .50 

POT .A TO E8.^ 

New, per ctl 1 00 'd,l ,50 

PUCiLTRY <Ir OAMR. 

Broilers, small.. 3 00 on .50 

do large 6 nO (ffi7 .50 

Doves, per dozen 7-5 (ail 00 
Ducks, tame. dz. 7 00 @8 00 
Geese, per pair 1 50 m2 00 
Hare, per doz..,l .50 @2 00 
Uens, Derdz....6 ,50 @7 50 

Live Turkeys 

per lb 18 @ 22 

do dressed — @ 22 

Mallard Ducks. . — (iS — 
Prairie Chickens — (ai — 
Quail, per doz — — W — 

Rabbits 1 25 Ml 50 

do same doz . 3 00 @6 00 
Snipe, Eng., doz — S — 
VeniBon, perlb.. — @ — 
Wild Geese, gray — @ — 

do white — 'ai — 

PROVISIONiS. 
Cal.Bacon.L'ght 16 @ 17 
do Medium... 15 (S 15!-^ 

do Heavy — (3 — 

Cal.SmokedBeef — @ 10 

Eastern do S^^(fli 9 

ilast'rn Shoald's 9 (S ]0 

Hams, Oal 13 @ 14 

do Whittakers 15 @ 15!^ 

do Armf ur — faj 14:^4 

do Boyd's.... 15 @ 1.5'^ 
do Stewart's . 15 @ 1,5)< 

Lard 15 ® n 

8RBDS. 
Alfalfa, Chili.. . 9 @ 14 
o Oalilornia. 19 a 20 

Canary — (m 22 

OtoverRed 17 (S 19 

do White 65'^@ 75 

Ootton 6 @ 10 

Flaxseed — @ 4 

Hemp . 8 @ 10 

ItalianRyeGrass 30 @ 40 
Perenniado.... 20 @ 30 

Millet 10 C<S 12 

Musurd. white. l%® 2^ 

ao. Brown \%(^ 2 

Rape..., 11 ® 12 

Ky. Blue Grass.. ,50 @ 60 

do 'id quality.. 40 (3) 60 

do3d uuality.. 30 @ 4) 

Sweet V Grass.. 75 @1 00 

Orchard do 30 @ 35 

Red Top do... 25 © ,10 
Hungarian do 8 @ 12 

Lawn do 50 @ 60 

Mesquit do... 15 @ 20 

Timothy. R {t^ 12 

TALLOW. 

Crude 6'^;^ 7 

Rertned S'/.'q) 9 

WOOL, ETC. 
SPRING- 
Good Shipping.. 
Choice Long. ... 

tturry 

Heavy free 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



1WH0LE9ALE.J 

Wednesday m., 



June 30. 1875. 



FRUrr MARKET. 

■ Tahiti Or. 1* M 30 00ia35 00 

iLiOrlta, do — ~@ 

Oal. do a 

Umes, 'it* M.... I2 50ai5 0o 
Ciai. Lemons,^ .VI30 00(^40 00 

Australian do . (gi— — 

doSioilv%4b'x.ll 00®14 00 
Bananas, IP bncb 2 60^ 3 00 
Ooooauut8,i»000.80 00@1U0 00 
Pineapples, %*dz.li 00 (6)7 00 
Apples, 14 box... 60 

Cherries lb 8 

Blackberries 10 

Figs 5 

Huckleberries... - _ 
Strawberriea^ch. 10 00J12 00 

Gooseberries 4 @^ 5 

Raspberries 12V^@ 15 

Curranis.B ch . .2 .50 a3 00 
Aorlcots.^ box. 80 

Plums 4 

Peaones, ^ bx...l 50 

Pears, ^bi 75 

Grapes !» % 8 _ 

DRIED FRtllT. 

Apples. W !b 6^i<b3 

fears, !« lb 9 (Anii 

Peaches, f. ft 12^4@15 

Apricots, %* lb 12)^'fljL5 

Plums. » lb « t® 8 

Pittea.fln 4* lb 15 @16 

do Extra, * ;b.. 13 @13 
Raisins, ^ a 10 ®15 



$1 00 
I 10 
SI 75 
$2 25 
\2'A 



Black Figs, ^ lb.... 5 @ 6 

White, do 8 ®12'^ 

Prunes — (m — 

do uerman.... 14 @ — 

Citron 32'4(S 35 

Zanle Currants. 10 m — 

Dates 12H@ 

VEOETABLES. 

Asparagus 2%% 3 

Beets 1 (ft, Wi 

Cabbage, % 100 fts.. '^1 50 

Carrots, per ton.... — @i5 00 

Cauliflower, doz 75@ - 

Celery, doz 40 O50 

Oartic. * lb 4 © 5 

Green Peas — @4 

Green Corn 1» doz.. 10 @20 
Suin'rSquash '^ box. 50i5)75 

Marro'tat Sq'sn.tn — (a) 

Artichokes.'^ doz.. 20 @35 
String Beans, Tt>Ib ... VAl'^ 1 

Lima Beans — ^— 

Parsnips — (§20 

Shell Beans — @— 

Peppers, green, ft.. — 10(^12)^ 

Okra, Green — @— 

Cucumbers, doz 5'($10 

Tomatoes, box dOoil 

K2g Plant, lb — (.ai 8 

Rbubarb 1 ® 2 

Lettuce 8 <a— 

Turnips, ton — 10 00 

Waterm'lns%doz.4 00a7 00 
Oantelopes do 4 00,^6 00 



LUMBER. 



WHOI.ISALa. 1 



WroiMUDAY M., June 30, 1875. 





CAROO PRICES OF 
REDW^OOO. 

aioagh, H M |18 00 

Biougn refuse, 'S M 14 00 

Biough clear. W M 30 00 

Ulough clear refuse, M.. 20 00 

Jtustic, * M ... 32.50 

Kusiic. refuse, I* M 24 00 

Surfaced, ^ M 30 00 

Surfaced refuse, W M... 20 00 

ji'looring, ^ M. 28 00 

i'looring. refuse, }l M.. '20 00 
iieaded flooring, % M... 30 00 
Headed floor, refuse, M. 'lb 00 

Half inch Siding. M 22 ,50 

Half-inch siding, ref, H. 16 00 
Half-inch, Siirlacod,M. 25 00 
Half-inch Surf, rel'., .M . 18 Oil 
tlair iHCh Battens, M... 22 50 
Pickets, rough, IS* M.... 13 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 
I'iokbts, fancy, p'ntd.... 'i5 00 
llhlnglea, »M J 00 



PUOET SOUND PIMB 

—Retail Price. 

Rough. 1* M 22 50 

Fencing, f» M 22 50 

Flooring and Step, fl M 32 50 
Flooring, narrow, ^ M.. 35 00 
Flooring. 2d quality, M. .25 00 

Laths, |( M 3 50 

Furring, * lineal ft 

REUWOOO-Retull. 

Rough, ^M 22 50 

Rough refuse, ^ JL 18 00 

Rough Pickets, ^ M. . . . 18 00 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pickets, % M 30 00 

Siding, fM 25 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded 37 ,50 

Flooring 36 00 

1)0 do refose, ^ M 25 00 

Halt-Inch surfaced, M.. 32 ,50 

austio. No. 1, ^ M 10 00 

dattens. ^lineal loot.. )^ 
■<hineU«1ft M 



RETAIL GROCERIES, 

Wednibdat m. 



ETC. 

, June 30, 1875. 



Butter.Oal.oh'ice 35 (§ 40 

do common — :^0 
Oheese, Cal., ft.. 18 
Lard. Oal., ft.... 15 
Flour, ex. fam, bl 5 50 

Corn Meal, ft 2^ 

Sugar, wn.orsh'd 12)^® 

do It.brown.ft 9 @ 
Coffee, green, ft.. 22 @ 24 

O.G.Java - ~ "" 

Tea.flneblk,50,6.5,7S 
Tea,flnstJap,,55,75,90 
Oandlc8,Admant'el5 
Boap, Oal., ft.... 7 

Rloe, lb e 

. Teaat Powderdz.l 50 



Bowen Bro. large 

can per doz — 5 00 (2^— — 

Small, do 2 50 @ — 

Can'dOy.sters.dz 2 00 (g(3 .50 

Syrao.S F.Ool'n. 85 Jul 00 

_ . . . "10 

20 
9 " 
Dr'd Peaches.... 11 

do Peeled - 

Oils, Kerosene . . 30 
V7inea, Old Port 3 50 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 

do Oal.,dz.bot.3 00 
Whi9ky.O.B,gal.3S0 
Fr. Brandy 4 OO 



Dried Apples. 
Dr'd Oer.Prune 
Dr'd Figs, Cal. 



20 (J 
20 If 
18 (6 

mil 
25 (c 



BAes. 

Eng. Stand Wht. . 10)^(3111 
Seville k Go's... 
Hand Sewed.... 10>i@ll 

22x3fi 10)^@11 

2-1x36 113!i@12 

24X40 12W®12Ji 

Machine do 24x40. 12 WViV^ 
" 23x40. -• ^-■ 
" 22x40. 
" 22x36. 
Flour Sacks %»... 
" '■ Ma. 
" " >69 

Hessian 60-ln VVAaiXiiM 

do 45-in 8H(§ 9 

do 40-in .... 7)1-3 8 
Wool Sack8.3)^ft9. 45 (a,50 

do 4-'. .50 (a.52ii) 

Stand. Gunnies. .. 14 ^15 
single seam do.. 13 @i3H 

Bean Bags 8 

Barley Bags 24x35. 

do 23x40. 

do 24x40. 

Oat Bags, 24x40.... 

do 28x36.. . 

Del rick's "E. W.''. 

do "E 

CANNED eOODH. 
Aflst'dPie Fruits 
in 2)4 ft cans. 2 75 
do Table do... 3 50 
Jams & Jellies 3 25 
Pickles % ■gX.. — 
Sardines, qr boxl 80 
do hf boxes. 3 20 _ 
COAL- JohbluB. 
Anstralian.^ton 9 OU a 9 25 

Coos Bay 010 00 

Beliingbam Bay. @ 8 60 

Seattle (SIO .50 

OumberI'd, cks.. (miO 00 

do bulk.. .16 00 W.-i 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 @8 25 

Lehigh (^28 00 

Liverpool 10 .50 @11 50 

West Hartley .... — ai4 00 

Scotch @I0 00 

Scranton 26 00 @27 00 

Vancouver's l8l.. 11 00 @11 50 
Charcoal, ISsk... 75 S) - 

Coke, *bbi — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island 
Central A meric'n 
Costa Rica per ft 

Guatemala 

Java 

Manilla 

Ground in cs 

Ohicorv — (a) — 

FISU. 
ac. Dry Cod. new \%^ -5 

cases fi @ 7) 

do boneless.... 8)5® 10 

Eastern Cod 7)iW 8 

Salmonin bbls..9 00 a9 60 

do )i bbls4 ,50 (ai5 ,50 

do 2)^ft cans — 02 80 

do 2ft cans..2 .50 ral2 liO 

00 1ft cans .1 50 Call 75 

Do Col. R. )ib...5 00 (d)5 60 

Pick. Cod. bbl8.22 00 ft) — 

do % bi.lellOO @ - 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'e40 @ ,50 

Mack'l.No.l,'-2bl69 00 @ll 00 

Extra.... — (812 00 

'■ in kits 2 00 'di2 ,50 

Ex mess. .3 00 @3 ,50 
Exmess.Hbs-.a)i3 00 
Pio'd Herr'g. bx.. 3 00 (g 3 50 
flARDWARK. 
Amoskeag bundled Axes 
$l6(Jjl7 ; do unhandled do $13 
@14— less.50o in 6 case lots. 

Amoskeag Hiftchets. Shin 
gling, Nol, $7.'i5; No. 2, $8 
No. 3, $8.2.5. Do do. Claw 
No. l.*7.75;No. 2. 8.,50; No. 3, 
$9.25-les6 10 per cent. 

Locks, Yale Lock Mf'g Co. 
discount 33)^ per cent, from 
lisi. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count 30 per cent, from list. 
Am. rack Co's Out Taeks 
72S per cent, discount and 5 
per cent, extra. Finishing 
and Clout Nails 7)< olT list; 
3d fine Nails $7.i'0 per If-C'g. 
Ohio Butt Uo's Lwose Joint 
Butts .50 per cent, do Fast, 
35 per cent oft" list.' 
Machine Bolts, 20(§35 off. 
Square Nut-^, 2@3c off list. 
Hexagon Nuts 2(^3c off list. 
Wrought Iron Washers. 
2(m3c oil list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 
SIISCELLANEOUS. 

Puiu — ® e 

NAILS. 

Assorted size. ft. 4 00 @7 00 
01 L^ 

Pacific Olue Co 

Neat F't No. 1.1 00 (3 90 

Pure — m - 

flastorOil.No.l.. — @1 40 

Baker's A A — @1 45 

Cocoanut 55 @ 60 

Olive Plagnioi . .5 00 Ca5 25 

do Possel 4 75 @5 00 



60 

•20 
20,- 
21 

\m 

27.' 
19 
27 




(ffi3 50 
@3 .10 
@1 eo 



Palm ft 9 

Linseed, raw 90 

do boiled — 

Ohinanut in cs.. — 
Sperm, crude — 

do bleached 
Coast Whales... 

Polar, refined 

t,ard 

Qleopbine 

Devoe'a Bril't... 
Long Island — 

Enreka 

Devoe's Petro'm 
Barrel kerosene 

Olive 

Downer Kerose'e 
Gas Light Oil... 

PAINTS. 
Pure White Lead 10)^ (pA\% 

Whiting — 

Putty 4 

Chalk — 

Paris White 25<i 

Ochre 3 

Venetian Red... 3)i: 

Red Lead 10 

Litharge 10 

Eng. Vermillion 
Averill Chemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White .ttints.2 00 ©2 40 

Green, Blue & 
Ch Yellow.. 3 00 

Light Red 3 10 

Metallic Roof.l 30 
RICE. 
China No. 1,* ft 6*i@ 7 

do 2, do. 6i4@ 6)i 

Japan 6 (3 7 

Siam Cleaned. .. 7 @ — 

Patna fiM'Si 7 

Hawaiian 8 (flO %y. 

•arolina 10 ® 10)^ 

SALT. 
Oal. Bav.per ton 10 OOigilS 00 

do Common.. 6 00(3)10 00 
Carmen Island.. 13 00ftDl4 00 
Liverpool fine.. .23 00 £25 00 

do coarse20 00((S 

SOAP. 

Castile * ft 10 @ 13 

Common brands.. 5 (S) 6^ 
Fancy do . . 7 @ 10 

SPICF.S. 

Cloves 50 

Cassia 26 

Citron 33 

Pimento. 

Gr'nd Allspprdz 

do Oa.saia do .. 

do Cloves do.. 

do Mustard do — (qjl 2(' 

do Ginperdo.. — 01 00 

do Pepper do.. — (qi 

Jo Mace do.. . 

SUGAR, 

Oal. Cube per B>.. 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bbl or 100 lb bx3 

do i n 50 D) bxs . . 

do in 'Ih ft bxs. 
Circle A crushed 

Powdered 

Fine crushed... 

(iranulatea 

JoldenO 

flawaiian 

Oalifornia Beet. 
Oal. Syrup in Is. 

do in Vz bis. 

do in kegs.. 
Hawaiian Molas- 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RAl 



Nutmeg. 1 20 

Whole Pepper 



@) ,55 
(ai 35 



1 15 

23 'di 25 

- a Iba 

- m vi'i 

— Ml 50 

— @1 ,50 



lil 00 

— (0)2 00 
ETC. 

wm - 

— (a, 12'4 

— (S 12'4 

— @ 1194 

— (3) 12 

— & UH 

— (0) 11!^ 

— fa) lOH 
9 (a 10 

logical 11 



- (o) 6^ii 

- (f 70 

- fa) 76 



25 @ 30 
TEA. 

Uoloag.Canton.ft 19 ® 25 

do Amoy... 28 @ 50 

do Formosa 40 (a) 80 

Imperial. Canton 25 ® 40 

do Pingsuey 45 & 80 

do Moyune . 60 (Si 00 

Qunpo'der.Cant. 30 @ 42!^ 

do Pingsuey 60 @ 90 

do Moyune. 65 ^1 25 

Y'ng Hy., Canton 28 @ 40 

do Pingsuey 40 (g) 70 

do Mo.vune.. 65 

Japan, ,^ chests, 

bulk 30 

Japan, lacquered 

bXB,4)^and5 fts 46 

lapan do,3 ft bxs 45 

doprnbx.4^ft 35 

do.SAl ft paper ."iO 
TOBACCO— Joblfliiit. 

BriKht Navys — 

Dark do 

Paces Tin Foil.. 

Ow f 'I'wisl 

Liight Pressed.. 

Hard do 

Conn. Wrap'r.. .. 

Penn. Wrapper. 

Ohio do 

Virgi'aSmok'g. 

Fine ot che'g,gr..B .50 

Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.l^ ft.. 75 

Banner fiHe cut.. — 

Oal .Smoking.... 37 ^. . 
TURPEBfTINlfe. 

Eastern .52)i'a).55 




W£i>Ni8»Ay, M., June 30, 1876. 



POULTRY. eAME. 

Spring Chickens 60 (0 75 

Hens .-. 75 (Oil 00 

EegsOal 30 4i) — 

do Eastern 30 @ 40 

do Ducks' — S — 

do Farallones. — @ — 

Turkeys, ^ ft.. 25 B) 30 

Ducks, large, prl .50 @2 dO 

do small, pr..l 25 Wil 50 

Tame, do 1 ,50 ®1 00 

Teal * pair ® 

Geese.wild, pair. — (ai — 
Tame, 'v> pair.. 3 00 @4 00 
Snipe, ^ doz... — ® — 
do English.. — @ _ 
Quail, per dozen — (^ — 
Prairie Ch'k s.pr — (a — 
Pigeons, per pr.. 50 (di 75 

Wild, doz — (3i2 00 

Squabs, doz. . . 4 00 @4 ,50 

Hares, each ... 26 (g 50 

Rabbits, tame.ea ,50 'S 75 

Wild, do, 5^ dz.l .5(1 #2 00 

Squirrels do 1 -50 (a)2 00 

Beef, tend,* ft. - @ 15 

Corned, « ft.. (2 8 

Smoked. 1* ft.. 10 ® 15 

PorterilouseSt'k — (? 20 

Sirloin do 12 'u) 15 

Round do 8 @ 10 

Pork, rib, etc., ft — @ 15 
Chops, do, # ft 15 @ 20 

Veal, li ft 10 @ 15 

Cutlet, do 16 (J 25 

Mutton-chops. ft 10 ((t 12 
LegMulton, fi ft 6 % 10 

Lamb, * ft 10 a 15 

Venison, dry 20 @ 25 

Tongues, beef, .. BO la 75 
do, do, smoked 75 (Si 00 
Tongues, pig. ft 12)^'§ — 
Bacon, Cal., ^ ft 18 @ 20 
Hama, Cal, l^ft. 16 % 18 
Hams. Gross' a Vl'/i 15 

FRUITS. ^ 

Apples, pr lb 5 (^ 8 

Pears, perlb 5 @ 10 

Aorlcots, ft 6 l5 10 

Peaches, ft 8 (A 20 

Plums X2'A'0 25 

PineApples.each 50 (a)l 00 

Crab Apples — Cc^ — 

Grapes Wi^0 25 

Bananas, * doz. . 75 ffll 00 

Muskmelons ... — ^ — 

Watermelons... — @ — 

Blackberries.... 12!^a 25 

do wild — @ — 

Cal. Walnuts, ft. - @ 20 

Green Almonds. — @ 15 

Cranber'es. Org., — ® — 

do Fastern ~ @ — 

Huckleberries.. — Col — 

Strawberries, ft 20 t^ 25 

Chili Stra'berries — (di 60 

Raspberries, ft.. — <^ 25 

Gooseberries. .. "8 (§1 15 

Currants 5 'a; H 

do Black — 0i — 

Cherries,^"*.., 10 '^ .10 

Nectarines — O — 

Oranges,!^ doz.. 60 @1 00 

CJuinces — @ — 

Lemons 75 'm\ 00 

Limes, per doz .. — @ 25 

Figs.dried Cal. . 12)^® 15 

FiRS, fre.th IVi® 15 

Figs, Smyrna, ft 25 (A 35 

Asparagus, ft.. 5 (^ 6 

Artichokes, doz. 25 m — 

do Jerusalem.. — .@ — 

Beets, li doz 15 @ — 

Potatoes, ^ ft.... 4 @ 5 

Potatoen, new — 4 @ 5 

Broccoli, cacli.. 20 (S 25 

Caulitlower. . 10 (m 15 

Green Peas iS ft. 6 ® 8 
Cabbage, per hd.. 10 m 21 



Choice D'ffleld.,18 
FISH. MEATS, 

Flounder, ^, ft....— 

Salman, ^ ft 3 

Smoked — 

Pickled. 19 ft.. 5 

do Spr'gp'kI'd — 

Salmon bellies — - 

Rock Cod, Ifi ft . . 12 

Ood Fish, dry, ft - 

do fresh 

Peroil, s water, ft 10 
Fresh water,ft 10 
Lake Big. Trout* 



Smelts, large^ft 
" ■' Bll 



10 



LEATHER. 

I WHOLESALE. 1 

Wednesday m., June 30, 1875. 

(31ty Tanned Leather,^ lb 26'al20 

Santa Cruz Leather, %i ft 26(3)28 

Country Leather, W ft 24(^2!' 

Stockton Leather, w ft 25(ai9 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz »50 00@ ,5400 

Jodot, 11 to 13 KiL.perdoz 68 00® 79 00 

Jodot 14to 19 Kil., per doz 82 00@i94 "0 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil. %t doz 57 00(a) 74 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 ICo 57 00@ 67 00 

Oornciiian Females, 12 to 13 63 00(3 67 on 

Oornellian B'jmales. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 00* 76 .511 

Simon Ullmo Females, 12 to 13, Kil 60 00® 6,t 1,0 

Simon Ullmo Females, 14 to 1,5. Kil 70 00a( 72 liO 

Simon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 00,475 00 

Simon, 18 Kil.,f« doz 61 (HKgi 63 I'li 

Simon, 20 Kil. » doz 65 00«a 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz 72 00(ffi 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 OOCui 40 00 

French Kips, If* ft 1 00@ 11,5 

California Kip, «» doz 40 iKKo)) P' HI 

French Sheep, all colors, ^ doz 8 OU(g/ 15 0(i 

Eastern Calf for Backs, |« ft 1 O0l3 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colore, ^ doz 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,* doz 6 ,50 a 10.50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7,5(t^ 4.50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Legs, ^ pair 5 009 5 25 

Good French Call Boot Legs, W pair 4 OOM 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 00® - 

Harness Leather, * ft 30W 37 

Fair Bridle Leather, * doz 48 (H)(3 72 - 

Skirting Leather, "# lb 33(i;0 37)4 

Welt Leather, a doz 30 00(* .50 00 

Buff Leather, % foot 17@ X 

Wax Side Leather. « foot im 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Cuahlkb SnTBo i, Co.] 

San Fbanoisco, Juno .'iO, 3 p. m. 

Legal Tendkhs In S. F., 11 a. m., »VA to i6H. 

Gold In N. Y., 117'-6 

Goto Barb, 890. .SityEB Babb, 4 and iii per cent, dis- 
count. 

ExcnANOE on N. Y., ii per cent, premium tor gold ; on 
London bankers, 4t^; Commercial, 49>^; Parii, five francs 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, one and two per cent, dis- 
count. 

London — Consols, 9; to 93)4 ; Bonds, 102)^ 

QcioKHiLVER in 8. F., by the Bask, per ft, 66e(^0o. 



Small Smells. . ., ^ ... 

Herring. Sm'kd. 75 S — 

do fresh — ® 5 

Pilchards.^ ft.. — @ — 

Tomcod, % ft.... Jg § _ 

Terrapin, IS doz. 3 la — 

Mackerel, p'k, ea 12>^(^ — 

Fresh, do ft... — ® _ 

Sea Bass, ^ ft... - a 6 

Halibut 62*^3 7 5 

Sturgeon. ¥ ft.. 5 o 6 

Oysters, •« 100.. 75 a - 

Chesp. 1)» doz.. 50 (a 15 

Claras ^100 _ g ,50 

Mussels do - (a) 26 

Turbot - ® 75 

Crabs ^ doz....l 00 @1 25 

do Soft Shell. 25 a 40 

Shrimps 10 (^ — 

Sardines — © — 

Anchovies ~ ^ 8 

iolcs 25 (3 40 

V'oungTrout.bay — (d) 30 

Young Salmon.. — @ _ 
Salmon Trout eal 00 ®2 00 

Skate, each 20 ®37W; 

Whitebait,^ ft.. — @ 16 

Crawfish f*ft... — @ iq 

Green Turtle. . . — (g _ 

do ^ ft — ® — 

EG4RTABI.,ES, 

Oyster Plant.bn — (a •- 

Carrots, ^ doz. . — @ 20 

Celery.^ dz 60 (g tf, 

Cucumbers, li^doz 15 @ 30 

Tomatoes, ^ ft.. 8 (^ 10 

String Beans.... 6 ® 10 

Egg Plant, ft.... 30 @ 35 

Cress, 'S doz bun 20 @ 25 

Onions 3 ® 6 

Turnips, ^ doz 

bunches — ® 20 

Brussels Sprouts — ® _ 

Eschalots — ® 2.5 

Dried Herbs. doz 30 (S 37 

Garlic^ lb ,« 10 (S 12!v 

Green Corn. doz. 20 ® 30 ' 

Lettuce, ?« doz.. 20 @ 25 
Mint, 1^ bunch, — @ 10 

Mushrooms. 13 ft — (a 60 

Horse radish.^ft 20 ® — 

Okra, dried, w ft 40 @ 50 

do fresh, Ift ft — (a — 

Pumpkins. %» ft . 5 (2 6 

Parsnips, doz 20 ® 25 

Parsley 20 ® 25 

Pickles,fr8h.i*ft — (g _ 

Radishes, doz.. 20 ® 26 

Summer Squash 6 (di "s 

Marrowfat, do — (aj — 

Hubbard, do — (ai — 

LimaBeuns.fr'sh — ® — 

do fresh shelled — ® — 

Beans.... 5 @ 12!, 

Mangoes, Tfi doz. 76 (a' — 

Spinage, V bskt. 25 (a — 

ahubHrt) 5 ® 6 

Green Chilies. . . — @ .50 

Dry do _ (ffl — 

Gumbo ^ ft 50 (Si 75 

East Chestnuts.. — (^ — 
Ital. Chestnuts,— (3 — 




METALS. 

[wholesale. 1 
Wednesday m., 

American Pig Iron, "^ ton 

Scotch Pig Iron,lf* ton 

White Pig, I* ton 

Oregon Pig, Tfi ton 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ ft 

Refined Bar, good assortment, 9 ft 

Boiler, No. I to 4 

Plate, No. 5 to 9. 

Sheet. No. 10 to 14 

Sheet. No. 16 to 20 

Sheet. No, V2 to 24 

Sheet, No. 26 to 21. 

Horse Sboes, per keg. 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 

OOPPER.— 

Braziers' 

Copper Tin'd 

O'Niel's Pat 

Sheathing, 38 to 

Sheathing, Yellow 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Composition Nails.... 

Composition Bolts 

Steel.— Knglish Oast, %* ft 

Anderson & Woods' American Cast 

Drill 

Flat Bar 

Plow Steel 

Tin Plates.— 

10x14 10 Charcoal 

10x14 I X Charcoal 

Roofing Plate I C Charcoal 

Banca Tin 

Australian 

ZiNO By the Cask 

Zinc, Sheet 7x3 ft. No 7 to lO^lft 

do do 7x3 ft, Nc 11 to 14 

do do 8x4ft, N08 to 10 

do do Hxlft, No 11 to 10 

Nails Assorted sizes 

vjoiOKBiLVEB. nerft 



June 30, 1876. 

. (d) 46 00 

. 46 1)0 (ffi 48 110 
46 00 
46 00 
- ?>» 



-35 @ 

— 37)4 «) — 4 

— 37)^a — 40 

— 40 @ — 24 
a — 25 

1 - 12X 



I- 25 

I - 16)i 

I- 16)4 

— 22 

)- 10 



— 24 

— 24 

— 20 



- 18 

- 9 



12 00 @ 12 ,50 
14 00 & 14 ,50 
11 00 (3 11 50 

— 30 (0 — 32 

— 28 (0) — 30 

= 3fz}} 

— ® - 11)4 

— - @ - iix 

4 25 «g e 70 

— 65 ® — 70 



The Pacific Rural Press 

Ih a Large a,u(i Hiindsoraely Illuatrated Agri- 
cultural Home Jouruiil; Original, Instructive 
and Attractive; ita varied contents, ably written 
and condensed, render it popular with its 
eadera. We endeavor to make it a credit to 
the field it occupies, and to every intelligent 
circle it enters. Entibely trke fbom politios, 
its columns are filled with cheerful words of 
encouragement for our Pacific Industries and 
instruction for the people. It extends infor- 
mation of the growing wants and necessities of 
our rapidly increasing and progressing agricul- 
ture. You can read it with pleasure, for present 
and future profit; you can send it with satis- 
faction to your friends anywhere. Its editorials 
are earnest and its contents reliable. No ques- 
tionable advertisements darken its pages. It 
is a journal for rural homes throughout the 
Coast. It is a handsome home print, without 
a rival on this half of the Continent. Sub- 
scription, in advance, $4 a year. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
No. 224 Sansome St., S. F. 3p-tf 



14 



[July 3, r875 



Agricultural Articles. 



THE TURBINE. 




Simplest, dieni>ost, 

»n<l MLost Diira.l>le. 

The Inventor of the Deiter Windmill has made new 
and useful improvements In Windmills, patented March 
16th, 187S, and now fccla confldcnt ot having the 
SIMPLEST, CHEAPEST, MOST DURABLE, and 

ONLY PERMANENT WINDMILL 

IN THE WORLD. 

Simplest, because It Is less complicated; Orbapest, 
because It never needs repair, standing on a firm foun- 
dation: Most Dofable, because it is all under cover, 
and has less rigging to get out of order; Only Pebma- 
HENT, because the only Windmill in the world that has 
never been injured by stjrms. Hundreds of people, 
who have thought the Dexter perfect, will be glad to 
observe the SUPERIORITY OF THE TURBINE over 
all predeceasors. Although much improved, the price 
of mills remain the same as formerly. Persons who 
study their own interest will investigate the TURBINE 
before purchasing any other. 

Territory lor sale outside of California, at reasonable 
ratfs and easy terras. 

Mills built to order of the best material, and at the 
■hortest notice, by Kiuiball Manulacturing Company, 
comer Fourth and Bryant streets, San Francisco. Any 
orders sent to their address will receive prompt atten- 
tion. 

H^For further information regarding MllU or Terri- 
tory, send lor New Circular. Address, 

A. H. SOTJTHWICK. 

P. O. Box 138.";, San Francisco; or 
P. O. Box 25, Oakland, Cal. 
mrlt-lam-bp 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO EUOBB LABOE CBOPS 

YOU IHU«T XltRXGATJE, 

irTigat'C BuccosifuUy, you mirst have the power that 
does not give out when the wind fails. 

Laxifkotter Bros. & Ohurchman's Horse-Power, 




[Patented February 13th, ir.i.] 
Never fails to supply more water than tour or five Wind- 
milU, even suppoaiDg you had all the wind you want. It is 
also suitable for runniiiK I'ght machinery, such aa Barley 
Crackers. Corn Sht-llers. Kannink' Mills, Grain Separators, 
or. for Sawing Wood. They aro never failing, cannot eet 
out of order, easily worked, BubHtanjtial. and always give 
satisfaction wherever thoy have been used. One horse can 
easily work two K-inch pump-;, with a continuous How of 
water. Force Pumps. ir>m 3.0UO to 10,!>0(l (gallons per hour. 

WINDMILLS ot all kinds raanulactured to order. Wells 
Borfid. Windmills and Horse-Powers set in any part of the 
State, and repairing of all kinds done. 

Manufactured and for sale by 

liAUFKOTTER BROS., 

T7-2ra-3m Oor. J and (Oth Sts.. Sacramento. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




S3 



« 



Took the Premium over all at the gieat Plowing 

Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been lung In the business and know what is re. 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It isqulckly 
adjusted. Sufloient play Is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow oor. 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Oang Plow 
Id the world. Bend for circular to 



liyl-Sm 



MATTESOH h WILLXAMSON, 
Stockton, Oal. 



KIMBALL OAE, CARRIAGE 

— ASD- 

AO-RICULTURAL IMPLEMENT 

MANUFAOTUBINQ 00., 
Cor. Bryant and Fourth Sta., San Francisco 



The CALIFORNIA TCBtTLAR IKON AND WOOD 
FRAME HARROW— two, four and six-horse Iron Har- 
rows, ftid, $7U and $TS. Wood Frame Harrow, $10 less 
on each size than the Iron. 

The Harrow has an easy seat for the Driver. The 
middle section rests on three wheels with wings hinged 
on each side. 

By use of Levers the Driver In his seat can raise or 
lower the Harrow, regulatin;; at will the depth of the 
teeth in the soil, and in the same manner fold or raise 
the wings from the ground so as to drive from the road 
to the field, saving the use of a wagon. 

Our CALIFORNIA SORAl'ER is also made for the 
ease of the Driv< r, enabling one person to ride, manage 
the team and do the work. 

Is adapted for leveling and preparing the surface of 
the soil for irrigation. And for making roads, remov- 
ing dirt from ditches, cleaning barn yards, sheep corals, 

The IMPROVED EAGLE HAY PRESS— Best In use 
on this Coast. Cheap, Economical, Powerful, and easily 
repaired. 

Will press bales weighing from 250 to 326 pounds, 
using less rope than any other press. 

Three men with a good team of horses will bale from 
10 to 15 tons per day. 

Adapted for baling wool, hides, cotton, rags or moss. 
Price, $250. Weight of press, 2,500 pounds. Please 
send for circulars. 



OBBOO. g. c, Bowut? 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and Slanufttoturers 



CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant'.s Exohanffe, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO 

Keep constantly on band top and open Buggies, top 
and open Bockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call pariicnlar attention to ^ur line stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Oofl^ey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Helfield & Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double Bar- 
nest, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Graham, New York; J. B. Hill, Concord; Plttkln 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment ot Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

2«v6-3m San Francisco. 



THE GRANGER ENGINE. 



Farmers' and Threshers' attention is called to this 
splendid Engine. Especially adapted to burning straw, 
wood or coal. This Is the only Engine in the market 
hat is designed to run Derrrick Forks by steam. The 
saving of fuel to rUn the Engine, and the men and 
horses dispensed with in running the Derrick Forks, 
will amount to the Price of the Engine in one season. 
Manufactured and sold by 

J. L. HEAIiD, Vallejo. 



Farmera and ITlireeliers 

WISHINO TO HAVE 

Straw Burning Engines 

For next season must engage them soon, as most of 
those now building are already sold. Thres ing En- 
gines for Repairs should l>e sent in now. A number of 
Second-hand Engines— taken in exchange for "Straw 
Burners"- for sale cheap. For particulars and prices, 
address: H. "W. KIOE, 

23v8-3m Haywood, Alameda County. 



LANE & BODLEY, 

John & Water Sts., Cincinnati. 

Manufacturers ot the Best 

FARM ENGINE, 

Mounted and ready for use. Send for oor Ulot* 
tratcd catalogue. 



Ricli Farm Land For Sale. 



L. F. MOULTON, of Colusa, 

0FFEE8 FOR SALE VERT CHEAP, THREE THOU- 
SAND ACRES OF EXTRA GRAIN LAND. AD- 
JOINING WHICH ARE NOW GROW- 
ING FIELDS OF GRAIN WHICH 
WILL YIELD FORTY BUSH- 
ELS TO THE ACRE. 

This land Is as good as any In the StsU, and will be 
sold very cheap. 

Addr«as the owner, at Oolusa, for partlc- 
ulara. 



Seedsmen. 



NEW CROP OF 



BLUE GUM SifilOED. 



GRA.SS A.Vir> 
C3L.O VER 



KI.,OWER AND- 
VEGET-A-Br^E 



TREE A.ND 
E RU IT 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OF EVERT DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OP THE 
BEST <JDALITY; OFFERED Al WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

glEEI>»iSM:A.JV, 



4v8-tr 



No. 317 Wasbington Street, 

BAN FRAN0I8CO 



CHAS. F. CRESWELL, 

SEED AND PLANT MERCHANT, 

Victoria. Tasmania, and New South Wales. 



The Largest Collector and Exporter of the 

Eucalyptus Qlobulus (Tasmanlan 

Blue Oum). 



C. F. C. having Branch Houses In the three Chief 
Colonies, and botanical collectors tbronghout Anstralia, 
can offer the l>est advantages to dealers in Australian 
Native Seeds, Plants and Ferns. 

Eucalypti. and Acacia Seeds In endless variety and of 
the most excellent quality . 

His most convenient branch for exporting to Europe 
and America la found by addressing to 

O. F. CBESWELIi, Seedsman, 

No. 37 Swanston Street, 

Melbourne, Victoria. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF KVBBY VABIKTY. 

Fresh and reliable, such aa experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVEB SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAL 
CH'JICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVEB, 
BED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS. AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOLA GIGAN. 
TEA, PINUS INSIGNI8, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Successor to E. E. Moore), 
4Q5 Washington St., Ban Francisco. ai]v7-ly 



Nurserymen. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Established in 1868.) 



PETALUMA, OAL. 



Qreen Houses and Tree Depot corner Wash- 
ing-ton and Liberty streets. 

4 Green Bouses. 3,000 feet of Glass. Fruit Trees a 
Specialty. 

We otTer for Bale at lowest market rates a general as 
Bortment of Fruit and Shade trt^es, amall Fruits, Vines 
etc. Evergreen trees and tShrub* in Kreat variety. Green 
House, Oonrtervatorr and Beildintc Plants, Roses, etc. 

Eucalyptus in varietv. Eucalyptus Globulus, per 1000 
for forest planting, at very low rates. Catalos;ue and price 
list furnished on application. 



Address, 



19v8-tf 



W. H. PEPPBB, 

Petaluma, Bonoma Oo., Oal. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES 

TKXJE TO NA-IMJE;. 

A fine aoMebtion of Evergreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Australian Oum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or thousand. Uonterey Cypress in quan- 
tities and sizes to salt all. Orange and I<einon 
Trees at reduced prices. A general variety of Norsery 
stock. 

Also, Rhubarb anal Agparsgns roo. - 

T. COBLEY, 
8v29Ltf 315 "VTashington Street, 8. F. 



FARIMEK,!!*' UNION. 

BncoEssoB TO A. Ptistib b Co., 

Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts., San Jose. 
CAPITAL, --------- $100,000. 

WM. ERK.SON PRESIDENT 

H. E. HILLS MANAUER 

Directors :—Wm Erkson, L. F. Ohipman. Horace Lltile 
J. P. Dudley. David Campbell, James Singleton. Thomas 
E. Bnell. C. T. Battle, E. A. Braley. 

Will do a Oeneral .Mercantile Basiness, also receive De- 
posits, un which such interest will be aUowfd as may be 
agreed upon, and make Loans npon approved stoarity. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



LITTON SPRINQ-S 
SELTZER WATER, 

FROai LITTON PA-TtK. 

Near Healdsburg-, - • SONOMA CO., CAL 

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS. 

One wine gallon of water contains of solid constltn. 
ents 2!28.69 grains, in the following proportions: 

Carbonic Acid (combined) 42.98 

Chlorine 78.38 

Sulphuric Acid 2*36 

Silicic Acid 2!o2 

Oxide of Iron 2.86 

Lime ^'^j 

Magnesia ....'.!!.'.!'.'.'.'...!!!!'..'.'.'!![!!! s'm 

8oda gjjj 

Alumina 

Ammonia V. . '.*.'.*.'.'.*.'.'.'.'!.'.' J! 1". 

Potash ..'.'.'.'. '.'.'.'.'.'. '.'.''"' '.'.'' . . 27.38 

Lithia ;......... 

Boracic Acid ".'..*.'."."!* 

Organic Matter .'..'...'.'..'.'.'.'.'.'."'..'... , 

Total grains .............! .TiSM 

The amount of free carbonic acid in the water which 
acapa on standing and is not calculated in the above 
analysis, is equal to 383.76 grains per gallon. 

Nature's Specific for the Cure of Indig'estlon, 

Costiveness. Piles, Irreg-ularities -of the 

Action of the Kidneys ai.d Liver, 

Inflammation of the Eyes, 

Gout, Bheumatism, £tc. 

Sola In Pint and Half-pint Bottles, and 
also by the Gallon. 

Delivered in any part of the .City, and forwarded to 
any part of the Country, by application to the Office. 

Office and Depot. 439 Bush Street, San Francisco 
E. B. SMITH & CO., Agents. 

m>yl'laiD-bp 



Union Box Factory, 

GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

1 16 and 116 Spear St., bet. mission & Howard 
SAN FBANCISOO. 



Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Cherry, Orape, 
Orange, Lime and Wine Oases. 

Tomato, Potato, Fig and Raisin Boxes. 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Blackberry Ohesta 
and Drawers, and Basket^ for all kinds of fierrles. 

Peach and Picking Baskets, Batter Ohesta and 
Boxes, Cheese Boxes, Square and Round Egg Carriers, 

Drums for Figs, Cherries, Raisins, and for 
other Dried Fruits. 

Free Packages— Boxes not to be retained — a 
good article, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 

LaKl Caddies, Coflfee and Fmit Caddies. 

Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hives, Etc. 

Packing Boxes for Dry-Gooods, Cigars, Can- 
dies, Candled Trults, Honey, Maccaronl, Cncken, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Etc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes mannfactured in 
the Union, and turned out in the Beet Style at FaT«r 
able Prices. Orders from the country well attended fo 



THE A.LOKIV 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 436 ICONTaOIlBBT ST., S, F. 

Our improved apparatus will do one-third more work 
than that erected last season, while onr prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the purchase 
money may be paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. We guarantee against Infringements. The 
Alden is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
knewn for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would t)e unwise to purchase the new and untried 
dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work.^ Bend for car clr 
culara. 



J. T. WILSON. WM. FAULL. W. L. MEE ET 

WILSON, MERRY & CO., 

Provision Pacl«ex-s 

And Sealers in 

SALTED AND SMOKED MEATS, 

Laxrd, JEte. 

PROP'S BLACK POINTrPACKINO HOUSB. 

We respectfully call the attention of Farmers an I 
Stock Raisers to the fact that we are always pre- 
pared to purchase bogs, cattle and sheep at 
full market prices, for Cash, and shall be 
glad to answer promptly any In- 
quiries addressed to ns on 
the condition of the 
Market. 

OfHoe No. 223 Sacramento St., Near Frrnt, 
Slan Francisco. 



^■%^%MB a day piaranteed uilnr our Well t 
S[?VJK% AuMr A Drills. tlOO a month aj 
mn^^^H ■ paia to ftood Aj^cnta. Aufcer book XI 
^llFmm\^iTe: JUi Auger Co., St. Louli.Uo R 



BCBSCKIBIBB who are troubled In getting their papers 
regularly from the P. 0. should be particalar to mso- 
tion the name of the paper. 



July 3. 1875.] 



H^Y and AV^ O O L 



15 




The Fastest, Strongest, and Best Portable Hay Press in the 

World is the 

PRICE, or PETALUMA PRESS. 
400 in Use. 

Bales from 12 to 20 tons per day. 

Price, $450, Cash. 

The Most Simple, Compact and SffectlTO Cheap Press Known Is the 

IMPROVED ECLIPSE, 

Eight feet six inches high. Weighs 2,000 pounds. Bales from 10 to 18 tons 
per day. Price, $300, Cash. 

The above machines are delivered at the Factory, San Leandro, Oal. 

For further Information or for Illustrated circulars that answer all questions relating to the above Presses 

Address Price Press Co., 

Office with BAKER & HAMILTON, 17 Front Street, 8, F . 
DURYEA'S SATIN GLOSS STARCH 

AND 

DURYEA'S IMPROVED CORN STARCH 

ARE THE BEST IN THE WORLD. 

USE IT ONCE AND YOU WitL USE NO OTHER. 

FOR SALE BY ALL. GROCERS. 

'la. 




The Messrs. Duryoa have succeeded in refining Starch to entire purity and developing its entire strength and clear- 
nesB, an "improvement that will be readily perceived in tlie great strengih of the Starch, tlie superior luster that it ^ives 
and in its relinble unif rraiiy. Much of the sn-called starch contains from one-fourih to one-third foreign matter, 
readilv pereeived by, sournt-HS. mnstjnoss, or a golden yellow timre, peculiar to inferior starches, a color not rtesirable for 
ont^'8 linen, but inseparable frnm the u-^e of common starch. They iiledgo themselves to the public to give a unifornily 
superior article, from one-fuurth to one-third stronger than any other starch in the world, and at the common mar- 
ket rates. 

EGERTON. ALLEN & CO., Sole Agents for Pacific Coast. S. F., Cal. 



THE CALIFORNIA 

STANDARD BURLAP SACK COMPANY 

OF SAIV FRANCISCO, 

Now offer for sale their ORAIB BAQS, 22x36 and 20x36, sewed by Machinery with the best of Flax Twine, 
warranted not tu rip in hlling, the stitch being the same as the Dundee hand-sewed Sack. The sewing has been 
examined by good judgee, and pronounced superor to any other. 

SAMPLES SENT ON APPLICATION AT THE 

Factory, No. 36 Clay Street. A. J. COVE, Superintendent. 

For Sale in Quantities to Suit bv 

I. FRIEDLANDER, 



Cor. California and Battery Sts., 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse, 

Japan and Townsend Streets. 



San Fbancirco, Jnly, 1874. 

I beg to inform you I bavo leased the above first-class 
Fire-Proof Brick Warehouse, now bein^ erected by Geo. 
F. Hooper, Esq., and will be ready to receive storage on 
the Iflt ot August. This wtircbouse offers euperidr Induce- 
meals to partie:^ desiring to store grain and tlour, a« it is 
situated on the Water Front, and on the line of the O. P. 
R B. and S. P. R. K. It is vrell ventilated, rat proi>t, and 
oombioes all the modern advautases and imuruvements. 
Yours respectfnlb, JOHN JENNINGS. 

Advances and insurance effected at the lowest rates. 
Btoratc* taken at loWMt oarrent nttes. 4v8-f t 



fPHB Of the best portion of the old NOMELAOEEE 

*fc»*WRE8ERVATI0N, itf T.hama County, for sale 
very low; only five dollars per acre; one-tblrd down, 
one-third in one year and one-third in two years, with 
interest at one per cent* per month. Will be sold all 
together or In two parcels. This is one of the finest 
tracts of grazing laud In Northern California; is abun- 
dantly watered by numerous perpetual springs and has 
two miles of the Elder Creek, a clear mountain stream. 
Its grass never fails from drouth, and is o( the best 
quality for sheep and has no clover burr. 800 acres of 
level plow land; timber for posts, fuel, etc. Enquire of 
ALLEN WILOOX, Los Angeles, or F. B. WASHINGTON 
OD the tract, twenty wiles west of Tehama. 



OUR IMPROVED HAINES' HEADEi 




With Compound Leverage, 
Doing away with all Ballast or Weights, 

Either on the Lever or Frame; will be appreciated by Header Men. Also, a new device for drivinx the Knife 
^. IZ "V" ^^f"'!'"' °P« horse lighter than any header ever imported.' The driving o7th oBefl Ts an nl 
provemont; in turning, the Eeel runs just as fastras when driving straight ahead. The improvementd wilr be 
found to meet the demands of California trade. » » "• ^ub impruvBiueuia wiu oe 

Our Excelsior Mowers are Improved for 1875. 

Three Sizes— "Junior," "Medium" and "Senior." 

J. I. CASE & CO.'S 

SEPARATORS AND STEAM ENGINES 

Are the Largest Works of the Kind in the World. 

The Threshers and Engines are Made Expressly for this Trade. 

Pitts' Down and Mounted Powers, "Foust's" Hay Loader, and 

Keller & Co's Sulky Revolving Hay Rake, 

oui''iL'rof"iTpVmrn''t^if^Lpi:t:: '" *'•'" «"'"'' "'^'"^^ ^"^'"^^ ''"'' -""^ '^^ ^°"°-^ -"■^ - ->y- 

Haines' Header Sickles, Excelsior Mowmg Knives, Buckeye Mowing Knives, (Nos. 1 and 2), Sections 

Rivets, Etc. ' 

THRESHERS, ENGINES, P0WFR8. HEADERS, REAPEliS, MOWERS, RAKES HAY PRESSES OORN 
PLANTERS. CORN CDLTIVATORS, Oo'<N SHELI.ERS, OUJER AND WINE MILLS HA^^ 
CUTTERS, DERRICK FORKS, BELTING, PUSH CARTS PLOWS 
HARROWS, OOLTIVATORS. GORHAM 8H EDER9 AND 
CBLIIVATORS COMBINED, FI^H BROS., 
PACIFIC WAGONS. REGULATOR 
WINDMILLS AND 
PUMPS, ETC. 

KELLER & CO., - - - 43, 45 & 47 J Street,. Sacramento, Cat. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



The Hoadley Regulating Cut-off 




The above cut represents the Hoadley New Style Threshing Engine, IShorse power, with patent Cut-off 
Governor. We also have the same style and size, with HUADLEY'3 NEW PATENT STRAW-BURNING FIRE 
BOX. This new Engine has been thOriiughlv tested, and we are prep. red to warrant it to give Fatlsfaclion 
OUE GUARANTEE GOES WITH EVERY ENGINE INTO THE FIlSbD. This new Ei.gine la fitted out com. 
plete, with Blgh Seat, Foot-Board for Driver, California Roller Brake (nut shown in ongravini;). Iron Hub, 
Patent Wheels, Forged Bout Axle, and all Mountings in Perfect Order. 

T II E 

Hoadley Straw-Burning Threshing Engine 

Is no heavier than wood-burning engines of same power, and is unquestionably tho Best Thres^iiiig EnKino in 
the world. It is Lighter, Better Made. Safer, and will di) More Worli than any other engine of same size and 
price ever built. THIS FACT IS INDISPUT \BLE. 

IK?" Farmers abd Threehers desiring to buy Straw-Burners lor coming season, should secure their Engines 
Early, as the number is not largo, and many are alre-idy engaged. All Ensines will be tested in presence of 
customers, when required. Send for Circular and Prices. Address, 

TREADWELL & CO., Sole Agents, San Francisco. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

EMPLOYMENT OFFICE, 
CROSETT & CO., Prop'rs, 

«iy 623 and 626 Clay Street, S. F. TsSI 

COUNTRY ORDERS for MEN almost invariably 
filled, and with FIRST-CLASS HELP. 

O"" German, French, American and Scandinavian 
help, a specialty. 

Farmers will secure men In any number desired, 
especially by giving a little timely notice. Hotels can 
always get the best of MALE or FEMALE HELP. We 
have the BEST OF FACILITIES FOR PROCURING 
DESIRABLE HELP. Send us your orders and we will 
endeavor to give you satisfaction In every particular at 
rU timee. 



a. S. OITMMIBaB. 

1858. 



B. B, BALBTOH, 
187S. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commiaaton 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 18S8. 

No. 121 Battery street, southeast comer of Wishing 
ton, San Franclseo. 

Otu buBlnus being exclusively OemmlBSlon, we baye 
o interests tli»t «1U ooufllot with ttfige of the prodnoer. 



Ifi 



[July 3, 1875 



AMFS' CELEBRATED STRAW and WOOD BURNING ENGINES. 




Best and Most Complete Threshing Engines in the World. 

Every Straw Burner Gtiarauteed to Bum Stra^ir Mrithout Choking up, and they virill also Bum 

Either V^Tood or Coal, 

A Late Tes timonial. 

Farmington, June 25, 1875. 
Messrs. Baker & HamiHon, San Francisco: 

Dear Sirs: — We have given the No, 4 Ames' Straw Burn- 
ing Engine, bought of your agents in Stockton, a severe 
and thorough trial, and we are perfectly satisfied with it in 
every respect. The Engine works like a 
charm, and steams easier than any threshing 
engine we ever saw. In 36 minutes we 
raised 40 pounds of steam, and then com- 
menced to thresh, and in eight minutes 
steam raised to 70 pounds pressure. It 
burns all the straw clean up, does not clog 
or choke up and make us stop and lose 
time in cleaning out the flue and tubes, as 
is the case in most of Straw 
Burners. We are well pleased 
with our purchase, and think any 
one would do well to select an 
Ames' Straw Burning Engine if 
they intend to purchase a thresh- 
ing engine. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. J. CROSS. 
E. O. LONG. 

SOLD ONLY BY 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 

Sao Francisco and Saeramento. 




GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

Jersey Cattle. 

Choice Poultry. Etc. 

OAKLAND 

Cor. 16th k Castro Streots. Oak)aud. 

Send Btamt for oir''ular..conlainin(ta full il»criptii-n oi 
all the best known aodrooet profitable fowls in the CTiuniy. 

Q. B. BAYLEY, 
P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 
N. B.— A car-load i,f .lersey Cattle loaj-rirp iu June. 



OAI.IFORNIA 'W'INi: COOPERAGE 





Pacific Mural Jrress, 



A flrst-olaes 16-page Agricultural Home. Journal, flUeu 
witU frteh, valuable and interesting readlu«. Every 
farmer and ruraliHt should take it. It is Im- 
mensely popular. bubscriptloD, H a yoar. 



DKWEY Sc 00., 

No. !lti4Kaniinme street. 



PubUshera, 

SAN FRANOLSOO. 



AND MILL CO. 

30, 32 St 34 Spear St. 

M.FULDA&SONS 

Proprietors. 

Manufacturers of 

WATER TANKS SHlP 

TANKS, MININQ 

WORK, 

WINE, BEEK AND LIQUOR 
CASKS, TANKS, ETC. 

Cooperage and Tanks, Steamed 

and Dried Before or After 

Manufacture at H^-asoo 

able itateH. 

Sawing-, Planing:, etc. 

at Short Notice. eowbp 



CALIFORNIA PORTRAYED. 



The columns of the P.iciiic Rural Phess from Jan- 
uary 1. 1870, contain the moyt complete and reliable in- 
formation concerning the soil, climate, products and 
capabilities of. the different sections 'of California, of 
any publication yet made. Neither newcomers or old 
settlers in the rural districls can well afTord to do with- 
out this enterprihJng and leading agricultural weekly. 
It is a good helper at home and a welcome guest abroad. 



Campo, 8.4N Diego Co., Cai.., July 3d, 1874. 
mtssiis. Dkwkv & Co.— Gentltmm: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers of my animal tiap, that you 
so successfully worked through the patent office forme, 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances 
are that I will have another application for yon to 
make for me before long. I am well satisfied with your 
manner of doing business, and I think Inventors of 
this coast stand in their own light when they do not 
put their business into your hands. 

I remain yours truly, A. M. OASS. 




Emden Oeese 

40 to 50 ponnde 
per pair at ma- 
turity. 

Buios 
CAYUGA DUCKS, 



Bronze Turkeys 

12 Oobblers (roiii 8 

to 20 months old, 

22 to 40 Ihe each, 

for sale now. 

Hens 14 to 

18 As. 

Games. Brahmas. Leghorns, HoudaDS. Ean- 
t ims. etc. 

Egr^a, finsh, pure, true to name; well- 
packed so as to hatch after arrival. 

For Illustrated Circular and Prlce-Llst, address 

M. EYRE, Napa, CaL 



FERBETR. 



RABBITS. 



PIOEONe. 



Please state where you saw this advertisement. 



"Indispensable," Etc. 

St. Helena, May ISth, 1875. 

Mkssrs. Dewet & Co:— Enclosed please tlnd check 
on Grangers' Bank. Continue my subscription; I can't 
get along without the Bubal. To those who feel an 
interest in the Orange movement, or in any branch of 
agriculture, the Rural is one of the iudispuusablu lux. 
uries. If they carefully read and analyze it« contents, 
they can find information enough in aliuost any num- 
ber to pay their yearly subscription. 

Respectfully yours, J. W. 0. 

Back VoLriMEs of this paper can be bad for $3 etob- 
including 26 numbers. 



Calistoga Re a.1 Esta^te Coiiipaiiy. 



Callstoga, with a population oi abou 800 persons. 
Is a village watering place at the head of the valley of 
Napa, in California. It is four hours' travel north of 
Han Francisco by steamboat and rail. 

Us shipping port is ValVejo, on the bay of San 
Francisco, forty miles distant by rail. It lies at the 
h'>ad of the most charming valley in the State. 

THE BEAUTIES OF NAPA. 

In traversing this thirty-seven miles of fertile dale, 
the eye never wearies. If one ascends the sides of the 
leafy mountains that bound the valley on either Bide, 
whether looking up the valley or down, and from 
whatever point of view, the scene is one of ravishing 
beauty. 

Mounting the summit of St. Helena, which towers 
over all, far to the east the snowy Nevadas bound the 
view; and to the west spreads the Pacific ocean, with 
its winged ships and its blue horizon. To the north 
are the vast forests of Mendocino, its stately trees, 
turned to shrubbery and Clear Lake in its pride of 
expanse dwindled to a mill dam. 

THE WARM SPRINGS. 

From the beauties of Calistoga we turu to itsother at- 
tractions. The estate covers 2,000 acres of f;rtilo 
land. Its warm springs are crowded wi'h invalids, 
who Sock to its healing waters, and who return cured 
of their rheumatism, their dyspepsia, their torpiil 
livers and their tender kidneys. The medicinal ele- 
ments of the hot springs are principally iron, mngne 
sla and sulphur. In this climate, the season of water 
lug places Is prolonged. 

THE SURROUNDINGS. 

B7 oonsiUting a map It will be apparent that OaUs< 



toga U destined to become a commercial town of im- 
portance. It is the center to which converge innu- 
merable hif,'hwftys leading to many of the richest cul- 
tivated valleys of Oallfornia. 

INDUSTRIAU ENTERPRISES. 

A new industry is now being introduced at the head 
of the valley of Napa, which will give easy employ- 
ment to all the boys and girls, and contingently it will 
support other new industries. It is but the beginning 
of many others. Three miles below Calistoga is selec- 
ted as the site of a large factory for saving and canning 
fruits and vegetables that now go to waste, and encour- 
aging the production of more. In no part of Califor- 
nia can these healthful elements of human food be cul- 
tivated more cheaply or more abundantly. Consider- 
ing the depth of its rich soil, its prolonged season, and 
the extraordinary vegetable growth in this country, one 
acre may be considered equal to three wherever this in- 
dustry is carried on in the Atlantic States. If irriga- 
tion be wanted, artesian waterflow may surely be found 
all along the valley, for it is backed by mountain 
ranges full of living waters. 

GOLD AND SILVER AND QUICKSILVER. 

Calistoga is the center also of a great mountain range 
rich in mines of cinnabar and silver. Already Its "fur- 
naces are producing mercury, and the product Is In- 
creasing yearly A number of valuable mines are now 
being profitably developed In the region around the 
base of Mt. St. Helena, at Pine Flat, on the Great Gey- 
ser road, and near Sillies' Mill, on the Clear Lake road. 
All of these we from ten to fifteen miles beyond (Calls- 



toga, to which point their products come, and from 
which their supplies are carried. The deposits of cin- 
nabar occur In well defined veins, and as they are now 
being scientifically developed they bid fair to rival In 
productiveness the celebrated mines of New Almaden. 

CALISTOGA REAL ESTATE CO. 

First grand auction sale will be held ou the tract on 
Wednesday, August 4th, 1875, at 12 o'clock M. Those 
holders purchasing at the sale will be credited with 
the amount paid on their stock, and still share in the 
profits of the company. 

The splendid property above described, containing 
2,082 acres, divided into town lots, suburban lots, 
country seats, hotel property and farm tracts, has been 
bought by the above named company, and is now 
offered for sale to the public. 

The Capital Stock of the Company is 

$1,000,000, 

Divided into 20,000 Shares of $50 Eaoh. 

The sale of a certain number of shares has been 
authorized by the Board at the rate of 

Twenty-&7e Cents on the Dollar, Uakine 
12.60 Per Share. 
By an arrangement between the former owner and 
the present company, no portion of this land or the 
proceeds of lis sale. Is consumed by expenses or in even 
the smallest degree diverted from the use and benefit 
of the stockholder. 



I Whoever buys Stock In the Companv receives his 

pro rata share of this property, with its Crops sod 
1 Rents In the meantime, without one cent of deduction 
i for expenses of any kind, even including Taxes. And 
J this, too, no matter how valuable the property shall 

become. 

Unlike the homestead schemes which have hereto. 
1 fore attracted our people, this plan gives homes and 

Interests in and adjoining a town already built; whera 
I trade and growth are already assured, and where dally 

increase gives promise of greatly added values to all 
i its property. It is a division of this ripened heritage 

that Is now offered to the subscribers. 



TRUSTEES: 

E. W. BURR, 

President Savings and Loan Society. 

C. HARTSON, 

President Bank of Napa. 

J. B. FRISBIE. . , „ ,. 

President Vallejo Commercial Bank. 

JULIUS WETZLAR, 

Pros. Capital Savings Bank, Saorsmentc- 

COLONEL J. P- JACKSON, 

San Francisco. 



WILLIAM H. MARTIN, 

GENERAL AGENT, 
^o. 1 Webb Street, cor. OaUfomU, B. F. 




Volume X.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY lo, 1875. 



[Number 2. 



Amusements on the Farm. 

That portion of mankind whoso existence has 
been confined to the dusty streets and bustling 
ways of a city, seem to have an idea that farm- 
ers are a boorish, delving class of persons who 
never smile or indulge in any nearer approach 
to amusement than is 
afforded them on the 
Sabbath in driving four 
or five miles to church 
and listening to an or- 
thodoxaeriDon preached 
by an orthodox minis- 
ter. Of course the chil- 
dren of such a strait- 
laced set cannot be oth- 
erwise than demureand 
dull. We always feel a 
considerable degree of 
pity for this class of 
people who measure the 
good things of life by 
their own biased expe- 
rience. If they could es- 
cape from the crowded 
thoroughfare and crime 
laden atmosphere of the 
city into the pure air 
of the country and by 
association become fa- 
miliar with country peo- 
ple they would soon «.<*•-.— 
certain how wide of the 
mark they are. 

Probably no class en- 
joy life better than our 
larmers. The pursuit 
of agrieulture is itself a 
pleasure to him who 
views it rightly. Chil- 
dren in the country are 
seldom wanting for 
amusement, and the 
corn huskings and 
quilting bees form 
green spots in the mem- 
ory of many a man 
whose boyhood was 
passed upon the farm. 

A favorite amusement 
with the young, and 
often relished by "chil- 
dren of a larger growth,' 
is the construction and 
parading after nightfall 
of jack-o'-lanterns. The 
golden pumpkin is ta- 
ken from the store 
within the granary or 
chosen from irost bitten 
vines, and having been 
subjected to the pro- 
cess ot "scooping," is 
made ready for the 
chisel of the embryo 
sculptor. With cun- 
ning hand our young 
artist applies his uner- 
ring jacknife to the 
glistening rind. At 
first he traces with del- 
icate touch the outline 
of features, which he 
possibly intends to be 
majettic, Jove-like in 
their effect upon the 
beholder. The form of 
the features having 
been determined on, 
the chiseling knife cuts 
deeper until only a pa- 
per-like thickness of the 

inner rind remains. Th® fragment of a tallow 
candle is then inserted through a hole in the top 
of the disemboweled pumpkin and the lantern is 
ready for exhibition. When the candle is 
lighted and carried into .a group of children, as 
shown in the engraving, it is a source of infi- 
nite amusement to the larger ones, though oc- 
casionally, as in the scene before ua, the "wee 
small childre" appear startled, and if we did 
not know the origin we think few of us could 
withstand such a genii-like glance as flashes 
from the outre features of the average "iack-o'- 
lantern." 



Railroad Lands— A Question of Justice. 

Among questions involving the rights of set- 
tlers or occupants of railroad lands, we have re- 
ceived the following from a subscriber at River- 
side, San Bernardino county, who requests an 
answer through the Eubal Pbess: 



of the reservation for the railroad, and remains 
on it until after the road was " fixed on the 
ground" — which is held to be when it was 
built opposite the land— then the land does not 
pass to the road, but can be pre-empted by a 
subsequent settler on the abandonment of the 
first; but if the first settler abandons it between 
1 the time of the reservation and the time that 




that some of these reservations have been held 
several years for roads that will probably never 
be constructed. These companies, it is true, 
cannot sell the land, but they can keep settlers 
off, and thus sadly retard the development of 
the country, and it needs no prophet to fore- 
tell what class of men jWill probably obtain 
I posscFsion of them when these reservations 
are Jat last abandoned 
by the mythical rail- 
roads. Cases like that 
mentioned by our cor- 
respondent, in which 
parties, after purchas- 
ing of the pre-emptor, 
are compelled to pay 
the full value over 
again to the railroad 
company holding it in 
reservation, are partic- 
ularly hard to recon- 
cile with "any principle 
of justice or equity." 
But purchasers should 
bear in mind the simple 
rule that the seller can- 
not give to the purchas- 
er a better title than 
that on which he held 
the land, and it should 
be considered as a mis- 
fortune on the part of 
the buyer rather than 
extortion on that of the 
railroad company, if 
the former is compelled 
to pay for it th" second 
time. If the company 
has secured a legal 
gt-ant of the land,— and 
we may be pretty sure 
that such organizations, 
with the assistance of 
their friends in «.'on- 
gress and outside of it, 
will be fate on the 
score of legality— it is 
not to bo expected that 
they will discriminate 
between the holders of 
lands that have been 
ceded to them. 

There have -been 
many cases of individ- 
ual hardship evolving 
from this system of rail- 
road grants, and the 
country at large has 
suffered greatly from 
the same cause. The 
people have been se- 
verely punished for 
placing dishonest and 
incompetent men in 
office, who have added 
materially to the difii- 
culty of obtaining satis- 
factory titles to new 
country lands. 

There is one thing 
manifest hero, and the 
sooner the people be- 
come acqv;ainttd with 
it the butter. We refer 
to the necessity on the 
part of those »bo am 
wrestling for homes to 
make themselves thor- 
oughly acquainted with 
the "railroad hitch." 



Co.ST 
WeW/8.- 



op Artksian 
-In answer to 



ATVrUSEMENTS ON THE FAR*!!. 



" Suppose a man takes n claim on Govern- 
ment land prior to its withdrawal from maruet 
by the Government in favor of a railroad grant, 
and then sells his claim for its full value to a 
second party, can the railroad company upon 
any principle of justice or equity step iu and 
make the second owner pay for the land over 
again?" 

So far as the Western Pacific and Central 
Pacific are concerned, it is held by the Land 
Department at Wat.hington that if a settler who 
complies with all the conditions of the pre- 
emption law, and was on th« land at the date 



the road i9 "fixed on ihe ground," then it 
passes to the railroad; as no pre-emption at- 
taches or can attach, to reserved lands. 

Other railroad grants are differently worded 
and therefore may not be governed by the 
same rules. The questions have not been 
finally deiermined by the courts. 

A late law of Oongrcss allows the railroads, 
on abandoning all claims to lands like those 
referred to, to take other lands in lien of them. 

So much for law ; just ' :e is quite another mat- 
ter. Among the many obnoxious fcatHres of rail 
grants, none afe more aggravating than tjief^ct 



inquiries concerning 
the C0:it of artesian 
wells, we would say that 
we have obtained the 
prices of a gentleman in this business, Mr. Uriah 
Higgins, No. 3H Pino street, S. F.. his figures 
being $8 per foot. This includes, as we under- 
stand it, pipe and other fixtures. This price is 
for twelve inch bnre; using twelve inch pipe 
for the first 100 feet from the surface, then 
running lUO feet with ten inch pipe, and using 
eight inch pipe for the third 100 feet. The 
joints, where the change In aize of pipes occurs, 
are thoroughly cemented, in order to eiolmda 
all water except that from the lower level. 

LixiMoxoN, the famous raoehoise, is dea4i 




18 




[July 10, 1875. 



Correspondence. 



Santa Barbara. 

Meesbs. Editoes:— Tbis connly is located in 
the Bouthern part of Califdmia on the coast, 
and the beautiful lUtle city of the same name 
became a great resort for invalids soon after 
Dr. Logan, Prtsident of the Medical Society of 
the United States, recommended it as the best 
sanitarium in America, and our hotels and pri- 
vate hoQ-es were insuflBcient to accommodate 
the throng that came to our shores. 
Climate. 

Our summers are mild and pleasant, the 
mercury ranging from seventy to eighty, and 
seldom reaching ninety. The evenings are 
pleasant and tbe nights always cool. Our win- 
ter months are warm and genial, like May and 
June in tbe East, frost is seldom seen, and 
every breeze is freighted with fragrance from 
our flower gardens. 

Soil. 

In this portion »f the State the soil varies 
from black clay, called adobe, to a light sandy 
loam, formed from decomposed tertiary rocks, 
of which our mountains are composed, and is 
remarkably productive, yielding sometimes 
wonderful crops of corn, barley, wheat and 

alfalfa. 

Water. 

The water is generally pure, not so cool as in 
higher latitudes, and easily obtained from wells, 
springs or mountain streams. In flat land on 
the coast near tbe level of the sea, it in some 
times brBcbish, but in all such cases puie ar- 
tesian water is usudlly found at reasonable 
depths. 

Irrigation. 

In this and the adji lining valleys we have 
learnt d tLat dtep and thoroU)<h cultivation, so 
.as to save iind economizi tbe usual fourteen 
inches of raiulall, is bitter than flooditg the 
surface. Evi-nlually underground inigation 
through wooden pipes for horticultural purpo- 
ses will be popular. 

Fuel. 

Thtre isapUnlyof wood for present pui- 
po!-es, but if our population continues to in- 
crease at its present rapid rates, withiu ten 
years there will be but very little natural tim- 
ber, and people will h ive to use the prunicgs 
from their vines, fiuit and ornamental trees, or 
bum petroleum, which flows from springs so 
abundinily that hundreds of barrels are inn- 
ing daily to wasie. 

Hot Springs. 

There are a number of hot springs in the 
monntiiin cauous ihat have become quite noted 
for their healing qualities, and are usually 
thronged to the lull capacity of their hotel,-*. 
Senatur M'Jiti n and ihuusanda of others have 
bathed ttiere, and recomnend their mineral 
waters. 

Titles. 

Liod titles are generally settled and founded 
on United States patents which have been is- 
BUfd to confirm old Mexican and Spanish 
giants. 

Society. 

Society ought to be good, for the lamented 
Rbv. Dr. Thomas stated tbat it was composed 
of the cream of other communities. 
Churches. 

The congregational, presbyterian, metho- 
dist, baptisi and episcopal denomiuatious, 
eacb have an elegaut church edifice and an . ble 
diviue to occupy the pulpit. 
Schools. 

Santa Barbara boasts of a fine young Amer- 
ican eoliege, with buildings that cost sixty 
tboQSiLd dollars, a Spanish Catholic San 
Fr nciscau coliega in a flourishing coudition, 
a St. Vincent scbuol for young ladies, an ex- 
cellent system of public BCboots, and an able 
corps of experienced teachers. 
Homesteads. 

In this vicinity aud about all other promis- 
ing totns in this pare of the State, small farms 
arc held at from one to three hundred dollars 
per acre, according to quality, location, size 
and improvements. 

Cheap Homes. 

Recenlly several colonies have been formed, 
and one is n.>w loriuing, for the purpose of 
puichasing cheap land in beautiful little val- 
leys near tbe coaitl, where unoccnpied rinches, 
as good as any tbat have yet been setiled, can 
ba purcbased ut from five to ten dollars per 
acra, on li'Ug time and at low rates of interest, 
«itu a view ol subdividing and settling tlie 
Same as Vmcland has dune, making their own 
town, schools aud churches, so that one thous- 
and duUais will go as far as two or three usually 
do in securing a new home. 
Productions. 

This and the adjoining valleys are well 
adapted to the prouuotion of apples, pears, 
p> achd-:, plums; neotarints, uproots, pome- 
granutt s, almonds, olives, Eugli-h walnuts, 
urunj^es, lem 'Os, limct, figs, grapes, wheat, 
barley, coin, Irish potatoes, Sweet potatoes and 



honey. Full grown almocd trees should yield 
from seventy-flve to one hundred pounds of 
nuts, worth from twenty to twenty-five cents a 
pound. One hundred trees are usually planted 
to the acre. At this rate an acre should yield 
from fifteen to twenty-five hundred dollars 
worth of fruit per annum in a good season and 
when tbe trees are in full bearing. Oranges, 
lemons and limes do quite as well. 
Fences. 

The law restrains stock, aud crops require no 
fencing. Rough luml er in town usually sells 
at $27 per M., ar,d other grades in propor- 
tion. Labor is well rewarded in all depart- 
ments, especially house servants, who usually 
receive from twenty-five to thirty dollars a 
month, and cannot be retained long, even at 
that price, for tbe rich old bachelors are sure 
to promote them to the position of house- 
wives. 

Mechanics receive from three to five dollars 
a day, aud farm hands from twenty-five to 
forty dollars a month. Wat;onB, etc., cost 
abi ut twenty-five per cent, more here than in 
the East. We have no cbinch-bugs, few grass- 
hoppers, no mad dogs, no flea nets for hi rses, 
no mosquito bars for our beds, no hghtnint^ 
rods, no fevir and ague, no poor hou-es, no 
deaths from sun-stroke or tornados, no snow 
storms, little frost, no ice to cool lemonade, no 
sleigh Ijells, no sleds for the boys, no woollen 
mittens and no skates. 

We have fresh vegetables, new potatoes, ripe 
strawberries, and ripe fruit fresh from tbe gar- 
d<-n every month in the year, and always an 
abundance of spring chickens and beautiful 
flowers. 

Tbose coming to this coast should bring 
only what they can pack solid, cannot dispose 
of foi two-thirds its value, and will need after 
they get here. 

Persons desiring especial information, should 
write their address dist'nctly and enclose a 
postage stamp to the undersigned Correspond- 
i' gSeeretary, Committee on Immigration. Cal- 
ifornia State Grange, Patrons of Husbandry. 
0. L. Abbott. 

Santa Barbara, Cal, JiineCBth, 1875. 



Notes From Colusa. 

[From our own Correspondent.] 

Messbs. Editoks: — After a fine bath in the 
clear waters of the Sacramento, aud enjoying 
a quiet sUep with all the ether luxuries they 
so generously supply at the Colusa House, 
which, by the way, is a splendid three-story 
biick structure, and so covered by locust trees 
as to almost prevent a stranger from finding if, 
but having once found it he remembers it 
with pleasure, and tones to return when he is 
evaporating under the hot rays of the Colusa 
sun. Having taken some note of the advance 
the town has made since last there in 1861 — 
spreading and enlarging and improving on 
every side — my attention was called particu- 
larly to the advantages the citizens were enjoy- 
ing in the telegraphic line. The politicians 
and citizens were attending the Independent 
State Convention for nominations held in Sac- 
ramento City, but doiog it by using tbe gen^^r- 
ous middleman, Mr. Washburn, of Wells, 
Fargo & Co's. express aud tbe telegraph office, 
to bupply them the report of proceedings by 
constant telegrams; thus giving thfm every 
nomination as soon as made. Who will esti- 
mate the moral influence thus exercised by the 
telegraph, by obviating the necbssity of going 
away from home and making very large mubs 
meetings. 

But, not to moralize, crossing the Sacra- 
mento river to the east by ferry, I find myself 
in the midst of farmers, all busy cutting or 
threshing the wh^at and barley. The lively 
chattering and clatter of the various farming 
implements and the quick movements snd 
prompt energetict )nes of the men in diflferent 
occupations, indicate tbat busine^s is going ou 
aud all working to satisfaction. Occasionally 
a big troop of men, horses, header wagons and 
mactiines, pasting from one farm to another, 
looking like a miniature Sherman army march- 
ing along through Georgia. 

At various points on ihe river are thousands 
of cords of choice cordwood piled up for talc; 
and shipment, also extensive tiers of sacked 
grain. The largest amount of wood— very 
choice oak— was at Mr. Morris' ranch landing. 
Notwithstanding the drouth and tbe bad efifecs 
of the late rain, the farmers seem to bo gener- 
ally in pretty good cheer with their two-ihirds 
of a crop, and glad it was not worse, whde thty 
luxuriate themselves on fif,s, apples, pears and 
apricots, U'jw fast ripening. 

At Mr. Wies' a good cool shade, with some 
fruit, I found very refreshing. As the day de- 
clined, the rabbits put in a full representa- 
tion, someiimes scaring myjiorse by springing 
up suddenly from behind a bush at th» road- 
side, and at a tingle glance I couM sometims 
count as many as seven, highly fed from wheat 
and barley fields. Nigbt brought me to the 
very neat and reiiied ranch of Messrs. Bunker 
<fe Goldring, situated in a bend of the river. 
Their ample granary and barns show them to 
be big farmers; yet their large and choice va- 
riety of fruits now ripeni' g, give them a lively 
contest to know who shall have the gathering 
thereof; linnets, bee biids, magpies, uiioles, 
eic; all claiming the ri}.'ht to sample even tbr 
cl oicebt. Their trees look very healthy aud 
suffered scarcely any from frost. 



From Mr. Bunker's I passed on about two 
miles to the,lands of 

L. F. Moulton, 
Who is a strong advocate of a system of win- 
ter flooding by means of dikes, cross-bars or 
low dams, forming water pens, into which wa- 
ter may be let as desired and at pleasure drained 
off to lower lands. I found Mr. Moulton at 
home and ready to let me see how much of 
me hod he bason this very subject, concerning 
which some say he is crazy. Taking a U^hl 
covered bnggv and a span of 2:10 steeds, he 
proposed a ride over his lands and incidentally 
to show me 
The Largest Steam Threshing Machine In the 

World, 
Also the sixteen-foot headers and the twenty- 
four by twelve-foot header wagons all at work 
on the next adjoining lands to his. I yielded 
to the proposition after sampling an extra cup 
of coffee and a choice variety of figs from the 
ehady side of the tree. 

" Well, what does this mean, you are goins 
the wronij direction for seeing the harvesters?" 
" Well, I thought I would just show you some 
of my levee plans, here where tbey are made, 
so yon can betie- understHud what is intended 
on the lands where we will now go." 

As we passed out of I is lane, on the right was 
a beautiful young orchard, not excelled for 
trowth and healthful appearance anywhere. 
Opposite the orchard was alfalfa, very fair. 
We rode on the top of one of his h vees for a 
long distance on the farm, where bis own farm 
tiands are now busily engaged harve ting, until 
he had shown not 01. ly his theory but his suc- 
cessful execution of it. The details of which I 
mav give at another time. 

We are now 1 ff for the big wheat harvesting. 
Isn't it hot? But when we let on full speed it 
gives us a nice cotl Irccze. We arrived just in 
time to see the grand army march to the din- 
ner camp; so we turned i ff and rode some dis- 
tance aloug tbe si'ie and in tbe wheat field of 
Jo-ei>h D. Winttrs, where the wheat was often 
up to a convenient gr^bof the hand. It was 
very noticeable, the diff ri^nce in favor of tbe 
White Club and the Pride of Butte, as com- 
pared wiih the Sou'ra or Proper, the lalttr 
much more shelled out. In some particular 
localities it seemed ba'f shelled out, otbers but 
little. Tbe lands of M mlton, Dresbach & Co. 
and Dr. G'enn, lying between the Sacramento 
river and the Butte creek, have this year been 
proven as to tljeir ability to produce a crop. 
Ihe levees aie so far completed that different 
parties were not a raid to ri>k the experiment. 
Ihe Bayles bo is have put in about 6, OHO acres 
of the land thus reclaimed by the Muulton 
scheme. Tbey are now harvesting the same 
and do not think it likely that any equal 
acreage and average yield can be found in the 
State, in one tract. 

The Harvesting 

Is now being done by the Bayles gang, using 
eleven large headers, some of them sixteen feet 
sickle. One steam thresher is drivtn by Ames' 
No 6 engine, eighteen horte-power, aud an- 
other by a Garr k Scott engine, twenty-five 
horse-power. 

The header wagons are equipped with boxes 
twenty-four feet long by twelve wide, four 
hor-es, about twenty of them belonging to a 
gang. 

.Not to be overlooked is the water wagon, 
kept very busy hauling water for the stock and 
engine, from wells near at hand bcred down in 
ditterent places in tbe valley and piped ready 
for the Douglas pump to beplai-ed thereon any 
time. The immense thre-h-r, like most all tbe 
wajons i>nd headers, was made in the farm 
shop of tbe Baylis Brothers, and seems to be 
an improvement on all otheis. It isaMreat self 
feedng monster, turning out for bou s together 
(in good grain) five sacks, or about seven hun- 
ilred pounds per minute. Here is the ta ly 
board that shows what tbe whole outfit of sixty 
men and the horses aud macuinery are doing. 
La.st y", we see a procession of eight six horSe 
freigbt wagons making two trips a day to t/.e 
river bank loaded with these sucks, and getting 
one dollar per ton for hauling away. Take the 
whole as a panorama and it is simply grand; 
and when )0U for an hour view the opeiaiions 
all moving on quietly, no commanding or shout- 
ing, each filling intelligently and promptly his 
appointed place, it gives an impresiion bord>r- 
ing en tbe sublime. 

Probab y tbe largest wheat grower in the 
world is Dr. GJenn, having a harvest of 38,0U0 
acres this year; Hoag has 8,000 aoris; Gupton, 
9,000 acres; and BayliS, 8,000 acres. 

As the harvesting season, with all these 
machines at work, will last till September, I 
cannot get at any satisfactory average of yield. 
Some wish to call it twenty-five bushels to the 
acre; others say less; very few any more than 
that. C. 

Colusa, June 25, 1875. 



FiBE IN A Wheatfikld. — Messbs. Editops: — 
On Monday June 21st, the engine of lh« Over- 
land train set fire to a field of wneat about t»o 
miles from Stock'OQ. Tbe ranch is owned by 
Sperrys, of Stockton; tbe grain owned by 
Beacii' & Kingsley. We were threshing two 
miles from the fire, for Mr. Kingsley at his 
home place. On discovering the fire, we, the 
ihresher and header crew, hastened to put it 
out. For about two hours we had a lively 
time fighting tbe fire with wet grain sacks, but 
succeeded in putting it out after it had con- 
sumed about foriy-one acres of wheat, that 
would have averaged twenty-five bushels to the 
acre. T. W. B. 



Sugar Cane in California. 



Messrs. Editoes:— In reply to a private let- 
ter from Mr. Wiggins, of Nordhoff, Ventura 
county, with regard to the culture of the sugar 
cane, I wish to do so through your most excel- 
lent piper, not only for his benefit, but per- 
haps for the benefit of others. 

Firstly, the kind of soil which suited it best 
in Florida Was of a dark, sandy charaster; 
although in Louisiana I have seen most excel- 
lent crops raised on stiff clay and sandy soil; 
but a dark, sandy loam seems to be its most 
natural element. It requires a rich soil, well 
pulverized and prepared. Plow deep and turn 
under, if possible, a good quantity of barn 
yard manure, well rotted; or a good crop of 
green buckwheat. It becomes necessary that 
S' methiog of this kind be done, as cane is 
planted oidy once in three years, and during 
that time there is but little cbanoe for manur- 
ing to advantage. 

After the ground is well prepared, then fur- 
row out your ground with a light corn or 
shovel plow, from three to five inches in depth 
and five feet apart, in which placp, in two par- 
allel rows, your oaoe stalks, which must have 
been previously cut into pieces, nearly of equnl 
length, from fifieen to twenty inches. Each 
piece should contain two or three joints. In 
laying down the pieces, break joints by placing 
the end of one piece U' arly in the middle of the 
other; the obj-ct is to biing the cane joints 
within three or four inches of each other to in- 
sure a good stand, as the cane joint eoi^tains 
the germ of the future cane. After your cane 
is p'aced, it may be covered three or four 
inches d- ep with a plow. 

C me should be planted in February or early 
in March. Wbrn it comes up it should be 
cultivated tbe same as corn. The soil should 
be irrigated the same as for com, though too 
much water makes too rapid a growth of stalk, 
leavingit tender to resist the wind, aid also pro- 
duces too much sap and less saccha>ine matter. 
Cane thus planted will mature about the last 
of October or first of November, perhaps 
sooner here, as the soil seems to Iring all 
kinds of vegetable growth to maturity much 
sooner than in the Southern States. When tl e 
Cane has matured, tbe haves are stripped by 
taking a stick wi h a sharp fdge, bringing it 
rapidly down the stalk, thus removing the 
leaves. When tbe leave s are removed the top 
is cut off at the last joint. The leaves may be 
placed upon tbe sUihble of the canes to pre- 
vent the frost from injniine them, as your U' xt 
year's crop must come from the ratoons which 
sprout from tbe stubble. In the spring re- 
move tbe refuse from the field entirely; stack 
it up in siine convenient place to rot, and put 
other manure between tbe rows and cultivate 
it in. Cane is n very exhaustive crop, and it 
would be better to keep one acre well manured 
than more, not m>inured at all. 

The sugar is manufscturod by, firstly, ex- 
pressing the sap from '.he stalk by passing it 
between steel rollers as for sorghum, and is 
best evaporated in the late-t improved pans 
for that purpose. The old mode of boiling in 
cauldron kettles is being abandoned in the 
cane-growing States, and the recent inventions 
adopted in their stead. 

Should any one wish to try the experiment 
rn a small scale, it may be done by boiling 
down in kettles, as in the making of maple 
sugar, skimming well and clarifying with lime 
Water or carb. soda. 

An acre of caue should yie'd a hogshead of 
sugar aud one or two barrels of molasses. 

All it wants to determine to a certainty with 
reference to the practicability of raising cane, is 
to watch the growth of a few short rows, notice 
iis health and vigor, the quantity of sap and 
its richness in saccharine matter, its readiness 
to crystallize, etc. 

In the Southern States it is considered a 
great luxury to express the sap from the cane 
by chewing it, after removing the hard rind 
from the lower joints and cutting it into pieces 
of a convenient size, and is sold in tbe market 
for that purpose at five and ten cents a cane. 
The average length of a cane in market is six 
feet. I do not see anything to prevent every 
farmer from raising his own swe^t, and that, 
too, of a first-class quality of Orleans sugar 
and golden syrup. One sugar mill or sugar 
works in a neighborhood may be sufi&cient to 
work up one-half or three-quarters of an acre 
of cane for each one, and this quantity may be 
grown to peifection. De. B. Hamlin. 

Grange ville, Tulare county, June 24th, 1875, 

. Trouble with Calves. 

Messes. Editoes: — My father has recently 
lost three suc-kiug calves. They die very sud- 
denly, first seem drowsy and stupid, and refuse 
to suck; after from four to six hours they go 
into spasms and die in a few minutes. Upon 
opening them the stomach is found puffed like 
unto.a bladder, with wind I suppose, the milk 
inside is curded very stiff. Otherwise they 
seem healthy. 

Can you <'r any of your subscribers give me 
the cause and reinedy for this, and oblige, 

John R. Mobbis. 

Cordelia, June 22d. 1875. 

[We have given the above question consider- 
able attention and have consulted parties well 
versed in veterinary matters, but have failed 
to obtain any satisfactorj information. Possi- 
bly some of our readers may be able 'O throw 
some light on the subject.— Editobs Press.] 



July 10, 1875.] 



19 



Too Dry—They Don't Have Rain Enough. 

Mbssbs. Editobb: — This bag often been said of 
half of California. One-half of Solano county 
a few years ago was said to be too dry for grain 
— only fit for grazing. From the mouth of 
the Sacramento river, northerly, in what are 
called the Montezuma hilla, four or five town- 
ships were condemned. It was said that water 
could not be obtained by digging wells; now 
water can be had in almost any place, and 
thousands of acres will yield heavy crops. 

The same was said of a large district border- 
ing Putah creek, and the grant lands were sold 
at $5 per acre, that will readily sell at twenty 
to fifty dollars now. What is the reason of 
their increased fertility? Is there more rain? 
No, there is less. The solution is this: Every 
tree, shrub and vine that was planted, every 
building, fence or other structure, arrested, 
absorbed and threw down the moisture from 
the air in summer time. Each ditch dag and 
every furrow plowed attracted it. In the roll- 
ing hills, while the surface was smooth, the 
water ran off; when roughened by the plow, 
the water was absorbed and retained, and was 
to be found nearer to the surface for well pur- 
poses and for evaporation, thereby moistening 
and cooling the air in summer. 

Thus the encroachments of the builder, the 
planter and plowman have actually changed 
the climate. The plains of Southern Caliitor- 
nia and those of the San Joaquin are destined 
to meet with the same change. The texture of 
the soil is good enough; institute the cause 
and the effect will surely follow. 

Poor, despised adobe land is now yielding 
up its hidden treasares. It is plowed tolerably 
dry, left rough and in clods, sown dry and does 
not run together and bake, and the sun and 
rain dissolve it fast enough. Some fields 
around the county seat, worked in this way, 
have yielded one ton per acre this season. 

Back furrow, ridge it up high, leave open 
dead furrows to drain tbe surplus water, and 
you will have conquered the churlish monster. 

Mr. Mason, a carpenter in poor health, left 
SaB Francisco, came to the upper part of this 
county and purchased 160 acres, mostly adobe, 
that bad nearly starved out the former owner. 
Mr. Mason, innocently ignorant of land and 
farming, was supposed by his neighbors to have 
bought an elephant; they told him that it 
would ba a lake in the winter and a rock in the 
summer. He began ditching, ridging it up and 
hoeing and shoveling out open dead furrows; 
and the result is fair crops of grain where 
stickers (a sort of half weed and half thistle) 
formerly grew. His health improved, and he 
says his adobe is all he has got, and produce 
him a living it must and shall! 

Such results show what a feeV)le man with 
the right spirit and well directed effort can 
accomplish. 

Too little attention is paid to the drainage of 
surplus water upon most of the level lands of 
the Slate, and too much anxiety and praying 
for rain. Substitute proper tillage for surplus 
of water, and the same for lack of rain. 

Wm. W. Fitoh. 



The Pork Question. 

Messrs. Editors: — Beferring to your article, 
"A Word for Good Pork," the question suggests 
itself : Will pork raising pay? In reply: If cir- 
cumstances are favorable, it will. 

It requires range, shade, plenty of good 
water, feed, and above all, for your own quiet 
and peace of mind, if you have neighbors and 
crops, a good fence. Without the last you will 
be inclined to the belief that the herd of swine 
into which the evil spirits entered on a certain 
memorable occasion, were not all drowned, but 
that some of that particular breeri still exists. 

The female is most prolific, at two years of 
age averaging from ten to fifteen pigs per an- 
num—often as many at a litter. The poor 
man, therefore, wi h a very limited capital, can 
get a "starter," that in a short time will per- 
fectly starile him with the rapid increase of his 
herds. If remote from market, he can con- 
centrate his grain crops, by profiiably condens- 
ing into pork, hams or lard, and thus steal a 
march on our transportation lines— discnminit- 
ing in his own favor. If you have a Berkshire 
or E'sex, or what is still better, a cross with tbe 
China, with fair keeping, at one year old, the. 
pig will weigh 200 pounds, making as heavy an" 
animal as is wanted, producing short, thick 
hams, with a streak of fat and a streak of lean 
that will make the lips of an epicure smack 
with its lusciousness; the pork also is much 
more palatable than from older hogs. 

In regard to healthfulness, we have only to 
look at the robust "Chinee," who is celebrated 
for his pork-eating propeubity. 

I do not know why we should particularly 
anathematize the hog as the most unclean of all 
animals; it is essentially a vegetarian when left 
to its own selection; it is only when restricted 
in its choice of food that it becomes the universal 
scavenger. Unlike man, it is not from habit, 
but necessity, that it takes to the gutter. Al- 
lowed to roam through the succulent fields of 
alfalfa, or the stubble of wheat or barley, the 
flesh ia as clean and appetizing as any animal 
in nature. 

And when it comes to crisp, juicy, aromatic, 
ambrosial roast pig, with apple sauce, and 
those prize baked potatoes of our Sister 



"Jeanne," it is a feast the gastronomist may 
never expect to see surpassed. 

But when I took up my pen, J only intended 
to speak of one department of porkology, in 
which I am engaged : The raising of pigs for 
the San Francisco market. When from four to 
six weeks old they should weigh twenty pounds, 
the size required for roasters. The market 
price is from $2 to $2.50 each, depending upon 
the demand. I ship in coops similar to those 
in which . turkeys are transported. One can 
see that the cost is limited mainly to the keep- 
ing of the sows, and that a good paying divi- 
dend is the result. G. C. Holman. 

Lockeford, June 28th, 1875. 

From Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

Messrs. Editors: — Crops in this vicinity 
now look a little more promising, with the ex- 
ception of corn, many fields of which are in- 
jured by the cutworm. Some poor seed was 
also used, and many had planted the third 
time; they say it will make fodder, if nothing 
else. Hay will probably be a larger crop than 
last year, as we had more cool rains and it got 
a better start. 

It is said that the frost has injured the corn 
and potatoes in low places, and that it has also 
killed much of the wild feed about Grand 
Rapids and in much of the Grand River valley. 
Potatoes do not appear tcf be injured as much 
by the Colorado potato beetle as formerly, 
tljough the vines seem to halve more enemies. 
Other kinds of bugs are eating them, and the 
cool weather is not favorable to their growth. 

Wheat looks well in some places, but the 
harvest will be rather late and the yield not as 
heavy as last year. Oats look well at present, 
but the crop will depend on how much rain we 
yet have. 

Beans have been planted pretty extensively, 
and where they have escaped the cutworm 
they look well. The fruit crbp will not be as 
heavy as usual. Peach trees that were not 
killed are making a heavy growth of wood ; 
only a few have blossomed. Wild fruits are 
killed out to some extent in low places. 
The Rose Breasted Grossbeak. 

In regard to this bird I copy the following 
from the Anierica7i Naturalist, contributed by 
W. F. Bundy, of Jefferson, Mi.: " I noticed 
last summer that great numbers of the Color- 
ado potato beetles were destroyed by the rose 
breasted grossbeak. The farmers hold these 
birds in great favor, and are very careful to 
prevent their destruction. They were so 
abundant in this region last summer as to hold 
in check the vast army of these ravagers of the 
potato crop." 

I have seen them in the neighborhood of Kala- 
mazoo, eating not only the potato bugs, but on 
fresh planted corn ground, busy with the Bal- 
timore oriole, king bird, blue bird and many 
others. They are seen mostly in the fields 
back from the main roads, as though they were 
shy about being where there is much travel. 
When flying the white of their wings causes 
them to look somewhat like the red headed 
woodpecker. I have seen no evidence of their 
eating green fruit, as Mr. L. A. Allen states in 
his ornithological notes concerning the black 
headed grossbeak of Salt Lake. There are 
many other species that destroy the vine bugs, 
though these are noticed more particularly in 
connection with the potato. H. H. Mapes. 

Kalamazoo, Mich., June 19th, 1875. 



Yellow Jackets and Grapes. 

Messrs. Editors: — I find in the last niHuber 
of the Press (June 12th), a question over the 
signature of S. W., asking how to kill yellow 
jackets to keep them from destroying the 
grapes on the vines. I do not know that I can 
answer the question satisfactorily, but will 
give the experience of a friend, as related by 
himself and wife. 

They live near Jackson, Amador county, and 
manufacture tons of raisins every year by dry- 
ing them in the san. The "jackets" were very 
troublesome, destroying large quantities of the 
grapes while drying. They tried an experiment 
by pressing enough juice from the common 
grape to fill a pan, say half full. This they set 
in the midst of th-e fruit. The "jackets" will 
leave everything else and go for the juice, and 
in less than half a day the juice will become 
perfectly thick with drowned "jackets." It 
takes some juice, but he saves his raisins and 
the trouble is slight. Mr. Ruffner says that 
the plan operates equally well in the field; and 
although it would take some grapes to furnish 
the juice, those on the vines would be pre- 
served in good condition. I have not tried it, 
but intend to this fall. 

In this part of the country the hoaey bee is 
more destructive to the fruit on the vines than 
the yellow jacket. Mr. R. says that he always 
covers all his fruit at night while drying and 
takes it up when dry in the hf at of the day, (is 
never troubled with worms in any of it, and 
can get more per pound in the Sacramento 
market than that dried by the Ald»n process. 
I speak of all kinds of fruit. J. B. 

Mud Springs, El Dorado Co., June I'Jth, '75 



A Fine Imitation Makble.— An elegant imi- 
tation of marble is male in Dresden for archi- 
tectural purposes, by impregnating sandstone 
with silicic acid and alumina. In Naundorf 
such stones are pr<<pired, which are intensely 
white, transparent and capable of taking a 
polish. 




Different Types of Milk. 

Jersey Milk. 

The Jersey milk separates its cream more 
completely than either the Ayrshire or 
Dutch milk, and its cream usually churns into 
butter move readily. The variations between 
the time occupied in churning, is determined 
by the milk globule, and we find that th« cream 
with the largest globule takes less time to 
churn. The globule varies in siz?, according 
to circumstancas affecting the same cow, and 
we thus have an individual as well, as a breed 
variation, but, as far as I have determined, 
within defined limits. Should milk be desired 
for the supply of families, the Jersey milk, 
from these qualities which give it value for 
butter, is unfiDted, The cream finding its way 
to the surface so speedily and completely, al- 
lows a different quality of product to be fur- 
nished to consumers tut of the same can. If 
each customer received the same quality each 
day, this would make less difference, but he 
who receives a quart of cream to-day, is dis- 
satisfied with the quart of blue milk received at 
another time, and is apt to talk mysteriously 
about "trout" and "presumptive evidence." 
This feature of delivery, perhaps, can be ob- 
viated by increasing care on the part of the 
man who delivers, but this trouble is present, 
and is a necessity. 

Again, this quality would seem to render the 
milk of the Jersey cows unsuited for the cheese 
manufacturer. As I gather from the conversa- 
tion and writings of these people, there is a 
difficulty experienced in retaining the cream in 
the cheese. A certain quantity rising to the 
surface in the inservals of manipulation, will 
not again mix with the milk, in the ordinary 
process of making, and is accordingly lost to 
the cheese. A milk whose globule rises quick- 
ly and completely, woul i seem to aggravate 
this trouble, whenever used. 

For butter the Jersey milk is well suited. 
The cream rises quickly to the surface, and 
churns with great facility under favorable cir- 
cumstances, and little of the butter remains in 
the skim milk. The size of the globule, how- 
ever, allows a large amount of nitrogenous mat- 
ter to remain entangled with the butter, and 
theoretically this would affect its keeping qual- 
ities, as ordinarily made. The butter is usually 
of an orange-yellow color, and a judgment can 
be formed of the depth of color the cow will 
give to her butter, by examining the wax se- 
cretion of the ear. This secretion, it will be 
remembered, like the butter, changes color by 
exposure to the air, and is probably affected 
by the "feed " of the cow. Some experience, 
and a knowledge of physiological reasons, is 
required to interpret this indication correctly. 
Ayrshire Milk. 

The milk of the Ayrshire cow is habituallj' 
used in Scotland for the manufacture of either 
butter or cheese, or both. The effect of this 
on her breeding has been to build up one class 
of cows which are excellent butter makers, and 
another class better suited to the production of 
cheese. The cow which occupies a place be- 
tween these two extremes, is valuable both for 
the production of butter and cheese, although 
not equal to the typal extremes for the produc- 
tion 01 either product alone. This division is 
not only indicated by experimental practice, 
but also by the appearance of the milk globules 
under the microscope. The butter family of 
Ayrshires are large milkers, and their milk 
shows a globule not equal in siz3 to that from 
Jersey milk, yet large enough to iudicate ex- 
cellent butter qualities. Ttie butter is of a 
yellow color, often deep, yet not possessing 
that peculiar orange color which is oitea char- 
acteristic of the product of the Jersey cow. Its 
quantity is large at the period of greatest flow, 
and as lar as our facts indicate, the cow of this 
division yields a large annual product. 

The cheese family of Ayrshires furnish a 
large secretion of milk, containing a small 
globule and more numerous granules than 
does the milk from the butter famly. The 
cream rises to the surface less completely, aud 
mixes again more readily. A practical ditter- 
ence between the milk of the two families being 
the greater uniformity of constitution of the 
milk, after standing, in the one case than in 
the other. 

The predominant feature of the Ayrshire 
milk from all the animals of the breed, is the 
occurrence of abundant granules or extremely 
small globules, which gives a white rather than 
a blue appearance to the skim milk. 
Holstein Milk. 

The Dutch milk has a small globule, smaller 
than in the Ayrshire, more uniform ia their 
sizes, and a far less number so small as to be 
called granules. The cream accordingly rises 
somewhat slower than does the Ayrshire 
cream, aud leaves a blue skim milk. The 
cream seems to mix with the skim milk quite 
readily by agitation. 

Our statements in regard to this milk may 
seem paradoxical. The cream rises quicker 
than does the Ayrshire cream, when consid- 
ered with refsrenoe to the whole amount; for 
there is always a larger number of orauulesloft 
in the Ayrshire milk, for which there is not time 
between the setting and coagulation for the 
gaining the surface. On the other hand a oer- 
lain amount of the Ayrshire cream rises to the 
surface quicker thaa does the Dutch cream. 
When the two milks are placed in percentage 
glasses, side by side, the Ayrshiiie milk will 



throw np five per cent, while the -i!lk 

is throwing up four; while the Dutc. viU 

have thrown ten per cent, while yr- 

shire milk has thrown up eight ; while 
perhaps if both milks are left to the last 
moment before coagulation, the Dutch milk 
will show ten per cent , while the Ayr- 
shire milk may show twelve. This statement 
is not exact, but a suppositious one for the 
purpose of illustration, being founded otfim- 
pressions of mine rather than on proof. The 
butter family of Ayrshires will throw up tbe 
same percentage of cream quicker than will 
the Dutch milk I have used in my trials. 

From a single experiment, the butter made 
from this mils was of a pale yellow, d-floient in 
orange. It was of a firm, yet not waxy texture, 
and displayed great keeping qualities. The 
milk was a long time in churning, as would be 
expected from the size of the globule. The 
quahty of the globule fits this milk Well for the 
cheese-maker, yet the absence of the granule in 
numbers, as indicated by the blue skim milk, 
renders it inferior to the Ayrshire uiilk for this 
purpose. — E. L. Sturltvant, M. D. 



UsEfllL IfifOS^fi^XION. 

Toughened Glass— Its Applications. 

Our readers are already apprised of the 
new process for toughening glass, what 
toughened glass is, how it is produced, etc., 
but perhaps it may be interesting to consider 
some of its many applications. A lecturer in 
England alluding to this matter recently said : 

"It therefore only remains for me to indicate 
the direction of its practical application. I say 
'indicate,' for were I to enumerate all the 
purposes to which it can be usefully applied, I 
should simply become wearisome. It is pos- 
sible that there is not one corner in the whole 
domain of the arts, sciences, and manufactures! 
where ils presence will not in time be made 
manifest in some way or other, and its useful- 
ness appreciated, whilst for purposes pertaining 
to social life its application would seem to be 
unlimited. The miner would have a safer 
safety-lamp than ever Davy gave him, and the 
engineer's gauge glass would stand the highest 
steam pressure and alternations of heat and 
cold without fear of mischance. In chemical 
works it would supersede lead for tanks, and 
the present costly and unreliable glass pump- 
tubes would be far less expensive, and infinitely 
more durable. So with brewers ; they would 
find it a most useful friend in their vats, which 
they could thoroughly and easily cleanse, and 
keep free from secreted stale germs of organic 
life, which develop and reproduce themselves 
in the process of fermenting beer, in a highly 
objectionable manner.' For water pipes it 
would offer the advantages of strength without 
corrosion. Assayers, I am told, would use 
it instead of platinum in some processes. 
In silk-spinning machinery slider eyes, or 
guides, which are so soon cut through by reason 
of the speed at which the silk passes through 
them, would be rendered very durable if made 
of toughened glass. Another application, which 
has suggested itself to an ingenious American 
gentleman since the first notice of M. de la 
Bastie's invention appeared, is the manufacture 
of printing types and rollers for printing 
presses, and this idea is now being developed 
into practical form. Seeing the wide range of 
domestic and social wants which toughened 
glass promises to meet, I know not where to 
begin, and were I to begin I should not know 
where to end. I can only observe in this con- 
nection that toughened glass promises to super- 
sede porcelain and similar wares, and to add a 
real and permanent value to glass utensils of 
every kind. It will probably supersede enamel 
on culinary utensils, and in other similar direc- 
tions." 

Stains for Wood. 

Green. — Take three pints strong vinegar, 
four ounces best verdigris, ground fine, one- 
half ounce sap green; thoroughly mix these in- 
gredl nts. 

Purple. — Take one pound ot chipped log- 
wood, three quarts water, four ounces perlash, 
and two ounces powdered indigo. Boil the 
logwood in the water for half an hour; then add 
the pearlash and indigo. 

Cherry. — Take three quarts rain water, four 
ounces annatto; boil in a copper kettle till the 
annatto is dissolved, then put in a piece of pot- 
ash of the size of a walnut. Keep tbe mixture 
over the fire half an hour longer, and then it 
may be bottled for usa. 

Mauooant.— Wash the wood with diluted 
nitric acid (ten pirts of water to one of nitric 
acid). For rose-wood, glize the same with 
carmine or Munich Lake. Asphaltum, thinned 
with turpentine, forms an excalleut mahogany 
color for new work. 

Blub. — Dissolve copper filings in aquafortis; 
brush the wood with it, and then go over the 
work with a hot solution of pearlash (two 
ounces to one pint of water) tilfit assumes a 
perfectly blue color. 

FiBE Proof Roofs and Stairs. — If you will 
have wood floors and stairs, lay a flooring of 
the thickest sheet iron over the joists, and your 
wood upon that, and sheath your stairs with 
the same material. A floor will not burn with- 
out a supply of air under it. Throw a dry 
board upon a flat pavement, and kindle it as it 
lies if you can. Prevent drafts, and, though 
thore will be fires, uo hotiees will bo consumed. 



20 



w^mwm wmmsM, wmMm. 



rjtily 10, 1875. 



-snr 




THE HEADaUARTEKS of the California 
State Grange are at No. 6 Liedesdorff street, in rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 415 California 
street San Francisco. 



Grang'e Clubs for the Bural. 

The Secretary (or gome other Patron) is invited to 
act as club agent for the Pacific Ktoal Prkss in every 
Grange. Circular and san pie copies sent free. Five 
or more names will constitute a club, at the rate of $S 
a year. No new subsariptions will be taken without 
payment in advance. We will pay the postage after 
January 1st. 1875. All club subscriptions in Granges 
should end on the last day of the month. Old sub- 
scribers may join the club by paying the Secretary up 
t* club dates. Every Patron farmer Phould read a 
reliable agricultural paper. We need the support of 
•11 on this coast. Help the Secretary (or club agent) 
to make up a large list in your neighborhood. Don't 
delay. 

Secretaries will be supplied with a printed list of 
Bnscribers for this paper upon sending a list of the\r 
offices within the range of their Grange. Also with 
blank reports, etc., for clubs. 

Grange Directory.— A full list of officers of the 
State Grange, Deputies, names of Councils, Subordi- 
nate Granges, Masters and Secretaries will appear in 
this department on the last Saturday of this month. 

MaNCAI. op JmiSPBtTDENCF. AJJB CO-OPERATION OF THE 

P. OF H.— This valuable work of 200 pages, by A. B. 
Smedley, Master of Iowa State Grange, should be read 
by every patron. Price, $1.25. Now on hand at this 
office. 



A Grange Fourth of July Ode. 

The Grangers of Gilroy, with their families 
and a large circle of friends, enjoyed the Fonrlh 
of July by participating in a feast, compriBing 
all the good things of the season. Among the 
intellectual pleasures and social enjoyments, 
the follo-wing beautiful and appropriate poem 
was composed for the occasion by a lady 
Granger, and read by the worlhy Lecturer: 

Awake my soul ! awake my lyre, awake ! 

Green hills, and blooming dales, my notes prolong! 
For love of freedom, minstrelsy should make 

This day replete with melody and song. 

Then ring, ye bells! ring for your country, ring! 

Behold, Columbia 's ninety-nine to-day! 
And happy songsters! sing for gladness, sing! 

Till echo answers echo, far away. 

Co-workers, wake! and utter grateful praise 
To Him who rtiles the universe on high! 

Who gives us life, and love, and length of days, 
And guards us ever with parental eye; 

Through the green valleys guides the winding streams, 
Scatters refreshing dew ^ops o'er the earth; 

Moderates the fierceness of the noon-day beams; 
And calls each tiny blossom into birth; 

Who has preserved us well through many a year. 

Though foes without, and <nemies within 
Have tampered with oiir virtues; till we fear 

Prosperities decay, when vices win. 

But let 5« work for that which seemeth good : 
Work with a will, for measures just and strong; 

Guard well the trust, for which our fathers stood 
And battled for, through many years, and long. 

Was it for gold those heroes took the field? 

For love of gold, were battles fought and won? 
To the great soul of him, I must appeal. 

Who led our forces, glorious Washington! 

Ah! they were great! and sons of noble sires! 

'Tis well we should recall their deeds so brave! 
Lest lYeedom's spirit smoulder and expire. 

Without one torch to light her to the grave. 

Oh! that the muses miKht inspire my pen. 
To stay the ebbing ot our Country's pride; 

To raise her sinking standard up again. 
And plant it firmly on the mountain's side. 

Behold! Columbia stands with outstretched arms. 
Praying her sons her honor to maintain; 

Each passing year increases her alarms; 
And shall she ever plead her cause in vain? 

Come forth, ye Grangers! workers of the land! 

To ymi she's turning that she may be free; 
Assume the championship, with t-turdy band. 

And lead the way to glorious victory. 

Redeem her honor! raise her standard high. 

And let it wave as proudly as of yore; 
So firmly planted, thatit may defy 

All stormy weather, now and evermore. 

Then shall prosperity our ways attend . 

Strengthen our hopes and chase away our fears; 
Enchantment to our various efforts lend. 

As round and roimd time whirls the wheel of years. 

And then the cheery nobes of winsome Spring, 
The glowing beams of Summer in her pride. 

O'er lovely Flora, shall their influence fling. 
To aniuiate her kingdom, far and wide. 

Autumn shall come, and Ceres shall proclaim 
Her many garners full o( ripened corn; 

And glad Pomona in her realm shall reign, 
Qqeen of the vintage, and the soul of song. 

Bnt when the trembling leaves have fluttered down. 
The face of merry Winter shall appear; 

With frozen dew-drops sparkling in her crown; 
Bringing more holidays than all the year. 

And thus the seasons as they come and go. 
Shall give us hours of labor and of ease; 

Fortune her many favors shall bestow 

With liberal band, to cherish and to please. 

Now let us cheer Columbia's heart once more; 

And bid her hope her honor to maintain; 
Or shall we still, her pleadings all ignore 

And sink with her, in slavery and in shame ? 



Grange "Co-Operation.— American farmers 
are beginning to learn what can be done by co- 
operative effort What a hundred men can not 
do, each acting separately, can be done by four 
or five men acting in concert. 



Celebration at Placerville. 

Messrs. Editors: — According to the pro- 
gramme, published in the Placerville papers a 
month ago, the combined and enthusiastic cel- 
ebration of our National Anniversary, in which 
the citizens*and Grangers of El Dorado county 
cordially united at this place, came off 
Saturday, July 3d. 

It was the most successful I have witnessed 
in California, outside of San Francisco, in its 
elaborate preparations, decorations, varied en- 
tertainments, festivals, etc., leaving out the 
oration, of which the undersigned has nothing 
to say, as he talked so loud himself while it 
was going on that he didn't have much time to 
listen and criticise. 

Having accepted the highly appreciated in- 
vitation to be orator of the day from the good 
people of this splendid mining and fruit region. 
I arrived in town from Sacramento about eleven 
o'clock A. M., and found the principal streot al- 
ready densely filled with people. A peculiar 
feature of the main street of this justly celebra- 
ted and 

Beautiful Mountain Town, 
Is the continuous piazzas and sheds along its 
greater portion on each side. Besides many 
stately shade trees, mountain evergreens were 
fastened to every post of these numerous 
•' stoops," to make the scene asfresh, attractive 
and cheering as was possible for a gala day. 
From every available point, numerous flags and 
pennants added their brilliant colors. 

The procession was soon formed, under di- 
rection of Chief Marshal Thomas Eraser, and 
consisted of an excellent band, a well drilled 
military company in command of Captain 
Wiltse, who is also Master of Placervilla 
Grange, two excellent fire companies, a large 
wagon handsomely decorated, in which were 
seated 

Thirty-eight Lovely Young Girls 
Dressed in pure white, each wearing a tasteful 
white coronet, on which was the name of the 
State she represented ; next a carriage for the 
Presider.t of the day, Chaplain, Reader and 
Orator ; and then a large number of Patrons of 
Husbandry in full regalia, and other citizens. 
The entire scenic effect was admirable. About 
neon, their theatre was densely packed with an 
intelligent and attentive audience, and the lit- 
erary exercises began, interspersed with good 
music by the Placerville band. 

Col. Wm. Jones presided, the prayer and 
benediction were by the Eev. C. C. Pierce, the 
reading by Mr. Geo. M. Holton, the oration, 
according to announcement, by your correspond- 
ent. The theme was a condensed review of 
the events accompanying the Declaration of In- 
dependence, an argument that such celebrations 
of the day, this year and next, should and will 
tend 

To Harmonize Our People, 
And lessons deduced with reference to the spe- 
cial wants of our age and people. It was re- 
ceived in the kindest spirit, for which the good 
people of El Dorado have my hearty thanks. 

The crowd then dispersed to attend the va- 
rious festivals and amusements which followed. 
There were two school festivals, and one for 
the Patrons of the five Granges in Kl Dorado 
county and their numerous invited guests. 
The dinner was a sumptuous one, and never 
have I seen as many persons seated at a Grange 
feast. There were three long tables well filled 
twice. 

Throughout the afternoon occurred a pro- 
cession of most amusing fantastics, various 
games, horse races and 

A Splendid Grange Meeting 
In Odd Fellows' hall, most numerously at- 
tended. Bro. Christie', County Deputy and 
Past Master, and four Masters, Wiltse, O'Brien, 
Carpenter and Sawyer, were present and aided 
me in the work. Much to my regret, Bro. 
Bishop, Master of Pilot Hill Grange, No. 1, 
which has the honor to be the oldest Grange 
in California, organized in 1870, and Bro. Bai- 
ley, our first Deputy in the State, were unable 
to attend, and, as I learned, but few ol their 
members could be present, on account of its 
distance. In our meeting all officers of 
Granges present occupied their respective seats. 
It was an impressive scene. 

We advanced to the fourth degree three sisters 
and six brothers, and had an 

Ice Cream Harvest Feast, 
The only cool feature of our warm hearted and 
fraternal celebration and session. I enjoyed 
the pleasure of meeting here the oldest Granger 
that I have ever seen in California, Bro. Lewis. 
He is seventy-six years of age, tall and straight 
as an arrow, like an old soldier. He is earnest 
and enthusiastic in his love tor our glorious 
Order, lull to overflowing with the benevolence 
of its principles. Were all our 20,000 mem- 
bers in California as true to their solemn obliga- 
tions and as regular in their duties of attend- 
ance, etc., as he is, how overwheming would be 
the final success of our Order in this State! 

It was a charming, charming day. Never 
shall I forget its varied pleasures and pure hap- 
piness. 

Many Thanks 
To onr friends for the privilege of being with 
them on so memorable an occasion as this be- 
ginning of our one-hundredth year of inde- 
pendence. This evening Placerville and El 
Dorado Granges meet me at Placerville; Tues- 
day noon, at Coloma, where gold was Ijrst dis- 
covered in California, Sutter Mill and Pilot 
Hill Granges meet me. J. W. A. W, 

Placerville, El Dorado Co., July 5th. 



International Co-operation. 

Among the possibilities only dreamed of two 
years ago is the now nearly accomplished fact 
of an extensive system of international co-op- 
eration between the well organized co-operative 
associations of Great Britain and the equally 
well organized Patrons of Husbandry and Sov- 
ereigns of Industry of the United States. Cor- 
respondence and negotiations to this end have 
been for some time in progress. A short time 
since the London correspondent of the New 
York Graphic gave some inkling of the scheme 
as it had been gathered from its promoters 
among the leaders of the co-operation move- 
mants in England. It appears that Dr. T. D. 
Worrall, of the United States, had read a paper 
upon international co-operation, in which" it 
was proposed that the English manufacturers 
should furnish ships for a direct interchange 
of their goods for western produce, via the 
Missisippi river; Mr. Worrall said : 

" I am sanguine enough to believe that in 
three years from the time of sailing of the first 
ship a dozen or more would not suffice for the 
trade ; indeed I see no reason why the co-op- 
erators of the two countries' should not control 
the bulk of the trade in cotton, grain, and pro- 
duce coming to the United Kingdom ; since, be 
it remembered, the Grangers are the producers 
of nearly all the staples and produce of the 
Missisippi valley, and there can be no question 
that the co-operators of Great Britain can man- 
ufacture or purchase all the manufactured arti- 
cles required by their American brethren, and 
these can be conveyed in your own ships at 
the minimum of expense, and will find a prof- 
itable market." 

The great interest recently taken by Western 
farmers and the Grangers generally throughout 
the country, in tl^e improvement of the mouth 
of the Missisippi river has oeen with the view 
to a more ready accomplishment of this project. 
For, to make direct international trade a suc- 
cess, sea going ships mu!ft find ready access to 
the interior of the great West via that river. 

As a further evidence of the progress which 
is being made in this direction, we also copy 
the following telegraphic dispatch, which was 
published in the Call of Tuesday last : 
Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Na- 
tional Grange, P. of H. 

Washington, July 5th. — The Executive Com- 
mittee of the National Grange held a meeting 
to-day and adopted a report of a snb-commit- 
tee, to whom had been referred the subject of 
international exchange between co-operative 
societies in Great Britain and the Patrons of 
Husbandry in the United States. The report 
says: "Having examined the details of the 
plan of co-operative societies in Great Britain, 
88 presented by their deputi^ to the United 
States, known as the Bocbdale plan, and its 
wonderful success, we heartily recommend 
it to the careful consideration of our State and 
Subordinate Grange.^ and the members of our 
Order, and advise such action on the part of 
the Executive Committees of the several States 
as may be necessary to the organization and 
operation of such co-operalive associations 
within our Order." 

This plan, if carried out, as it no doubt will 
be, will effect a greater revolution in the trade 
of this country than anything heretofore at- 
tempted. It will bring about a ready solution 
of the great question of cheap transportation 
between the Atlantic cities and the West, by 
transferring the same from the great railroad 
lines to the Mississippi river, and constituting 
St. Louis, or some other neighboring city, in- 
stead of New York, the great entrepot for the 
foreign trade of that great and growing region. 
The gain which would thereby accrue to the 
producers and consumers on both sides of the 
Atlantic would be immense. 



Honor to the Ladibs who Honor Work. — 
The sisters of Qnincy (Fla.) Grange have lately 
"resolved," and this is the resolution: "That 
we will practice the strictest economy in our 
households, both in the culinary department 
and wearing apparel, buying no more than is 
actually necessary, eschewing everything like 
prodigality, and to endeavor to avoid, if not 
finally discard, all needless or unnecessary 
fashions, and to regard household work as hon- 
orable and commendable, and intend by exam- 
ple and precept, to the extent of onr ability and 
influence, to disabuse public opinion of the 
erroneous views entertained heretofore on that 
subject." These are good, sound, healthy sen- 
timents, well expressed. All honor to the 
adies of Qnincy Grange. 

"False Colors". — A Santa Clara Patron 
wishes to know why we did not give the names 
of the employment agency complained of 
by the Yolo Mail? What we said was on the 
authority of the Mail, which gave us no name. 
In regard to the other matters alluded to, we 
must say that we do not think that the public 
prints afford the best battle ground upon which 
to drive off nW the evils (real and imaginary) 
which come to the surface in secret orders. 



The Grangers' Business Association is per- 
manently located at No. 351 Market street, 
San Francisco. 



A COTTON mauufactnring company is fully 
organized at Gainesville, Arkansas, with a cap- 
ital stock of $10,000 to begin with. 



Grange Decisions. 

Bt the Masters and Execittive Committees 
OF the Na'honai, Grange. 

[We select from the "Patrons' Parliamentary Guide" 
(offlciaK, the following decisions, as those most likely 
to be of Interest to Patrons generally. We publish 
them as revised and adopted at the 8th annual session, 
Feb.. 1875. Every Master should examine the "Guide" 
and the amendments and the additions thereto through- 
out. They can be obtained free on application to the 
Secretaries of State Granges.] 

(Continued from page B, volume 10.) 

69. When a candidate is being balloted for 
and exactly three black balls appear, the Mas- 
ter must say, "Lest a member may have cast 
a ballot carelessly or by mistake the ballot will 
be passed again," whereupon another ballot 
will be immediately taken. If three black 
balls again appear the candidate is rejected, 
and the ballot cannot be reconsidered or re- 
peated. 

70. The Master should not allow a ballot to 
be takes on the application of a person who 
from any cause is ineligible to membership. 

But if such a person has been balloted for 
and elected, the Master has no right to initiate 
him, and would by so doing render himself 
liable to expulsion for having violated the laws 
he was obligated to enforce and obey. 

72. The Overseer has a right to refass per- 
mission to retire from the Grange by refusing 
to return the salutation. 

73. The Secretary is the custodian of the seal 
of a Grange, and it is only to be used to authen- 
ticate the action of a Grange or its executive 
officers, and should never be used unless ac- 
companied by the signature of the Secretary. 

77. The Steward, Assistant Steward, and 
Lady Assistant Steward should always bear 
with them the emblems of their office whea 
engaged in official duty. 

78. The Gate Keeper is the proper custodian 
of the regalia, jewels and other properties of 
the Grange, subject to the order of the Grange. 

79. Committees on Candidates should be ap- 
pointed, and all applications referred thereto 
at the same meeting that the application is 
received. 

80. An election by ballot is final, and can- 
not be reconsidered nor set aside. Officers 
duly elected have a right to be installed if they 
so desire. The installing officer's question, 

"Is it your wish that Bro. be installed as 

," etc., practically means only, was he 

duly elected. 

82. Children can be aomitted to the Grange 
with their parents only when so young as to 
be unable to understand what may be done or 
said. Upon this point the Master must be the 
judge. 

The following new decisions were adopted, 
viz.: 

All officers of a Grange must be installed be- 
fore assuming the position and duties of the 
office. 

If a Master of a Grange is absent, the high- 
est ranking officer present acta as Master, and 
fills all vacancies by appointment. 
Relations of Subordinate and Stale Granges to 
the National Grange. 

89. The charter of a Grange cannot be sur- 
rendered if there is the minimum number re- 
quired by the constitution to form a Grange, 
viz., nine men and four women, desirous of re- 
taining tt. 

90. Whenever a Griinge is reduced below the 
minimum number of members required by the 
constitntion as charter members, its charter 
must be surrendered through the Secretary of 
the State Grange to the National Grange. 

91. When a charter is revoked all books, 
jewels, regalia and the seal of the Grange re- 
verts to the National Grange, to be held in 
trust, and returned upon the restoration of the 
charter. 

94. In all parliamentary matters the ' 'Guide, " 
ns adopted by the National Grange, shall be re- 
garded as law; and all rulings of Masters of 
State and Subordinate Granges must conform 
thereto. 

95. The fifth degree can only be conferred in 
the State, County or District Granges when 
sitting in that degree. 

96. Subordinate or State Granges cannot 
omit or change any part of the ritual. 

Trials, Penalties and Appeals. 

98. If a member commits an offence against 
the Order or any member thereof, charges may 
be preferred against him by any member of his 
Grange, and after a fair trial, if found guilty, 
he may be suspended, or expelled by a major- 
ity vote. 

99. A member cannot be tried for acts done 
before he became a member. The proper time 
to pass upon such acts is at his election to 
membership. 

100. A member who has been tried by his 
Grange has the right of appeal to the State 
Grange. 

101. In all trials the accused has the right to 
be confronted with and to cross-examine all 
witnesses against him. The testimony of those 
not members of the Order is adoiissable. 

102. Every member of the Order has a right 
to a trial by his peers; that is, a member of a 
Subordinate Grange must be tried by the Sub- 
ordinate Grange, a member of a State Grange 
by the State Grange, etc. 

103. Masters, and their wives who are Ma- 
trons, are members of the State Grange, and 
can only be tried by their peers in the State 
Grange. 

[Conclude* next week.] 

The Executive Committee of the State 
Grange were in session this week. 



July 10, 1875.] 



21 



That Celebration at Placerville 

A member of the Placerville Grange very 
kindly sends us an account of the celebration 
on the 3d, but as a description of the same af- 
fair, received from Bro. Wright, was already in 
type, we are only able to use a portion of the 
one last received, that which refers more par- 
ticularly to the address which we had hoped to 
receive in time for publication in this issue. 

After a pleasing description of certain por- 
tions of the celebration, our correspondent, J. 
G. O,, proceeds as follows : 

Bro. J. W. A. Wright, orator of the day, was 
introduced by Col. Jones. After thanking the 
■citizens and Patrons of Placerville and vicinity 
for the honor conferred upon him by them, 
one of those remarkable orations was de- 
livered, remarkable for its noble sentiment 
throughout and its appeal to the generous feel- 
ings of our natures, the absence of anything 
that would engender or keep alive the bitter 
feelings of the past. By unanimous consent 
it was pronounced the most appropriate address 
'8ver delivered before a Placerville audience 
on the Fourth. 

After the exercises of the occasion, with a 
large number of citizens in attendance, the 
Patrons, accompanied by the G. L., the orator 
of the<Say, repaired to the place, (set apart 
and ^edi-cated by our good sisters), where a 
Bumptious repast was spread. The tables fairly 
groaned beneath their savory and inviting load. 
Mr. Editor, it would have done you good; you 
wawld have lived longer and been a better man 
ito have been with us. 

Your usefulness in publishing the Rukal 
Peess no doubt would have been increased an 
hundred fold, and you would have learned 
that which some seem slow to learn, that our 
sisters are not excelled in anything that makes 
up true womanhood. From the place of re- 
freshment, the Patrons repaired to the com- 
modious hall of the I. O. O. P., where Bro. 
Wright conferred upon a class of ten good 
Ibrothers and sisters, the fourth degree. A 
very pleasant and instructive meeting was 
had. 

Bro. Wright is the right man in the right 
place. The G. L. will remain with us until 
Thursday. In the meantime he will be busily 
engaged in exemplifying the work and bring- 
ing before the Patrons the necessity and merits 
of the G. B. A. of California and other Granae 
incorporatioas. Good order, good feeling, and 
■everything that goes to make up a joyous and 
happy time, characterized the proceedings of 
the day. 

What Will They Do ? 

Do the Patrons proscribe other needed 
■classes? 

If so, they do wrong, which no amount of 
good they undertake to accomplish can over- 
come and compensate for. You answer, how- 
ever, that while weak men and thoughtless 
persons who understand the inner workings of 
the Ocder, and who are entitled by the rules to 
the hand of fellowship, may, and frequently do, 
say things that are wild and revolutionary in 
their character, the mass of men and women 
viho constitute the great Order demand "equal 
and exact justice to all," and condemn partiality 
and injustice from whatever source they may 
come. 

Can any reasonable man ask any better plat- 
form? 

Do the Grange attempt to cripple manufac- 
turers? No. 

Will they destroy the railroads? No. 

Do they wish to interfere and destroy com- 
merce? No. 

Are they unwilling for the town people to 
Jive? No. 

Are they at war with mechanics and common 
laborers? No. 

Are they at war with professional men — 
Ministers of the Gospel, Lawyers, Doctors, etc? 
No. 

Are they at war with politicians? No, 

Are they at war with capitalists? No. 

Are they at war with anybody? No. 

They simply ask a fair showing in life's 
battles, and wherever they find opposition they 
oppose it force to force. — Helper. 

Gbange Cotton Mills at the South.— The 
Atlanta Constitution says that several Granges 
in South Carolina are combining to build a 
cotton mill on the Saluda river in that State. In 
yiew of this movement and iis presumable suc- 
cess, that paper proceeds to urge the establish- 
ment of similar manufactoriHS all through the 
State, at least in numbers sufficient to furnish 
for that region all it-t bagging and cheap cotton 
goods for domesiiij use. The amount of cipital 
retjuired for such establishments, water power 
bring used, which need not be extensive, 
is quite small and in the ready re^ich of almost 
any cotton growing neighborhood. As these 
experiments prove sn^ce8^flll iht-y will natur- 
ally multiply very rnpidly. There is much good 
sense in these suggestions, and we trust the ex- 
periment will be tried. The Grange organization 
makes the tri<»l a matter of ready accomplish- 
ment. 

The Grange.— The Grange is the salvation 
of the farmer, and need only to be main ained 
by energetic, intelligent, and above all the de- 
sirable results within the scpe of any human 
institution. Stai-d by the Grange, then! Sus- 
tain it by which of it elf in^u^e•i succ ss. With 
it you are sovereigns, with your scepter in 
your hands; without it you are on the high 
road to vassalage; thuB truthfully Bpeaks the 
Northern Granger, 



In Memoriam. 

Enterpeise Gsange, No. 38, P. of EC, La 
Dou district, Los Angeles, June 26th, 1875, 
adopted the following: 

Whekeas, It has pleased the Divine Master in the 
order of His providence to remove from the loved field 
of his labor in our midst, a worthy and devoted brother, 
and, 

Wbebeas, By the death of our beloved brother, 
David Foster, our Grange has lost an ardent and 
earnest co-worker, and its members a warm and affec- 
tionate brother, and, 

Whereas, Believing that while our loss is irrepara- 
ble, his gain is immeasurable, we humbly acquiesce in 
our bereavement; still it is proper that this dark page 
in our Grange history should be appropriately acknowl- 
edged; be it therefore 

Besolved, That the jewels and charter be suitably 
draped and the members wear the usual badge of 
mourning for thirty days. 

Besolved, That copies of this preamble and resolution 
be spread upon the record of this Grange and published. 

M. A. Alexandee, Sec'y. 
Summit Grange, San Luis Obispo county, 
adopted the following, June 26th, 1875: 

Whereas, By the hand of death our beloved sister, 
L. Wilkinson, has been taken from among our social 
circle. 

Resolved, That the fittest method of cherishing her 
memory is to imitate her example of good works, her 
patience through her protracted illness, and unswerv- 
ing fidelity to duty in all the walks of life, and feeling 
assured when the members of our beloved Order are 
summoned by our Worthy Master above, we shall meet 
our sister in that higher Grange, where separation and 
sorrow are not known. 

Resolved, That we extend to her bereaved husband 
and her family our heartfelt sorrow in their sad hour 
of affliction, and looking for our only consolation in the 
belief that the loss of our beloved sister is her gain, we 
submit to the will of our Master above. 

Resolved, That the members of this Grange wear the 
usual badge of mourning for thirty days, that a copy of 
these resolutions be placed upon the minutes of this 
Grange and published. Mrs. L. M. Foster, J 

Mrs. Sarah Harris, > Com. 
Mrs. M. E. Smith, ) 

Paeadise Grange, No. 5, passed the follow- 
ing resolutions at a meeting on July 3d, 1875: 

Whbreas, Disease and death visited our Grange on 
the 27th inst., and removed from our circle our most 
worthy and respected sister, Elisabeth Mullinix, 

Resolved, That in the death of our sister this Grange 
has lost an esteemed member, the community an up- 
right and exemplary woman and her family a loving 
wife and devoted mother. 

Resolaed, That with hearts full of sorrow for the un- 
timely loss of our sister, we tender our heartfelt sym- 
pathy to her husband and family, who, in her love, lost 
the most that makes life dear. 

ijcsoloed. That these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of this meeting, and a copy be sent to the hus- 
band of the deceased, also be published. 

Isabella Lamance 

J. B. Case, } Com 

Theo. Shirly, 




What it has Done. — The Grange movement, 
as it is termed, has in a comparatively short 
time brought about the most extensive and 
beneficial reforms known in the history of the 
world. It has struck a death-blow at the credit 
system, it has brought the farmers, manufac- 
turers, bankers, dealers, mechanics and ar- 
tists face to face; driven ofif the unwary and 
annoying speculator; has encouraged wide- 
spread social christianizing and familiar inter- 
change among farmers, the neglect of which 
had well nigh lapsed into a degree of indiffer- 
ence bordering on stoicism. The great com- 
pact awakens in the social circle pleasant song 
and kindly voices and throws over all the halo 
of lasting virtue. — Southern Ayent. 



Those so-called Patrons, who joined the 
Order under the impression that all they had 
to do to get rich was to have their names en- 
rolled in some Grange, are very gradually 
sloughing off and getting out of the way for 
better men and women. When we get rid of 
all such and come squarely down to a "hard 
pan" of members who know that even the 
Grange can accomplish nothing without work, 
patience and perseverance, the Order will see 
its most prosperous days. 



Intee-State Co-Opebation.— The Patrons of 
Monroe county, Maine, received direct from 
Louisiana, through a Grange agency, six and 
a half tons of sugar and a large amount of 
coffee. 

OuB Corner Stone. — The solid corner stone 
of our Order must be mutual trust, mutual 
sympathy and mutual helpfulness. We must 
know each other better and trust each other 
more. 

U-^ELEss Effobt. — It is said that Ihe enemies 
of the Order have rai-ed a fund of $1,000,000 
with whicu to break down tha business opera- 
tions of the Patrons. The fool and his money, 
etc. 

The First Person Initiated. — Bro. Kelley, 
of the Na ional Grnnge, says Stanley Kussell, 
ef Sauk Rapids, Minnesota, was the first per- 
son regularly initiated into the Order. 



The Grange in Canada.— We see it stated 
that there are 147 subordinate Granges in Canada 
and nine "Division" Granges, corresponding, 
we suppose, to our State Granges. 



Let Your Work be Well Done — " What- 
ever is "worth doing.ai all is worth doing wtll." 
If you org inize a Grange, mike it one ttiat you 
will have reason ti> be proud of. 



The Subordinate Granges in the State of 
New York are being incorporated under a gen- 
eral law of the State. 



California. 

ALASCEBA. 

Hat. — Livermore Enterprise, July 3 : Large 
quantities of new hay is being received now for 
shipment. The hay crop this season is far 
superior to any gathered for years. Many of 
our farmers fearing the wheat and barley, 
owing to lack of rain, would not fill well, con- 
cluded to cut it for hay, and now no valley in 
the State has a finer article or a more abundant 
supply. 

Considerable excitement is produced in the 
vicinity of Livermore, according to the Enter- 
prise, by the report that the C. P. R. R. Co. are 
laying claim to sections of land occupied by 
settlers under the homestead act or bought 
direct from the Government. A meeting was 
to be held on the 4th inst., to take measures for 
concerted action on the part of those directly 
interested. 

Quail are very plentiful in the vicinity of 
Washington, according to the Independent. 

James Batchiclder was driving on the San 
Leandro road last week in a buggy, when he 
met a threshing machine, which caused his 
horse to shy, and upset the buggy, whereby 
he was thrown out and had his collar bone 
broken. 
BUTTE. 

Prolific Alfalfa. — Oroville Mercury, 2d 
inst: Wm. Edmonds brought to our office a 
few days since, a sample of alfalfa, seven feet 
high. He has only one acre of this kind of 
grass, but he outs five crops a year from it, 
which yields three tons per crop. 

Lou Rose, of Biggs Station, was overcome 
by sun stroke while raking hay last week. He 
is getting on well but is very weak. 
COLUSA. 

Turning out Badly. — Sun, 3d inst: There 
are bnt few crops turning out as well as esti- 
mated. Some farmers have purchased almost 
double as many sacks as they have needed, and 
others again have sold almost double what they 
will have to deliver. All the winter sown wheat 
and volunteer is turning out badly. The sum- 
mer fallow is also falling short, but not so 
much. It will be short perhaps a fifth of the 
lowest calculations. 

On the 26th ult., the dwelling of Mr. Watt, 
about six miles northwest of Colusa, was 
burned with everything in it, together with the 
smoke house, considerable fencing, and about 
fifteen acres of standing grain. The cause of 
the disaster is supposed to be the carelessness 
of a Chinese cook. 

A house occupied by L. Jones, belonging to 
Elder Davis, near Meridian, was destroyed by 
fire on the 25lh ult. Nothing was saved, and 
Mrs. Jones narrowly escaped. 

About sis hundre'd bushels of wheat, in 
stacks, and a new header, were destroyed by 
fire last week at Hildreth's farm, near Fresh- 
water. 

A German named Joseph Todt was fatally 
injured by sun stroke near Jacinto, on the 
27th ult. 
CONTRA COSTA. 

The Harvest. — Gazette, 3 a\y 3: The harvest 
now in progress in the broad Pacheco and 
Diablo valleys is turning out well, as far as we 
can learn, and will probably average about 
twelve centals per acre, which is certainly a 
good average for as large an area and a dry 
season. The San Ramon has hardly yet got 
fairly into the harvest work, but has a larger 
area in grain than usual, and the crop is a fine 
one. The San Pablo plain we are told, will 
not have as good a crop as usual, but the hill 
districts between the plain and Martinez will 
turn off a large and excellent grain crop. 

A BAND of sheep in passing along the road 
through Diablo valley got into the wheat field 
of Mr. John Cavanagh and damaged it to the 
amount of several hundred dollars, as the 
owner of the sheep says he does not doubt, 
though Mr. Cavanagh considerately made his 
demand for damages only sixty dollars, which 
was paid. 

The field of the Pacheco tobacco company is 
now adjudged to have a three-fourths stand of 
plants, in fine, vigorous growth, many of them 
now three or four feet in hight, and nearly 
ready for the first cutting, which operation was 
to begin this week. 
KERN. 

Good Caops. — Southern ddifornian, 1st inst.: 
We have learned something of the crops to the 
Fouth, on the line of the Farmers' irrigating 
canal. It has been their most prosperous year. 
All have had abundance of witer up to this 
lime, and now they propose putting a wing- 
dam in the river to keep the water from spread- 
inj away from them. The plan of watering the 
ground thoroughly in winter has been prac- 
ticed while there was a great supply, and so a 
good CI op has bi en produced withoat any irri- 
gation afier planting. 

I.OS ANQELBS. 

CoEN. — Express 3d inst.: The best sources of 
information m this city siy that we shall have 
a corn crop this year one-fourth greater than 
that of any previous season. The crop in Los 
Nietps and ihe Monte is unusually heavy, and 
agreal deal of new Wud. has been sown on the 
Coyote, Santi Gertrudes and the vicinity of 
Compton. Tiie small grain is far more sdtis- 
f.ctory than was anticipated. 

CoL. Kewen has a banana plant about 
eighteen feet high which gives promise of a 
fine crop. The bananas are already three or 



four inches long, and the bunch is as long as 

an ordinary man's arm. 

MARIPOSA. 

Ieeioating Ditch.— ya2e«e, July 3: E. W. 
Chapman has let a contract to a Chinese com- 
pany to dig a ditch to take water from Big 
creek, the main tributary of the south fork oC 
the Merced river, across the divide to the head 
waters of the Fresno, thence to be conveyed 
down the natural channel of the Fresno to the 
plains, to be used for irrigating purposes. 
NAPA. 

New Wheat.— jReyiste/', 3d inst.: No new 
wheat received at our warehouses yet. Last 
year the first lots were received on the first of 
July, and that was the earliest season known. 
This year, owing to the rains, it is expected to 
be later. 
NEVADA. 

Gbape Syrup. — Foothill Tidings, 3d inst.: 
When at Indian springs a few weeks since Mr. 
Hatch showed us a sample of table syrup made 
by Mrs. Hatch by boiling down fresh pressed 
and pure grape juice, three and a half or four 
into one. It is said to be as nice for the table 
as maple syrup and also the very thing for use 
in swuet^ning fruit for pies and other purposes. 

The Tidings reports three fires during the 
past week, two dwellings and a schoolhouse, 
inJGrass Valley. The schoolhouse fire is be- 
lieved to have been the workof an incendiary. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Sorghum for Cattle.— The Folsom Tele- 
graph, 3d inst. says: Sorghum as food for cattle 
is spoken of in the highest terms of praise by 
Mr. Currier of this place. He says that it is 
far superior in milk giving properties to any- 
thing he has ever given his cows, enriching the 
milk and putting in fine condition all stock fed 
upon it. He has a crop every six weeks from 
the first planting. After the first growth it is 
cut to within six inches of the ground, when it 
assumes a new growth which in like manner is 
cut, this is again repeated, thus affording a 
continuous supply of the very best food for hia 
cattle through the entire dry season. 
SAN BENITO. 

Scarcity of Wheat. — HoUister Enterprise, 
3d inst. : Wheat is a scarce article in this com- 
munity just now— in fact there seems to be 
little, if any, in the market. J. M. Browne's 
flouring mill has been shut down for some days 
in consequence of its scarcity, but it is thought 
a supply will be procured soon and the mill put 
in operation again. This state of things can- 
not last long, as the farmers will soon be 
threshing. 
SAN DIEOO. 

Specimen Wheat.— WoWd, 3d inst.: We 
have in our office specimens of wheat and bar- 
ley from the farm of Mr. Clendenin, at Valle de 
los Viejas, that are very fine. The wheat is of 
the Australian and Club varieties, and they 
stand over five feet high with good strong straw. 
The heads are full and the berry nice and 
plump, the Australian head being much larger 
than the Club. The barley is just as good, but 
not quite so tall, but equally as well filled. The 
grain in this section is reported as all good. 
SONOMA. 

The Harvest. — Petaluma Argus, 2d inst.: 
The grain harvest has commenced at Valley 
Ford. We are informed that the yield of wheat 
will probably be about an average; oats will be 
light. Potatoes are coming on finely but 
there are fears of a grasshopper raid, and tur- 
keys are being imported to meet the raiders. 

Several farmers in this vicinity are summer 
fallowing a portion of their land. It plows up 
finely since the late rains, especially the adobe. 
TUOIiUMNE. 

Surprise Oats. — Independent, 3d inst. : Beau- 
tiful Surprise oats are grown this year at Cal- 
der's ranch, in the mountains above Sonora. 
The old gentleman brought into our office on 
Tuesday specimens measuring seven feet six 
inches in hight. The two acres of land on which 
the oats were grown, was made by filling in a 
gulch, and the crop proves that slum made land 
is the best kind. 
YOLO. 

Curious. — Mail, Ist inst: Chas. T. Bid well 
has in his lot a couple of pear trees of very 
small size, which were planted last March, now 
in full bloom — something never before known 
in this section; but we can name as great a 
curiosity. We have in our lot two fig trees, 
planted in March, and not over four feet high, 
one of them having on it twenty-six and the 
other twelve thrifty figs, which we expect to 
see reach maturity. 

Geo. G. Peewitt, while engaged in teaming 
for Wm. Montgomery, near Dtvisville, acoi- 
dently fell from the wagon, on Siturd ly last, 
and the wheels passed over his brea t, bre iking 
two or three of bis ribs and otherwise d )ing 
him internal injury. He was sent to Wood- 
land, and died at about 11 o'clock the same 



Varnish that will Adhere to Metal. — In 
order to make alcDhclio varnihh adhere more 
firmly to polished metallic snrfacps, A. Morell 
adds one part of pure crystallized boracio acid 
to two hundred parts of varnish. Thus pre- 
pared it adheres bo firmly to the metal that it 
cannot be scratched off with th« finger nail; it 
appears, in fact, like a glaze, If more boracio 
aciil is added than above reommended, the 
varnish loses its intensity of color. 

To Keep Buttee Cool — A simple method of 
keeping butter in warm wentb^r is to set over 
the dish containing it a Inrge flower pot or ua- 
glazod earthenware crock, inverted. Wrap a 
wet cloth around the covering vessel, and place 
the whole where there is a draft of air. 



22 



[July 10, 1875 




Better than Gold. 

Better than grandeur, better tban Kold, 
Tbao rank aod title a tliouKand fold, 
1b a bealtby body, a mind at ease. 
And simple pleaBurea that always please; 
A heart that can feel for a neighbor's woe 
And Bhare his Joys with a genial glow, 
With sympathies large enough to enfold 
All men as brothers, is better than gold. 

Better than gold Is a conscience clear. 
Though tolling f<r bread In an humble spheri-; 
Doubly blest with content ana health, 
Untried by the cares of lust or wealth. 
Lowly living and lofty thought 
Adorn and ennoble a poor man's lot; 
For man and morals. In nature's plan. 
Are the genuine test of a gentleman. 

Better than go'd is the swett repose 

Of the eons of toil when their labors close: 

Better than gold is a poor man's sleep. 

And the balm that drops on his sluisibers deep; 

Bring sleepy drafts to the downy bed. 

Where luxury pillows his aching head; 

His simpler opiate labor deems 

A shorter road to the land of dreams. 

Better than gold is a thinking mind 
That in the realm of boobs can tind 
A treasure turpaKsing Australian ore, 
And live with the good and great of yore. 
The gage's lore aud the poet's lay. 
The glories of empires past away; 
The world's great drama will thus enfold 
And yield a pleasure better than gold. 

Better than gold is a peaceful homo, 
Where all the fireside charities come; 
The Bbrineof love, the heaven of life, 
Hallowed by mother, or sister, or wife. 
However bumlle the home may be, 
Or tried by sorrow with heaven's decree, 
The blessings that never were bought or sold, 
And center there are better than gold. 



Curious Facts About Clothing. 

Washing days at the time of the Tudors and 
BtnartH, though a little more important than in 
the preceding ages, had none of those unpleas- 
antnesses and terrors which are said now to ac- 
company them. Articles which required washing 
were "few and far between," while those of a 
texture which would not "stand a wash" were 
usually wo n. The dyer was far more com- 
monly tmploytd than the laundress, and hi.i 
trade thus covered a 'maltitude of sins" of 
omission of peisonal cleanliness which the 
laundress would have remedied wiih more 
heHlihy results. 

Velvets, taffeta and rich silks were in the 
middle ages ofteu worn by the wealthy without 
any underclothing whatever, while the domes- 
tics and people of lower order wore coirse 
woolen, also without underclothing. The poa- 
Bession of a linen shirt, even with the highest 
nobles, was a matter of note, aud bat few ward- 
rotes contained them. 

Under the Tudors nightgowns were worn, 
though they had not been before; but they 
were formed most of silk or velvet, so that no 
washing was required. Anne Boleyn's night 
dress was made of black satiu bound with black 
tafifeta, and edpedwith velvet of the sjme color. 
One of Queen Elizabeth's niuh'gowns was of 
black velvet, trimmed with silk lace and lined 
with fur. and in 1568 her majesty ordered 
George Bradyman to deliver "threescore and 
sixe of the best sable shymies, to furnish ns a 
nightgown." In another warrant from her 
majefety in 1572 she oidtrs the delivery of 
"twelve yards of purple velvet, frized 00 the 
back side with white and russet silks," for a 
nightgown for herself, and also ortlers the 
delivery of fourteen yanis of murry damask for 
the "makyng of a nyghtgown for the Erie of 
Leycester." Night dresses for ladies were, at 
a later ooriod, called night vails, and in the 
reign oi Queen Anne it became the fashion for 
them to be worn in the daytime on the streets, 
over the usual dress. Night caps were mostly 
of silks and velvets, and these, with the velvet 
night dresses, the silken shirts, and other mat- 
ters of a like tiud, eased the laundress thous^h 
they must have added to the discomfort of the 
wearer. — Ex. 



BoMAN Kitchen Utensils.— A paragraph in 
the Journal de Geneve mentions the acqui^-ition 
by the museum of that town of a net of Bomau 
kitchen utensils found in a field near Martigny, 
having piobably been buritd on account of 
some sudden altirm. There are thiity urticlei, 
mtOJtly in bronze, some of them elubor-itely 
worked, reminding one of the beautiful shape 
and ornRmentation of Pompeiian vessels. Tne 
shovel and pot-haoper do not dififer much from 
modern articles, and there is an earthen satice- 
pan with the bo: torn worn away, a large boiler, 
a funnel, ttvo ladles, a stew pan, aud vases, or 
ewers, with two handles, one of which bears 
the represent ition of two gladiators, and ap- 
parently awarded as a prize. There are also 
two silver ornaments, seemingly of later date, 
and believed by Dr. Gosse, the unrator, to have 
b en used in Christian worship. He attributes 
the find to the third century. Three bronze 
< 18 were discovered in the fcame spot, two of 
tuem bearing th» efBgy of Angnstni and the 
third that of Atoninnn. 



Mrs. Lincoln's Derangenoent. 

Mrs. Mary Linooln, the widow of President 
Lincoln, was recently bro«ght before a jury of 
very influential residents of Chicago to test her 
sanity. She was attired in deep mourning, and 
her face was sad and perplexed. Her son and 
counsel, Mr. Isaac N. Arnold, an old friend of 
her husband, were with her. The evidence 
showed that for several yeais she has bteu a 
confirmed spiiilualist, and believed that her 
husband's spirit was constantly hovering about 
her and directing her. She was also haunted 
by an Indian spirit, who with hideous yells 
would remove and replace her scalp, take wires 
cut of her left eye, and detach steel springs 
from her jawbones, at other limes scraping 
bones out of her head. She prepared every- 
thing for her death on the 6tb of September 
.'ast, the date announced to her by her bpirit at- 
tendant. Her mania was for shopping, and 
her rooms at the Grand Pacific Hotel contained 
hundreds of packages of dry goods unopened. 

A hallucination possessed her that Chicago 
was to be burned again; indeed, on one occasion 
she went wildly to the Safe Depo.sit Company, 
and told the officers that the South Side was on 
fire, diew $57,000 in bonds, which she placed 
in her pocket, and semt her twelve trunks to 
Milwaukee for safety. She also believed that 
her life was threatened, and that the rebels had 
poisoned her cofifee. She would neither sit nor 
sleep alone in the hotel, but always wanted a 
servant or companion with her. On one occa- 
sion she sent to the office for protection, ask- 
ing that the biggest man in the houee be sent 
to guard her. The evidence of her derange- 
ment was very complete, and she was sent to a 
private institution for the cute of the insane at 
Batavia, Illinois, under the charge of Dr. Pat- 
terson. 

The Moral Effkcts op Hubby.— To the 
thoughtful the moral consequences of tension 
and hurry are very saddening; to the physi- 
cian their physical results are a matter of pro- 
found concern, for their grave evils come under 
his d;iily observation. No evolution of force 
can take place with undue rapidity without 
damage to the machine in which the transform- 
ation is efifected. Express railway stock has a 
much shorter term of use than that reserved 
for slower traffic. The law is universal that 
intensity and duration of action are inversely 
proportional. It is therefore no matter of sur- 
prise to find that the human nervous system is 
no exception to the law. The higher salubrity 
of rural over urban life is not entirely a matter 
of fresh air and exercise. 

Rural life involves leisure and pause in work, 
which are very essential to the maintenance of 
the nervous system in a state of due nutrition. 
Unremitting spasm soon ceases altogether. 
The high tension of life produces weakness 
at the very place where strength is most 
needed. The damage done to health of the 
most valuable part of the community, the best 
trained thinkers, most useful workers, is in- 
calculable. Work and worry, though not pro- 
portional, are closely connected, and an excess 
of the former soon entails an increase in the 
latter beyond the limits which the nervous sys- 
tem can bear with impunity, especially under 
the conditions under which work has to be 
done. The machinery for organizing the work 
of a community has to bo rigid and inflexible, 
and in the strain involved in bringing a chang- 
ing organism into harmony with a machine, 
Ihe former must inevitably suffer. — London 
Laiwd 

Honesty ot Female Clerks. 

General Spinner pays a merited compliment 
to the female clerks ia the Treasury Depart, 
ment. He employs them as "money counters," 
because he has more confidence in their integ- 
rity than in that of men. When suspicion of 
dishonest practices crept into the mind of Mr. 
Graves, who is in charge of the department, he 
expressed his conviction to the General that 
some of the women would probably be implica- 
ted. But the old gentleman did not believe it. 
He shook his head and replied, "You are wrong; 
a woman will not steal; she has not got the 
nerve. If she did give way at any lime to temp- 
tation, it would only be to take a few dollars, 
and if she filched more, it was because she had 
some outside 'pal,' who was sure to be a man." 
The ladies wonld doubtless feel more flattered 
if General Spinner had omitted the reason for 
their honesty, to wit, "a want of nerve." He 
might with truth have said it is because of their 
possessing naturally stronger religious con- 
victions, and of their being generally educated 
in a higher school of morality. But the fact, 
even with his qualifications, is creditable to the 
sex, and commends woman to employment in a 
field of labor from which she has heretofore 
been too much excluded. 

A Houbiblk Affaib. — A tearful suicide oc- 
curred in Paris the other day. Gerard An- 
thoine called his little boy, aged six, to him 
and said: "Little one, you have oftien wished 
to play with this pistol," showing the child an 
old pistol. "Oh, yes, papa." "Well, we t'H 
play with it now," and loading the pistol the 
father handed it to the boy "Now, look," he 
8>iid, "I will get down on my knees before you; 
you will point at me right between the eyes and 
pull the trigger; you'll see how funny it is!" 
and he knelt down. "Aim well, in the head, 
between the eyes," he said again; "but first 
embrace me." The poor child embraced his 
father, then pointed the pistol as told, and 
fired. Gerard fell back dead, and the boy see- 
ing the terrible result, ran out of the room 
sobbing. 



The Silk Frauds— How They Were Ac- 
complished. 

The Claflin indictment has a long history 
connected with it, and constitutes a memorable 
chapter in the history of a great conspiracy for 
defrauding the Federal revenue. In 1870, one 
Charles L. Lawrence, a companion and protege 
of Tweed, and secretary of the Americus Club, 
conceived the idea of establishing a gigantic 
system of smuggling. The associations of Law- 
rence were well calculated for villainy. The 
companions of his revels were thieves, who 
boldly flaunted their plunder before the eyes of 
their victims. They laughed at the perils of 
the law. Lawrence turned his attention to silks, 
which, by reason of their being subject to a 
duty of sixty percent, and not especially bulky, 
promised the best chances of profit. His plans 
were laid with extraordinary deliberation and 
method. Having selected his confederates, 
they agreed upon a lexicon of cipher, so com- 
plete as to bo sufficient for any conceivable form 
of correspondence. Thus prepared, Lawrence 
went to Europe aud commenced operations. The 
scheme was to invoice silks as hosiery and cot- 
ton goods, to come into collusion with one Des 
Anges, then Deputy Collector. One package of 
hosiery or cotton goods was sent with each 
lot of silk, and this one package, in each in- 
stance, was sent to the appraiser's store for ex- 
amination, while the others were delivered to 
the smugglers. The saving of duty was enor- 
mous. 

It was not until the summer of 1872 that Mr. 
Talcott, the head of Claflin & Co.'s silk depart- 
ment, discovered where silks could be bought 
at less than the cost of importation. Since 
that time there have been sold to that house 
$500,000 worth of them, and thousands of dol- 
lars worth oi thera have also been botight b}' 
Boston merchants, who, it seems, were also in 
the secret. While Lawrence was engaged in 
his dishonest business, a rival sprung up. His 
name was Wolff, and his customers held for 
him some $700,000 worth of silks. It is esti- 
mated that Lawrence has made $70,000 by his 
operations, but it is not known what his ex- 
peuses and great cost of living in Europe was. 
Des Auges, the betrayer of his trust, laugnishes 
iu jail. Des Auges was once an Inspector of 
Customs in the Boston Custom House. Subse- 
quently he was transferred to New York, and 
was the first man promoted in conformity to 
the service rules established. 



Shaking Hands. — How did the people gel 
the habit of shaking hands? The answer is 
not difficult to find. In early and barbarous 
time,-, when every savage or semi-savage was 
hi< own law giver, judge, soldier, and police- 
man, and had to watch over his own safety, in 
default of all other protection, two friends and 
acquaintances, when they chanced to meet, of- 
fered each to the other' the riaht baud, the 
hand alike of defense and offense, the baud 
that wields the sword, the daga;er, the club, the 
tomahawk, or other weapon of war. Each did 
this to show that the hand was empty, and 
neither war nor treachery was intended. A 
man cannot well slab another while be is in 
the act of shaking hands with him unless ho is 
a double-dj-ed traitor and villain, and strives 
to aim a cowardly blow with the left, while giv- 
ing the right hand, and pretending to be on 
good terms with his victim. The custom of hand 
shaking prevails more or less among all civil- 
ized nations, and is the tacit avowal of friend- 
ship and good will, just as a kiss is of a warmer 
passion. Ladies, as everyone must have re- 
marked, seldom or never shake hands with the 
cordiality of gentlemen, nnless it be with each 
other, 'i'he reason is obvious. They cannot 
ha expected to show to persons of the other 
sex a warmth of greeting which might be mis- 
interpreted, unless such persons are very 
closely related to them by family or affection, 
iu which case hand shaking is not needed, and 
the lips do more agreeable duty. 

Not a Cboss Buab. — In the valley of Tajar- 
rau, in Siberia, two children, one four and the 
other six years old, rambled away from (heir 
friends, who were hay-making. At last they 
came near to a bear lying on the grass, and 
wit'uout the slightest fear, went up to him. He 
looked at them steadily without moving. At 
It-ni^th they began playing with him, and 
mounted upon his back, which he submitted to 
in perfect good humor. The parents, missing 
the truants, were not long in reaching th^ spot, 
when, to their dismay, they beheld one child 
sitting on the bear's back, and the other feeding 
him with fruit. They called quickly, when the 
youngsters ran lo their friends, and Bruin, ap- 
parently not liking the interruption, went into 
the forest. 



A Sinoi:lab Name.— The most singularly 
named man in New York is Walter 11. T. Jones, 
the middle initials standing for Bestored 
Twice. His parents first had a son called 
Walter, who died. Another boy was born to 
them, and christened after the first, with an 
addition, Walter Bestored. He died, and a 
third male child was born, aud received the 
name he now bears, Walter Restored Twice 
Jones. 

" Shroud!" exclaimed an old lady who was 
listening to an old sea captain's story: "What 
do you have them at sea for?" "To bury 
dead calms in, madam." 



Vknicb has a woman's paper called £0 Dvmi'j. 
The editor is a young lady of twenty-three 
years, who is self-educated, having risen from 
the people, 



The Won't-Work Men. 

The Chicago Tirries has an article referring 
to a class of men who came to California with 
the immigration, looked around for a few days, 
and returned home to abuse the country. The 
Times puts the case strongly, but, as relates to 
these idhrs, none too severely. Those who 
needed work among the immigrants, and sought 
it, generally found it. So far as we can learn, 
the country labor markt t is by no means over- 
stocked, and the railroad companies are giving 
employment to Chinese because white laborers 
do net present themselves. This is what the 
Times says in relation to the growlers: 

Probably one-half of human designs have at 
bottom a motive whose end is success without 
labor. Thieves, confidence mtn, gamblers, and 
scores of other similar classes have this end in 
view; and they, in reality, labor twice as hard 
to live without work, as they would have to 
labor to secure the same results by downright 
exertion. A man will perform a most gigantic 
labor in crossing the continent to California, 
in order to live there, as he hopes, without 
what he calls work; and then will perform an- 
other most gigantic labor in recrossiiig the con- 
tinent, to his Eastern home, where the pros- 
peets of having to work for a living are less 
severe than on the Pacific slope. In this case, 
the exertion he has made in twice crossing the 
continent, the sacrifices he has endured, if put 
iu the direction of ditch-digging, or appHed at 
the tail of a plow, would have alTordod him a 
very substantial addition to his income. He 
found plenty of work in California; but it was 
to escape, and not to secure work, that he un- 
derwent the labor of going to that State. 

HoMB. — Best of all things to us is home. In 
hours of ambition and pleasure we may some- 
times forget its exquisite sweetness, but let 
sickness or sadness come, and we return to it 
at once. Let the hollow hearts that feign a 
friendship which they do not feel, stand revealed 
before us— let us know, as we all must at 
moments, that however important we may be 
in our own estimation, our places would be 
filled in an hour's notice should we die to-mor- 
row; then we whisper to ourselves the magic 
word home, and are comforted. 

"Home, Sweet Home!" It does not matter 
how humble it is, nor is it less a home for being 
a palace. It is where those we love dwell- 
wherever that may be— where we are valued for 
ourselves and are held in esteem because of 
what we are in ourselves and not because of 
power, or wealth, or what we can do for other 
people. 

Who would be without a home? Who would 
take the world's applause, and honor, in place 
of the tenderness of a few true hearts and the 
cosy fireside meetings where truth may be 
spokeu without disguise, and envious carpings 
are unknown? In life's battle even the hero 
finds many enemies and much abuse and slan- 
der and dstraction; but into a homo, if it is 
what it ought to b», these things never find 
their way. There, to his wife, thfl plainest man 
becomes a wonderful thing — a sage, a man who 
ought to be President of the United States, and 
would be were his worth known. 

Individual Dutiks. — We should remember 
that it lies in the power of each one of us to 
make life a great deal more pleasant, or more 
dreary, to the people among whom we are 
thrown, and that only by taking or not taking 
a little trouble to cultivate kind feeling, and 
act on that genuine courtesy which, be it ob- 
served, is a Scripture command, though, for 
some reason or other, many good people seem 
to have agreed to ignore it. The world would 
not be such a bad place, after all, if people 
would not make it so, and if we all tried to 
brighten anil smooth it, instfad of casting 
shadows and heaping difficulties in another's 
way. If we would try to cheer and encourage 
one another, instead of taking a pride in being 
each one mure reserved and on the defensive 
than another, we should see many sad 
countenances brighten into bmiles, and ill 
teaiper often melt into good humor. People 
are often dull and irritable because they have 
no hope ot boing well received, no confidence 
iu their own powers of pleasing; and thus 
whole lives are saddtned that mignt be render- 
ed happy. 

Attacked bt a Hawk. — On Sunday, says 
the Highland Falls i/oururtZ, as a little girl living 
ut West Point was coming down the back road 
from that place, on a visit to this village, she 
was attacked by a largtt and ferocious hawk,and 
but for the timely assistance of a gentleman 
who struck it to the ground with a cane, the 
bird would undonbtedly have destroyed her 
si^ht, as its efforts seemed to be entirely to 
atiike her in the face. It is supposed the nest 
of the bird had been robbed while she was away, 
aud on return, finding her nest empty, attacked 
the first person she mot, which happened to be 
the little girl mentioned. 

"LovKLy WoiiKN." — The most hideous 
women in the woild are said to live in the val- 
ley of Spiii, which is a mountain-bound, almost 
inaccessible place, 12,000 feet above the sea, 
among the Himalayas. Their features are large 
and coarse, the expression of their faces is 
usually a natural grimace, and they hang huge 
rings in their nosej. They drtss in thick tunics 
atid trousers, and their heavy boots, coming 
above the knees, are often filled around the legs 
with flour for warmth. 



London market gardeners pay $200 per acre 
yearly rent for the laud they onltivate, and 
their average profits are $500 per aer*. 



July 10, 1875.] 



23 



Flirtation. 

No woman can carry on a flirtation with a 
married man that is not criminal. No woman 
can flirt innocently even with a young man. 
It is the first step toward unbalancing his char- 
acter. Through her he sees other womeu and 
forms an estimate. The yonng womin who 
enters a family and wins the aflections of the 
husb.ind and father knowingly — and she can 
not do otherwise— has entered on the road to 
perdition. Thfre is a punishment for the 
housebreaker, but none for the homtbreaker, 
who steals and mars life's best treasures. 
Every w<^man has the best right to her hus- 
band. He is hers in sickness and hers in 
health, to love and cherish, as exclusively as if 
she be his. He is to provide for her, honor 
and love her. He is her protect )r against all 
the adverse circumstances of life; uo otht;r 
woman has any right to his attentions and en- 
dearments, and a wife has a perfect right to 
resent such nttentions. A man who saw an- 
other man's arm around his wife's waist would 
consider it a case of court, or an exercise for 
pistol shooting. Women, with keener sensi- 
bilities and finer nature, feel it deeper. It 
tonohes the heart. 

A certaiu sen-ible woman says there are two 
things she will never allow anybody to meddle 
y/i ii — ber husb.md and her sewing machine. 
Such flir ations are unworthy of true manhood 
or womanhood. They bliiiht the lives that 
were created in the ima^e of God, and make 
the inuoceut snfifcr for the guilty. All mothers 
will do Well to see that their daughters are not 
mentally growing up on the morbid books in 
which somebo'ly is always represented as fall- 
ing in love with somebody clue's husband or 
wife, and a "soul union" picture which i? in- 
tended to veil the incurnition of lust. There 
are enough men and women to fall by the force 
of circumstances or the depravity of original 
sin, without educating any to it. It is well 
enough to pull our ox or ass out of the pit; but 
we do not want to dig pits for them to fall into. 

Many a soul has g me blood stained into the 
presence of i s Maker, sent thither by a climax 
of dark circumstances brought about by a 
woman's flirtation. Don't flirt. It is. unwom- 
anly; it is untrue to your sex; it is wrong 
against the mother you revere. The man whom 
you are temping will not respect you, and 
worse, you will not respect yourself. — Jix. 

A Woman is a woman, and not a lesser edi- 
tion of man. The competition in which we 
are forever laboring to involve them has no 
existence in nature. They are not rivals nor 
antagonists; they are two halves of a complete 
being. The otfioes they hold in this world are 
essentially difl'-reut. There is scarcely any 
natural standing ground which we can realize, 
on which these two creatures appear as rivdls. 
The very thought is preposterous. Shill the 
woman challenge the man to a trial of sirengthV 
Shall the man pit hims^l agiiinst the woman for 
delicacy of eye and taste? Shall she plow the 
heavy fields with him, wading through the new 
turned mold, or shall he watch the sick with 
her, patient through the weary vig 1? An ex- 
change of place and toil, the m>iu taking the 
indoor work, and the woman the outdoor, in 
order to prove the futility of their mutual dis- 
content, was a favorite subject of the old bal- 
lad makers, and the witty minstrel is generally 
very great on the domestic confusion that fol- 
lows, and gives the wife the best of it. But 
the fact is, that such rivalry can be nothing 
but a jest. The two are not rivals — they are 
not alike. 

The CBEiTioN of Woman.— A prince once 
said to Babbi Gamaliel: "Your God is a thief; 
he 8urpri.-.ed Adam in his sleep and stole a rib 
from him." 

The rabbi's daughter overheard this speech, 
and whispered a word or two in her lather's 
ear, asking permission to answer this tingular 
opinion herself. He gave his consent. 

The girl stepped forward, and feigning terror 
and dismay, threw her arms aloft in supplici- 
tion, and cried out, "My liege, my liege, jus- 
tice — revenge!" 

"What has happened?" asked the prince. 

"A wicked theft has taken place, '"" she re- 
plied. "A robber has crept s-cretly into our 
bouse, carried away a silver goblet, and left a 
golden one in its stead." 

"What an upright thief!" exclaimed the 
prince. "Would that such robberies were of 
more frequent occurrence." 

"Behold, then, sire, the kind of a thief that 
the Creator was: He stole a rib from Adam, 
and gave him a beautiful wife instead." 

"Well said!" avowed the piince. 

Hardly a distinguished man can be found in 
all the centuries of history who reached his 
pre-eminenoe without a prodiaious self curbing 
and 8alf-inciting. Military chieftcins, princely 
merchants, navigatois, explorers, artists, 
scholirs, became buch by a voluntary concen- 
tration which required the resistance of many 
strong propensities, and the summoning f )rih 
of some of their moat reluctant powers. Men 
acqp.ire this self mastery in some things almost 
whenever an adequate motive puts them to the 
efl'ort. And, if in some things, why not 
others ? 




Illustrations from Modern Novels. 

"The affable gentleman made a low bow. and the con- 
versation at rhis point took a decidedly flowery turn." 
— The Two Sisters. 



QOOD ^Ei^LTH- 



Y©yfiq poLKs' GoLiliifi. 



For Baby's Sake. 

The wear.v night has worn away 

In troubled dream and start of pain; 
And, groping throtigh the shadows gray, 

Morn liiihts my darkened room again. 
How can I meet this bitter morn, 
Life's anguish left, its hope, forlorn ? 
How can I bear the thoughts that wabe 
From sleep with rae ? For baby's sake ! 

The brightest of the morning beams 

Seeks out the darling lying there; 
It lights the sleep-flushed cheek: it gleams 

In tanf^led waves of sunny hair; 
Flies from the hand that grasps in vain, 
Then kisses the soft lips again. 
No shadow of my sorrow lies 
In those forget-me-nots, his eyes. 

I check tlio sighs that quickly come, 

Drive back the tears that baste to spring; 

I will not cloud with look of gloom, 
The little one's awakening. 

His father's face he ne'er shall see; 

More bright his mother's smile mnst be. 

My bark of joy gone flown— it's wake 

Must glitter still — for baby's sake. 

Dear baby arms, that clasp my own; 

The soft embrace renews my power ! 
Sweet voice, I hear in every tone 

God's message to my darkest hour. 
He knew the griefs my soul must stir. 
And sent my liltle comforter: 
A baby's hand to help me on — 
A baby's love to lean upon. 

Nor all alone, I'm sometimes sure. 

My .joy In this fair child can be; 
From holier home, with love more pure. 

His father watches him with me. 
To grasp heaven's hope, by faith and prayer, 
To train his boy to ment him there — 
For this I live I For this I wake I 
Help me, dear Lord 1 for baby's sake ! 

— Sophie Langdoriy in Aldine, 



Don't Give Up, But Try. 

A gentleman traveling in the northern part 
of Ireland, heard the voice of children, and 
stopped to listen. 

Finding the sound came from a smalt build- 
ing used as a echoolhouse, he drew near; as the 
door was open he went in, and listened to the 
words the boys were spelling. 

One little fellow stood apart, looking very 
sad. 

" Why does that boy stand there?" asked tbe 
gentleman. 

"Oh, he is good for nothing," replied the 
teacher. "There's nothing in Tiim. I can 
make nothing of him. He is the most stupid 
bjy in school." 

The gentleman was surprised at his answer. 
He saw that the ttacher was so stern and rough 
that the younger and more timid were nearly 
crushed. After a few words to them, placing 
his hands on the noble brow of the little fellow 
who stood apart, he said: 

"One of these dajs you may be a fine 
scholar; iHon't {jive up; try, my boy, try." 

The boy's soul was aroused. His sleeping 
mind awoke. A new purpose was formed. 
From that hour he was anxious to exc^l. And 
he did become a fine scholar, and the author 
of a well known commentary on the bible; a 
great and good man, beloved and honored. It 
was Dr, Adam Clarke. 

The secret of his success is worth knowing: 
" Don't give it up; but try, my boy, try." 



Milk Diet in Typhoid Fever. 

Dr. L. R. Rogers, of Albany, sends to the 
Medical Record the following account of his 
management of a severe case of typhoid fever 
on the milk diet principle: 

The point to which I wish to call attention is 
the diet part of the treatment. As soon as I 
felt sure that she was going to have a regular 
"run" of fever, I comiaenced to give milk-- 
ffesh, raw, cow's milk, from one cow, and not 
more than twelve hours old at any time. I 
gave, during tha bight of the disease, from one 
and one-half to two quarts per day; every hour 
at first, then every half hour, and tor over two 
weeks every quarter hour, without any water 
.or other food, except a few times when I tried 
beef tea and other dietary preparations. The 
latter in every instance laised her pulse and 
fever, and thickened the fur on her tongue. 
Her bowels gave no trouble, moving by injec- 
tions once in four or five days, the dejections 
like those of an infant. Quinine and stimu- 
lants made her worse every time when tried, 
and the severe pain in back and limbs, which 
came on everyjday about six p. M., was quieted 
in ten or fifteen minutes by a mild current of 
Faradic electricity from the b:ick of the neck 
to the sacrum of the feet, which was continued 
twenty or thirty minutes. 

This treatment I used for thirty-two consec- 
utive da\8, giving each time a good night's 
rest, free from pain, without anything in the 
shape of opiates. I had the best counsel the 
couniy afi'orded, and tbe case was considered 
by all who saw it one of the most severe. 

Small doses of the sulphite of soda were all 
the medicine she took that did not disagree, 
and I gave this simply to prevent decomposi- 
tion in the milk. 

There were many fatal cases in the epid-^mic, 
but all wbo bore milk we'l recovered. In this 
case, although she had the nourishment in one 
and one-half to two quarts of the best milk, 
she continued to get weaker and weaker for 
over four weeks, which shows very plainly that 
any other diet would have failed to meet the 
emergency. 

Milk contains all that is needed to nourish 
and keep up every part of the system, nearly, 
and is always the same; while our best dietary 
mixtures are wanting in many things needfd 
by the economy, and cannot be made twice 
alike. I have since that time used milk very 
freely in all stages of various diseases, and 
have had reason to be well satisfied with it as 
the best diet for both adults and children. 

I do not put forth this case as one to copy 
from in the particnl ir treatment, but simply to 
show that the best article of diet that the wo Id 
contains, either in disease or in convalescence, 
and one always obtainable, is too often neglect- 
ed, and complex dietary compounds used in- 
stead. The patient in this instance was con- 
fined to the house over eight weeks, and made 
an excellent recovery. She was thirty-six 
when it occurred, and is now forty-three, and 
has never been sick since. 



OvtE twenty tons of violets are annually 
used by the perfumers of Cannes and Nice, 
and 19U tons of orange blossoms in Nice alone. 

Nothing is more common said Voltaire, than 
people who advise ; nothing more rare than 
those who aBsiat. 



GiKL-STAits.-r-Speaking of comets, we inhabi- 
tants of the earth don't see so many of them. 
Probably not more than one hundred and fifty 
have visited the world; but a great astronomer 
named K^per once said that there are more 
comets in space than there are fishes m tha 
sea! I heard a little bi)y say, the other day, 
that comets were girl stars, because they had 
long hair! I thought it was such a comical 
ideii that I must repi at it. At the same tim«, 
the little boy ought to be told that all comets 
do not have long hair, or whatever else we 
choose to call the great cloud of vapor that 
Streams from the comet's head. The comet 
which we all have been admiring this summer, 
was, as you know, a long-haired comet, or, as 
the astronomers say, it had a very long, straight 
tail; but som'-times the tails are curved to one 
side or the other. Th' re are a few cumets that 
have two tails — or " brushes " as the Chinese 
call them — and some have even more. — St. 
Nicholas for December. 



Oo[«EST[c EcofiofiY^ 



Avoid Peoteaoted Toil. — The work of the 
day should be conducted in the best manner. 
Thorough, careful, intelligent work during 
seven or eight hours is much more profitable 
than ten hours of hurried work. In cities, 
merchants and bu-iness men seldom apply 
themselves more than six hours a day, and 
probably the greater part of the best work done 
in that city is performed in less than fivehotjrs 
each day. There is no reason why farmers 
who create the wealth of the world should 
labor more hours than they who manage this 
wealth. Formerly, constant toil was required 
to support a family, because all work was 
done at a disadvantase, tools of all kinds were 
pjor, and labor saving machinery was un- 
known. More actual work was required in 
tbe List generation to make the clothing of a 
family than is now required to buy the cloth- 
ing, and the food added, and every year the 
faimer has new advan'ages and powers in this 
direction. It is for this reason that the 
farmer should seek to enlarge his means for 
acquiring information, and of rising to new 
dignity. This he can only do by having more 
leisure, and oy avoiding protracted toil. There 
is no good reason now why he may not unite 
culture and elegance with rural pursuits. — 
Micawber. 

Applying the Stomach PtJMP. — In the Glas- 
gow Medical Journal. Dr. McEwen recommends 
that in the use of the stomach pump the head 
should be bent forward on the introduction of 
the tube, instead of backward, as is generally 
taught in books. When tha head is thrown 
backward, he s-tys the spine becomes convex 
anteriorly, and as the tube is passed along it 
has a tendency to impinge upon the larynx; 
but when the head is bent forward then the 
mouth, pharynx and aDsophagus form a curve 
along which the tube glides gently into tbe 
ajsopbagus, and at the same time i.s directed 
away from the larynx. 



Luncheon in the City. 

The two most common subjects of complaint 
with wives and mothers of limited ineome in 
this and other large cities are, first, that they 
are debarred from society by the exoense of the 
ordinary methods of hospitiliiy; and secondly, 
that the habits of city life s-parate them from 
the compatiionship of their children. The wife 
of a man in moderate circumstances tells you 
that she cannot afi'ord to give balls, kettle- 
drums, or even dinners to her friends; that her 
boys and girls scurry ofi' to school after a hur- 
ried breakfast, and dine at noon alone; for. be- 
ing a woman of sense, she will not allow them 
to eat the heaviest meal of the day at six or 
seven p. m., the hour when their father eomes 
home to dinner. The fami y dinner at mid lay, 
and the evening tea of inland towns, at which 
parents and children gather about the table and 
learn to know one another through the inter- 
ests and feelings of every day, are almost un- 
known in the same grade of social city life. 

Nov.' we suggest that luncheon is a meal of 
undevi loped opportunities to the housekeeper 
and mother. We do not by anv means ref-r to 
the elaborate state lunches given by leaders of 
fashion dudog the la^t two or three years, 
where the floral decorations alone cost a liberal 
annual income. But there is no reason why 
any housekeeper should not, with a little ner- 
sonal trouble, convert her children's ditaner 
into a delicately served savory meal to which 
she could invite informally two or three of her 
lady friends. It isemphatically a wom.nn'smeal; 
and husbands need not hint cynically that the 
chief dish will be gossip. There is no better 
talk than that of three or four culture!, clever 
women, alone together; none which would be 
more civilizing and effective on c'lildren. 
How is a child to acquire good breeding if it 
is not brought socially into contact with well- 
bred people? American children in cities are 
crammed with all kinds of kmwledge, but they 
are left to the companionship of servants and 
of one another; whocan blame them if they too 
often betray the ideas and manners of the 
kitchen and the ball ground? 

The dishes on the lunch table should be 
light— but prettily served. A meal of cold 
meats, pickles, creams, fruit, thick chocola'e, 
with dry toast, etc., can be more easily made 
attractive, as every experienced housekeeper 
knows, than the heavy courses of a d.nner. It 
is advisable, too, for this noon lay meal, to 
color the table warmly. The majority of eco- 
nomical housewives buy the plain white china 
for every day use, but it has, to us, a chilly and 
meager air in conjunction with the ordinary 
napery. There are equally cheap sets of both 
English and French china of delicate and rich 
colors, which, under skillful handling, convert 
an ordinary meal into a.picture. "The most 
beautiful and (where there is any garden room) 
the cheapest tab e decoration is, of course, 
flowers. A liltle care and trouble will priviie 
this without expense. M iraing-glory. Oobea, 
wild ivy, aud Learii will grow each in a foot 
square of the back yard, and bestow themselves 
skyward thereafter, and with a few boxes of 
Coleus in an attic window, will crown yoar 
board with splendor like jewels, until tbe snow 
comes. This daily lunch requires, 1 erhaps, 
time and care; but our reader will find her re- 
ward at the end of the year, if she have fstab- 
lished the custom in her house of a wholesome, 
unhurried, dainty meal, where she can meet 
her children and friends cheerfully aud with 
little cost. — Scribner. 



A SPECIES of dysentery or approximation to 
light cholera has been prevalent in U.>iah and 
vicinity, for a short time, aesuming the charac- 
ter of an epidemic. In the oases of several 
children and adults the attacks have proved 
speedily fa^l. 



How to Keep Meat Fresh a Long Time. 

We have for authority the Inter Ocean for 
saying that the following recipe is worth the 
subscription price of any newspaper in tha 
land: 

As soon as the animal heat is out of the 
meat, slice it up ready for cooking. Prepare a 
large jar by scalding well with hot salt and 
water. Mix salt and pulverized silipeter in 
the proportion of one t iblespoouful of saltpeter 
to one teacupful of salt. Cover the bottom of 
the jar with a sprinkle of salt and pepper. Put 
down a layer of meat, sprinkle with salt nnd 
pepper, the same as if just going on the table, 
and continue in this manner till the jar is full. 
Fold a cloth or towel and wet it in strong salt 
and water, in which a little of the saltpeter is 
dissolved. Press the cloth closely over the 
meat and set in a cool place. Be sure and 
press the cloth on tightly as each layer is re- 
moved, and your meat will keep for mouths. 
It is a good plan to let the meat lie over night 
after it is sliced, before packing. Then drain 
off all the blood that oozes from it. It will be 
necessary to change the cloth occasionhlly, or 
take it off and wash it — first in cold water — 
then scald in salt and water as at fir-it. In this 
way farmers can have fresh meat the year 
round. "I have kipt be'-f," say.^ the writer, 
"that was killed the 12th of February, until 
the "ilst of June. Then I packed a large jar 
of veal in the same way during the dog days, 
and it kept six weeks." 



Gravy iok Veal or Chicken. — Put a table- 
spoonful of buiter in a hot frying pan. When 
it b( gins to brown dust a tublespoonful of flour 
into It, stirring constamly with a spoon; and 
salt and pepper; then in one pint of milk — 
cream, if you have it; let it boil five minut«R 
and pour over the dish of meat. 



24 



mwm m^i 



[July lo, 1875 




DSWE^IT ^ CO. 

▲, T. SIWIT. W. B. BWSB. a. H. glSOHQ. t. L. BOONS 

Prihoipal Editob W. B. EWER, A.M. 

OmOE, No. 224 SanBome street. Southeast corner of 
OalUomla street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to onr Soiximno Pbess, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Frlntlng establishment. 

StrasoBJOPnoKB payable In advance— For one year, $4; 
all months, $2.26; three months, $1.26. Remittances 
by registered letters or P. O. orders at onr rink. 
Advertisiko Bates.— 1 we**. IrtwnUi. Smonihi. \year 

Perllna 25 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

One-half inch $1.90 $3.00 $7.50 24.00 

Onelnch 2.00 6.0O U.OO 40.00 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
la eatraordlnarytypeor is particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 

Samplb Copies.— Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited 
by subscribing for it, or willing to astlst us in extend- 
ing its circulation. We call the attention of such to 
our prospectus and terms of subscription. 

Mo Quack Ad'veirtlsieinents Insertocl 
In these columns. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, July lO, 1875. 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENEKAI. EDITOBIAIiS. — Amusements on 
the Farm; Bailroad Lands— A Question of Justice, 17. 
Points in Hop Growing: The Editorial Excursion 
Party; Agriculture at the University, 24. Early Days 
in California; Indepeudeuce Day, 25. The State 
Fair; Patents and Inventions, 28. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Amusements on the Farm, 
17. Earlv Davs iu California. 25. 

CORKESPONDENCE. — Santa Barbara; Notes 
from Colusa; Fire in a Wheatflr-ld; SuKar Cane in 
California; Trouble with Calves, 18. Too Dry— They 
Don't Have Bain Enough; The Port Question; From 
Kalamazoo, Michigan; Yellow Jackets and Grapes, 
19. 

THE DAIRY.- Different Types of Milk, 19. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.- Toughened Glass- 
Its Applications; Stains for Wood; Fire Proof Roofs 
and Stairs, 19. 

PATRONS OF HtrSBANDBY. — A Grange 
Fourth of July Ode; Celebration at Placeriille; Inter- 
national Co-operation; Granee Decisions, 20- That 
Celebration at Placerville; What Will They Do; In 
Memoriam, 21. 

AGRICULTXJRAIi NOTES from Tarions conn- 
ties in California, 21. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Better than Gold (Poetry) ; Curi- 
ous Facts About Clothing; Roman Kitchen Ctensils; 
Mrs. Lincoln's Derangement; The ilor.-*! Effects of 
Hurry; Honesty o( Female Clerks; A Horriblo Affair; 
The Silk Frauds— How 'they Were AccompHshed; 
Shaking Hands; Not a Cross Bear; A Singular Name; 
The Won't-Work Men; Home: Individual Duties; 
Attacked by a Hawk; "Lovely Women," 22. Flirta- 
tion; The Creation of Woman, 23. 

yOTJNe FOLKS' COLTTMN.— For Baby's Rake 
(Poetry) ; Don't Give Dp, But Try; Girl-Stars, 23. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Milk Diet in Typhoid Fever; 
Avoid Protracted Toil; Applying the Stomach Pump, 
23. 

DOUESTIO ECONOMY.— Luncheon In the City; 
How to Keep Meat Fresh a Long Time; Gravy for 
■Veal or Chicken. 23. 

POPULAR LECTURES.— Economy of the Vege- 
table and Animal Kingdoms, 25. 

THE SWINE YARD.— Hog Raising, 28. 



TwENTi-AcEE Fakms. — AVm. H. Martin, Gen- 
eral Agent of the California Immigrant Union, 
No. I Webb street, San Francisco, ofifers two 
hundred twenty-acre farms, near Fresno, on 
the C. P. R. K., on the following stated terms 
and conditions: "Cash, $100; permonth, $12.50 
for sixty months, and $150 at the end of the 
time, unless the income pays it before. The 
•whole tract, 4,000 acres, will be enclosed with 
a tight fence. Twenty-three miles of roads will 
be laid out within it and lined with choice shade 
trees. Water for irrigation will be brought to 
the land within sixty days from King's river. 
The water is purchased with the land . Two 
acres of choice raisin vines will be set out on 
each twenty-acre farm. A nursery will be es- 
tablished and additional vines or the more val- 
uable fruit trees will be set out by special con- 
tract on very moderate terms. The land is of 
the best for the purpose in California, and the 
climate is especially favorable to the business 
of fruit drying." 

WrLLABD's Pbacticai, Bcttbe Book.— We 
have been looting with some interest for the 
appearance of tbis book, wbi^h we have just 
received from the Rural Publishing company, 
No. 78 Duane street. New York. From our 
aoquaintance with the author and his writings 
we expected just vhat it professes to be, a 
thoroughly practical butter book, and we are 
not di-appointed in its perusal. Allbongh ii 
is a book of but 171 pa^es it covers the whole 
subject of butter mHkiug iu all its departments. 
There is no waste timber in what Mr. Willard 
produces. The butter m iker.^ of California 
cannot invest a dollar to better advantage than 
in jurcbHsingtHs stiict'y pr.ic;ical work. The 
author, X. A. Willard, is one of the editorial 
exoarsion patty noticed elsewhere. 



On File. — "Notes from North Land," J. M.; 
^xrasB Theory," G. B,; "What are They?" 
v». W. M. 



Points in Hop Growing. 

Hop culture presemts its claim, with other 
departments, for information through the col- 
umns of the EuBAL Press. A subscriber in 
Vallejo, Solano county, wishes to know what 
is the best soil for hops, stating that he has 
some rich adobe land which he intends to use 
for this purpose. 

If an expe];ienced hop grower could have an 
unrestricted 

Choice of Land 
He would take just such soil as the tobacco 
grower would select for his crop— rich, mellow 
loam, with a fair capacity for retaining moist- 
ure. There are some grades of our adobe land 
well adapted to hop growing, and there is 
'probably none of this class of soil that cannot, 
under a proper system of cultivation, be brought 
up to the requirements of these exacting crops, 
tobacco and hops; but with our present agri- 
cultural surroundings, it would be impractic- 
able to fit the more stubborn qualities of this 
adobe land to these crops. Aad, it must be 
borne in mind, hops are poorly adapted to the 
subduing of soils. The ground must be well 
prepared for them before the roots are set We 
would, therefore, advise our friends who are 
preparing for hop planting to avoid, for the 
present, the confirmed stiflf and stubborn adobe 
soils, but if they have any of this class of land 
that has been properly subdued, is easily pul- 
verized and otherwise favored, they will prob- 
ably have no difficulty in growing good hops 
thereon. 

Profits per Acre. 

The party mentioned above desires also to be 
informed as to "the profits per acre of a fair 
average crop." Hops during the years 18? 4 
and 1875 have averaged about thirty centq per 
pound; during this period, however, prices 
have been unusually steady for this product, 
for it is acknowledged to be most unsteady, 
bith in yield and prices. The hop yards of 
Wisconsin and Central New York produce 
from 1.000 pomnds to one ton per acre, while 
in California, we are informed, the yield ranges* 
from 8J0 pounds to 1,800 pounds. We find 
that the cost of growiug hops in California 
varies but little from the Eastern estimate, 
fifteen cents per pound being accepted by the 
growers of both sections as the average cost to 
the producer when ready for delivery. It will 
be seen that with a yield of only 1,000 pounds 
per acre, costing fifteen cents and selling for 
thirty cents, the profit per acre would be $150. 

But we are not over fond of estimating 
profits, and our acquaintance with hop growing 
causes a special reluctance to embark in such 
estimates in connection with this crop. We 
have known cases where small yards have pro- 
duced a full ton to the acre of hops that sold 
before they were harvested at fifty-five cents 
per pound, costing the grower only fifteen 
cents; and the next year these same yards, with 
a yield of aVjout three-fourth tons per acre, and 
costing fully fifteen cents per pound, were sold 
at seven cents per pound, the grower being 
glad to get rid of them at even that price. 

This, of course, is an extreme case and is 
not likely to occur again. The Bcbai, Pbkss 
will be the last to throw cold water on hop 
growing; for we are firm in the faith that it is 
destined to be one of the most profitable of our 
agricultural products and that our present 
growers will make money if they stick to it, btit 
we wish, at the same time, to impress the con- 
viction upon our readers, that with the pros- 
pect of large profits in some seasons they must 
take their chances for actnal losses in others. 
Self-Supporting Vines. 

All who know anything about hop growing 
are aware that furnishing poles for the yard is 
one of the most prominent items of care and 
cost connected with the business. In some 
localities, where everything with the exception 
of poles favors bop growing, the difficulty of 
obtaining these is so great as to forbid eubark- 
ing in this enterprise. But necessity, besides 
giving to the world its most useful inventions, 
sometimes teaches us how to dispense with all 
inventions; and the absence of pole material in 
some of the hop growing districts of California 
has induced the growers to try the experiment 
of dispensing with poles altogether. Iu any 
other country a proposition of this kind would 
be hooted at as preposterous, for the heavy 
summer raina would beat the vines to the 
ground and the hops would be spoiled with the 
dirt that would spatter up and mix with them; 
bat we are a'tsured by those who ara familiar 
with this system as being now practiced 
here, that the hops are as clean as those grown 
on poles. It is to'be hoped that this is really so, 
and that our growers will not re-ort to tbis as a 
makeshift, and from a false notion of economy 
allow a depreciatioa of the quality of this crop 
in order to save the expense of poling. We 
confe>8 to some doubts on this score; but 
at the same time we freely admit tha'. there are 
more favorable points male apparent than we 
had supposed possible The vines being self- 
!-upporting will raturally grow stronger than 
th >se tbit are tied to poles ut several stages of 
their gtowtt), and will not necessarily bio^me 
matted and uncontrollable, for, iu justice to this 
Byste'u, they sbonld receive the sime attention 
that is giv< n ii those grown on pules. If tbey 
are properly handled, trailing all the vines in 
one direction and keeping a clean space be- 



tween the rows, the system may prove strictly 
practical. 

We are called tipon to record another 
New Departure In Hop Growing: 
The practice of drying hops by the Alden pro- 
cess. The California Alden agency are about 
fitting up an establishment at St. Helena, Napa 
county, for the purpose of drying this season's 
crop for Abraham Clock, one of the most suc- 
cessful hop growers in the State. Mr. Clock 
has already achieved an enviable reputation for 
his hops, and he is not the man to risk this 
reputation by subjecting his crop to a doubtful 
process. All parties engaged in this new de- 
parture undoubtedly know what they are about, 
and the result of this season's operations will 
be looked for with much interest by all who are 
interested in the success of this valuable pro- 
duct. 

It is claimed that the Alden cured hops are 
superior to all others in three essential points, 
namely, unbroken blossoms, brightness of 
color and strength of aroma; and it has been 
demonstrated to be more eoonomio than kiln 
drying. 

Tlie Editorial Excursion Party. 

This party, w'aose prospective visit we noted 
a few weeks since, left New York according to 
programme on the 3d inst., and we have before 
us a dispatch informing us that they arrived at 
Omaha on the 6th, vihere a public reception 
and banquet was given them. They were to 
leave Omaha on the^8th and are expected to 
arrive in San Francisco on the 16th, where 
they will meet with a hearty welcome. 

That part of their programme which remains 
to be fulfilled from the date of onr paper to 
their arrival in this city is as follows: 

July 11th, Sunday, Salt Lake City, attending 
preaching at the Mormon tabernacle; 12th, 
visit to American Fork canon; 13ih, leave Salt 
Lake for Ogden; 14th, at Beno; 15th, arrive at 
Sacramento and remain over night; 16th, reaoh 
San Francisco 5 :45 p. m., and stop at Occi- 
dental, Lick and Grand hotels. July 17th to 
August 12th, will be devoted to visits to Gey- 
sers, Yosemite, Big Trees, gardens, vineyards, 
orange groves, etc. 

The names and editorial connections of the 
members of this party are as follows: 

H. T.Williams, Ag. Ed. N.Y. Independent. Ed. 
Ladies' Floral Cabinet and Horticulturist, N. Y. ; 
Mr. A. C. Stockin, Cor. Maine Farmer, Augusta, 
Me., Morning Star, Dover, N. H., and Rep. 
Mass. Press Association, Boston, Mass.; F. I). 
Cnrtis and wife. Cor. Times, Troy, N. Y., 
Weekly tSan, N. Y. City, and Eep. Farmers' 
Club, N. Y. ; C. W. Bryan and wife, Ed. Union, 
Springfield, Mass.; X. A. Willard, Ed. liural 
New Yorker, N. Y. City; Rev. W. Clift, Cor. 
New England Farmer, Boston, Mass., and 
Asse. Ed. American AfjricuUurisi, N. Y.; J. W. 
Tuck and ladies, Cor. Press and Star, Provi- 
dence, R. Iu Cor. Witness, N. Y. City.; J. E. 
Dodge and Wife, Ed. Reports U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, and 
Cor. Prairie Farmer, Chicago, III.; G. M. 
Tucker, Ed. Country Gentleman, Albany, N. Y. ; 
C. L. Flint and ladies, Ed. Mass. Plowjhman, 
Boston, Mass., Reports .Mass. Dept. of Agricul- 
ture.; B. D. Evans, Ed. Record, Westches- 
ter, Pa., and Cor. Press, Philadelphia, Pa.; 
Prof. L. T. Townsend and wife, Cor. Post, 
Boston, Mass.; J. S. Hayesand wife, Cor. Daily 
Keics, Boston, Mass.; Rev. A. E. Winship, 
Cor. Olobe, Boston, Mass. ; Emily L. Wymnn, 
Cor. Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester. N. Y.; 
H. Sedgwick, Cor. Times, N. Y.; B. K. Bliss 
and ladies, and Miss M. Warren, New York ; A. 
Carryll, Little Falls, N. Y.; F. C. Sessions and 
wife, Columbus, 0.; G. C. Brackett, Cor. Chris- 
tian at TForfc, N. Y.; Miss Mary A. Brackett, 
Braintree, Mass.; Rev. C. N. Fitch, Cor. Cour- 
ant, Hartford, Ct., and Palladium, New Haven, 
Ct.; Prof. O. S. Harrington and wife, Cor. 
Methodist, New York City, and Transcript. Bos- 
ton; Prof. J, K. Taylor, Cor. Inquirer, Phila- 
delphia; W. H. Lambert, Cor. Traveller, Bos- 
ton, Mass.; Rev. J. O. Means, Cor. Congrega- 
tionalist, Boston, Mass,; G. H. Chapin, Cor. 
Watchman and Reflector, Boston, Mass. ; Hon. 
J. P. Edge, Penn. State Legislature ; Prof. L. 
J. Evans and wife. Cor. Gazette and Times, 
Cincinnati; W. A. Wilde, Cor. Press, Portland, 
Me.; C. P. Ruggand lady. New Bedford, Mass.; 
J. Wilcox, Cor. Evening Telegraph, PhiUdel- 
phia, Pa., and Republican, Che-ter, Pa.; T. J. 
Edge. Cor. North American, Evening Bulletin 
and Practical Farmer, Philadelphia, Pa.; A. S. 
Morss, Car. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass. ; M. H. 
Sargent, Cor. Journal, and Sec. ^oop. Pub. 
Society, Boston, Mass.; J. V. Edge; S. Higijins 
nnd wife. Cor. JBuUetinand .<4dueWiser. Norwich, 
Ct.; R. Pratt, Cor. N. E. Journal of Education, 
Bo.ston, Mass.; W. F. Almy, Fall River, Mass. 
Henry "T. Williams, Treasurer and General 
Manager. 



A PATENT for the Canon del Aqua land tyrant, 
confirmed to Jose Scrafin Rumieiz, and located 
in Monterey county. New Mexico, about fifty 
miles from Santa Fe, has been si^'n^ d by the 
Commissioner. The grant contains 3,501 acres. 

The Amador Dispatch says: The michinery 
to be used in the fruit drying establisbment of 
the Ginnochio Bros., in this place, has arrived, 
and everything will be in "ship-shape" by the 
time the fruit is ready to be catheri d. 

Those interested assort that the new railroad 
from Colusa to Woodland will be completed in 
time to carry o£f this season's grain crop. 



Agriculture at the University. 

Believing that the public in general, and the 
farming community in particular, would like to 
know how agricultural matters are progressing 
at the State University, we devoted a day dur- 
ing the past week to a visit to Berkeley, in 
order to obtain such information as would be 
of interest to our readers. 

Allusion was made in a recent number of the 
RuEAL Pbess, to some new varieties of pota- 
toes, and we very naturally looked first to see 
how these new comers are getting along. They 
are doing' remarkably well, exhibiting no symp- 
toms of homesickness. This new and compact 
potato settlement embraces over twenty varie- 
ties, and it is quite interesting to observe the 
variations in form and color in the vinos. Al- 
though they were planted somewhat late, the 
growth is quite satisfactory, they, like nearly 
everything else on the University grounds, 
being benefited by the June rains. We were', 
however, sorry to see traces of the inroads of 
gophers among the potatoes. Only a small 
portion has suffered as yet, but on examining 
the few hills where the vines were evidently 
dying, it was found that they had been tunneled 
by the gophers. 

A small portion of the hay was exposed to the 
rain after being cut, but by re-opening that 
which was baled and giving it proper attention, 
the crop was secured in fair condition, being 
about sixty tons of good hay. 

After strolling through the drives and exam- 
ining the substantial and tasteful bridges that 
span the creek in various places, we visited the 
propagation houses. These are complete in 
their arrangements, and are being turned to 
good account, over one hundred thousand 
plants having been already propagated in 
them. 

The grounds will be beautifully ornamented 
with trees when those now planted are grown, 
and spots exposed to damaging winds will be 
well protected by the pines, eucalyptus and 
other trees' that are already set out for wind 
breaks. 

The fruit trees planted are doing remarkably 
well, some of those set out in February show- 
ing a growth of two leet. They are kept clean 
and show the effect of good treatment. The 
fruits of this large selection of varieties will be 
expected with a good deal of interest, as this 
will undoubtedly be the source from which ad- 
ditions to our fruits and all other products of 
the soil will be obtained. 

We would state here that the system of mak- 
ing and booking varieties in this and other de- 
partments is very thorough, so that those who 
obtain seeds, cions, bulbs, etc., from the Uni- 
versity will know just what they aie getting. 
As soon as opportunity allows, dams are to be 
constructed in the creek running through the 
grounds, for the purpose of forming fish ponds 
to afford facilities for pisciculture. This is a 
timely and judicious effort in connection with 
a subject of much interest and importanoe, but 
one which is necessarily compelled to take a 
secondary position in developing the resources 
of the country. 

After noting the grounds and what is grow- 
ing on them, we gave a few moments to the ex- 
amination of the barn, workshop, potting 
houses etc., with a glance at the student's cot- 
tages and their surroundings, and entered the 
University proper, visiting its various depart- 
ments, and deriving pleasure from all of them 
and valu'rible information from some. Among 
other objects of interest was the apparatus for 
analyzing soils. This has been quite recently 
procured by request of Prof. Hilgard, who is 
familiar with the workings of the apparatus, 
having used it in his vocation as Professor of 
Agriculture in Eastern colleges. The advan- 
tages to be derived from a thorough analysis of 
the various soils of the State will be realized by 
all. ^ 

During the present season the University has 
been visited by many tourists, some of them 
connected with agricultural colleges and other 
iustilutions of learning at the Eist and in 
Europe, and the expressed opinion of these ap- 
preciative visitors has been commendatory in 
the highest degree. 

By the kindness of Secretary Stearns, to 
whom we are indebted for much of the satisfac- 
tion resulting from our visit, we are permitted 
to give the following information from his an- 
nual report in advance of publication : 

Since the first day of June, a portion of the 
grounds, some forty acres, dedicated to practi- 
cal agiculiure, has been thorou.ihly plowed, 
graded and otherwise prepared by deep trench- 
ing and working over, for nursery and other 
agricultural purposes. 

Two propagating houses have been con- 
structed and were ready for use in the latter 
part of August, 1874, and a commodious and 
convenient building for work rooms, with suit- 
able bencbes for potting and handling plants 
c lUBtructed, witu storage arrangements for 
prepared soil, pots, tools, etc., and a suitable 
office for gtirdener, and bleeping room for watch- 
man. 

Toe propagating houses are of the dimen- 
sions respectively of thirty by twenty feet and 
sixty-four by fifteen feet, and in the rear of the 
l.iiter is a lab>ratory periaiuing to said boases, 
hixty-f jor leet in length bv twelve feet in width, 
tiitise bnildiag are arranged f-o as to facilitate 
the work and so conveniently placed that the 
whole is easily supervised by the gardener. 
The propagation of plants of eoonomio value, 



July 10, 1875.] 



25 



as well as such species as are more particularly 
required for the purpose of illustrating general 
botany and ornamenting the grounds, in pur- 
suance of the general plan devised by Mr. W. 
H. Hall, was at once commenced, and such 
vegetable forms as are valuable to the pomolo- 
gist'and necessary to illustrate floriculture and 
arboriculture have already been produced in 
large numbers. 

A well designed and convenient barn, thirty- 
six by fourty-four feet and a story and a half in 
bight, has been built, and the principal road 
which traverses the farming grounds has been 
marked out and partly graded, to facilitate the 
farm work. 

The propagating houses were ready for use 
on the 22d of August, since which date 10,000 
plants of 20 species of eucalyptus, 5,000 acacias 
of 25 species, 200 species of native and foreign 
coniferae, also numerous rare forms peculiar to 
Australasia, South and Central America, and 
elsewhere, and many species of textile, medi- 
cinal and other economic plants have been pro- 
duced. We may mention 112 varieties of roses, 

13 of azaleas, 12 of camellias, 6 of magnolias, 
for ornamental purposes, and the multiplica- 
tion of botanical forma is being steadily 
pursued. 

The planting of a standard orchard, for the 
purpose of correcting the nomenclature of the 
fruits already in cultivation, and for furnishing 
cions and plants for distribution through the 
State, as well as for the introduction of new 
varieties, to be distributed as 
above, has received proper con- 
sideration. The following have 
already been planted, and it is 
our intentioB. to still further 
enlarge the list: Apples, 141 
varieties; Siberian crab-apples, 

14 varieties; pears, 151 varieties; 
cherries, 82 varieties; plums 57 
varieties; peaches, 89 varieties; 
apricots, 22 varieties; quinces, 2 
varieties; nectarines, 15 varie; 
ties; giapes, 73 varieties; black- 
berries, 7 varieties; gooseber- 
ries, 8 varieties; currants, 8 
varieties; raspberries, 34 varie- 
ties; strawberries, 35 varieties; 
filberts, 3 varieties; asparagus, 
1 variety; rhubarb, 16 varieties; 
mulberries, 6 varieties; and all 
the species of walnuts and 
chestnuts. We have also pro- 
cured many varieties of oranges, 
lemons, limes, etc. 

Among the apples are 9 new 
Russian varieties, and the 
peaches include 17 of Eivers' 
new seedlings. 

The rapid degeneration of the 
potato in this State and the ex- 
ceedingly high price which this 
staple vegetable commands in 
our markets in comparison with 
other places, has led me to im- 
port some new seed for experi- 
ment, and we have planted the 
following varieties in a portion 
of the grounds : Alpha, Eureka, 
Acme, Snowflake, Brownell's 
Beauty, Extra Early Vermont, 
Compton's Surprise, Breese's 
King of the Earlies, Peerless, 
Prolific, Early Rose, Late Rose, 
Climax, Excelsior, Jackson 
White, White Beachblow, Lap- 
stone Kidney and Calico. 

The amount expended for 
barn, propagating houses and 
laboratory is $3,483.83; tools, 
wagons andharnesses,$l,327.15; 
horses, $400; flower pots and 
small nursery equipments, $501.50; trees, 
plants and seeds, $882.74; grain for horses, 
manure, $286.35; and for labor, $5,65?.28. 

Of the amount expended for labor in this de- 
partment, the greater part must be considered 
of permanent value, as it includes the grading 
of a part of the agricultural grounds, preparing 
a site for the nursery buildings, the deep plow- 
ing and sub- soiling of nearly forty acres, the 
planting of the orchard and other trees, and 
the work in the propagating houses, for which 
latter we have to show several thousands of 
trees and plants in great variety as before re- 
ferred to, ready for planting during the next 
rainy season. 

I would here mention that the expenses of 
our agricultural operations are largely in- 
creased by our being compelled under the 
State law to receive eight hours as a day's 
work; no farmer could afford to employ labor 
under such a restriction, though I believe we 
have a good showing for the money disbursed. 

The expenditures properly chargeable to the 
improvement and ornamentation of the 
grounds, such as road making and the building 
of bridges and the grading in this connection, 
has not been charged to the Agricultural de- 

Eartmeut. Three large and two foot bridges 
ave been constructed and the road from the 
upper bridge near the northerly line towards 
the North Hall will soon be graded, and parties 
visiting the locality will be able to diive from 
the old easterly road at the base of the hills 
through the agricultural portion of the Univer- 
sity grounds. 

In connection with the work in this depart- 
ment, and elsewhere at the University students 
have been employed when practicable and the 
secretary's report shows that the amount thus 
disbursed is $3,165 96. 

In connection with interior instruction in the 
College of Agriculture, several courses of 
lectures have been delivered, namely : 1, 



On the Analysis of Soils, by Prof. Eugene W. 
Hilgard, Ph. Dr., of the University of Michi- 
gan. 2. On the Chemistrv of Household 
Life, by Prof. Eusene W. Hilgard, Ph. 
Dr., of the State University of Michigan. 
3. On Economic Botany, or the Plants 
which are Useful and Harmful in Human In- 
dustry, by Prof. C. E. Bessey. M. S., of the 
Iowa Agricultural College. 4. On the Im- 
provement of Varieties in Plants and Animals, 
by Prof. C. E. Bessey, M. S., of the Iowa Ag- 
ricultural College. 5. On Stock Breeding, by 
Prof. W. H. Brewer, A. M., Botanist of thfi 
California Geological Survey, and Professor of 
Agriculture in the Shefleld Scientific School, 
Yale College, New Haven. 

Many of the above lectures have been printed 
in the columns of the Eubal Press, and in ad- 
dition to lectures before the classes in the Col- 
lege of Agriculture, on several Fridays special 
lectures were delivered by these gentlemen in 
the Assembly room in the north hall before all 
of the students and many visitors; and on sev- 
eral Saturday evenings at the hall of the Me- 
chanics' Institute. Each course included sev- 
eral lectures under headings above indioitedj 

As these lectures have been highly satisfac- 
tory to all those who attended them, it is 
likely that similar courses, or special lectures, 
will be given during the next ocademic year. 

In the latter class Mr. W. B. Ewer is to lec- 
ture on the History of Agriculture in Califor- 
nia.and Mr. J. W. A. Wright on Coiton Culture. 



Independence Day. 

We doubt if any portion of the union entered 
more heartily into the celebration of the 99th 
anniversary of our National Independence than 
did California. Our people appear to have 
been unusually spontaneous and fervent in the 
ebullition of their patriotism. No other day in 
our calendar possesses so general an interest as 
the 4th of July. Its commemoration is not re- 
stricted to any class or creed — the whole 
brotherhood of mankind willingly unite in 
honoring the birthday of a nation's freedom. 

The celebration in San Francisco was in 
keeping with the character of its citizens, bril- 
liant and enthusiastic. A procession composed 
of the military and civic societies and several 
representatives of the different trades, formed 
on Market street and after marching through 
Montgomery, Jackson and Kearny streets to 
Market, proceeded to the pavilion of the Me- 
chanics' Institute on Mission st., where the ex- 
ercises were carried out according to pro- 
gramme. 

The streets through which the procession 
passed were profusely decorated with flags, and 
across Montgomery and Kearny streets at reg- 



PQpjLi^!\ LeCTJi^ES. 



Economy 



of the Vegetable 
Kingdoms. 



and Animal 




A MOUNTAIN ROAD FIGHT IN THE "DAYS OF '49." 



We shall before long publish some of the 
essays by some o( the students in the recent 
graduating class in the columns of the Rdbal 
Pbbss and the Mining and Scientific Pbess. 



Early Days in California. 

The cut on this page is intended to depict a 
scene on the road in the early days of California. 
Happily such occurrences are rare now-a-days, 
as good railroads and stage lines carry the 
traveller from place to place with little danger 
of molestation. Occasionally, however, we 
hear of stages being robbed, but it is seldom 
that any one is killed. There were in early 
days bands of roving, lawless Mexicans of the 
lower class, which infested the roads all over 
the State and attacked any party of miners or 
prospectors they might chance to meet. As 
both sides were always well armed, few of these 
fights were finished without bloodshed. The 
Indians frequently took a hand in the fight, 
riding with the banditti, and traveling in Cali- 
fornia was then as bad as it was in Arizona a 
few years ago. 

A Thistle Pcllee. — The French have a tool 
called a thistle pmller, made of wood, and look- 
ing very much like a pair of blacksmith's 
tougs. Five or six old women, armed with 
this instrument, can clear an acre of ground of 
its thistles in an incredibly shoitsr ace of time, 
and with hardly more bending of the body than 
a housemaid displays while sweeping a carpet. 



The Petaluma woolen mill is in successful 
operation, the spinning of knitting yarn hav- 
ing been commencad last Wednesday. 

The statutory limitation against killing deer, 
oik and antelope, expired on the first of July. 



ular intervals were suspended the names of rev- 
olutionary heroes and battles familiar to the 
ears of Americans as household words. The 
sidewalks were packed with an eager throng, 
and from the windows fair women looked ad- 
miringly on the scene or hurled the popping 
torpedo and the crackling firecracker on those 
below. Everybody was brimming over with 
patriotism and good nature — in fact the two go 
together. 

The pavilion had its immense capacity taxed 
to the utmost. The poem by Daniel O'ConnoU 
was above the average of efforts upon such oc- 
casions. The poet took for his theme, "The 
State Hoube Bell— 1776." The oration by 
Thomas Fitch was one of the most eloquent of 
that gentleman's efforts — we can accord it no 
higher praise. 

The American people appear to recognize at 
this time— standing as they do upon the thresh- 
old of the close of the first century of our 
Nation's existence — the grave responsibility 
which their forefathers assumed wht^n they 
placed "their lives, their fortunes and their 
sacred honor " in the scale against the power 
of a mighty kingdom. The heritage they be- 
queathed us is no ordinary legacy — it was one 
of the richest ever left by sire to son, and yet 
it carried great duties with it. This is a uool 
time for us to lnok back and see if our moral 
and intellectual has kept pace with ourmatcriHl 
progress. We have had great opportunities. 
How have we used them? 



We learn that the boring company's well at 
San Feruaudo is now down 179 feet, and is 
ejecting at the rate of 4,000 barrels of water a 
day. A great deal of gas is escnping from the 
orifice, and the drill io in i^oft rock. 



Extensive rep dis and improvements are be- 
ing made in McOuue's fluuring mill at Peta- 
luma. 



SixteentL Lecture delivered before the Uuiv rsity of Cal- 
iforuia College of Agriculture, on Wednesday, Febru- 
ary 10th, by Pbof. C. E. Bbssex.— (Concluded.) 

(Reported and lUuBtrated for the Bubai, PBEea.) 

Reversion or Atavism. 
Often in growing animals il is noticed that 
they resemble theiir grandparents more closely 
than they do their parents. The case occurs 
ia this way: in a pirticular herd of cattle an 
undesirable cross was made some time in the 
past but other than that the herd is pure bred; 
it may be, that the cross occurred a great many 
generations ago, so that the herd is considered 
practically pure. Now, in such a case, while 
almost all the offspring will be, so far as can be 
seen, pure, yet now and then there will appear 
one with marks of the ancient and undesirable 
cross. In the human species, how often do 
we notice the same thing: a child will possess, 
bodily and mentally, characters which are not 
noticeable in its parents, but 
which may have been present 
in one of its grandparents, or 
possibly in some ancestor still 
more remote; and not only are 
characters of body and mind 
subject to this law of reversion, 
but the same is often shown in 
the inheritance of diseases. 
Many diseases seem to be much 
more readily inheritable from 
grandparents than from par- 
ents. Sometimes there is a'sort 
of double inheritance, so that 
in one generation one disease is 
inherited, while in the next 
generation another disease will 
appear. This is sometimes the 
case with consumption and 
scrofula — in the one generation 
the chilaren are consumptive, 
while in the next they are 
scrofulous. 

The various ways in which 
reversion may occur are thus 
given by Darwin: 1st, Those 
ocouring in a variety or race 
which has. not been crossed, but 
which has lost by variation some 
character that it formerly pos- 
sessed and which afterwards re- 
appears. 2d, Those in which 
the single distinguishable indi- 
vidual sub-variety, race, or 
species has at some former pe- 
riod been crossed with a d stinct 
form and a character derived 
from this cross, after having 
disappeared during one or sev- 
eral generations, suddenly re- 
appears. 3d, Those cases of 
reversion effected by means of 
buds, and therefore indejeudent 
of true or seminal generation. 
4th, Those cases of reversion 
by segments in the same indi- 
vidual flower or fruit, and in 
different parts of the body in 
the same individual animal as 
it grows old. Besides these, 
the following may be added, as 
quite well established facts : A reversion 
to some ancestral form may appear, or be 
developed by age, that is, the individual 
may when young appear to be pure bred, 
but as it grows older some undesirable char- 
acter appears. Darwin crossed several black 
hens with a black cook, and many of the 
chickens were, for the first year, perfectly 
white — during the second year acquired black 
feathers, while on the other hand some which 
at first were entirely black, afterwards became 
marked with white. 

Reversion may be developed by crossing, 
that is, in breeds in which no reversions to un- 
desirable forms have occurred, crossing these 
same breeds may develop the latent tendency 
and a reversion may follow. This f ict, too lit- 
tle known, has been studied by Mr. Darwin, 
who made a great number of experiments lipon 
many breeds of fowls in order to test the mat- 
ter thoroughly. He fou'id when he crossed 
two pigeons of brneds which are sciircely ever 
known to revert, the hybrids were marked fre- 
quently, not like either of the parents, nor 
even were the parental characters blended; but 
the markings w^re almost exactly like the 
original wild prog-nitor of both varieties, the 
wild rock dove. H r ■, the shock, so to ppeak, 
of the crossing of these widely diverse breeds, 
broupht out the latent tendency to a reversion 
and lh^ rrsult w.is, us slated, the return to the 
original wdd form. 

It is a fact well known to onr best poultry 
breeders that the usual result of crossing two 
non-sitting varieties of ordinary fowls, is the 
production of a hybrid which is greatly in- 
clined to sit. Now, as Mr. Darwin remarks, 
"The aboriginal species was of course a good 
incubator." In fact, this is with wild birds 
ore of the s'rongest instincts. Aeain it ap- 
p. ars that the almost invariable result of cro>!8- 
ing where at firat true hvhrids wr^ produced, is 

Continued on Fago 26. 



26 



^msei 



[July 10, 1875- 



Tenth Industrial Exhibition of the 

Mechanics' Institute, 

S. F., 1875. 

PRELIMINARY [announcement. 

The Bo»rd of Mauagers of tbe Tenth Industrial Ex- 
hibition have the pleaxure of ann uuciuk that un 
Indu^trialExhibition will behi^l.l, unaer iho au-picta 
oftheMechanio-.Iuttitiite,ln the city ofSnii liaicis ,0. 
to be opened ou Tuesday, the 17tlj of Au^uut, 1876. at 
11 A. M., and to continue open at Icaa one mouth 
thereafter. , _ ,, 

In maklns this public announcement, the Manai ers 
desire that Ihrae who intend to exhibit phimUl Buid in 
their appicatiouB for f pice as early aa p ■ssible, so as 
to aruil the necessity of eicludiuj;. as has be.u the 
case heretofore, the mar.y desirahle exhibitors who are 
unusually tardy in makinK applicutiuus. 

The forthcoming ln(lu>trlal Exhibition will be the 
tenth held under the au^pice8 o( thfe Mechsnics' Insti- 
tute and the Managers are justilirtl in saying that It 
will' undoubteiily surpasis in ccimpUtcuees of detail 
and general arrannemeut any heretofore held. 

The last Exhibition was attended by 7OO.0( viMtors, 
attracted hither by the fame of these Indiistrl il Fairs, 
and for the purpose of Invtsilgatiou, business and 

^ All the aTailablo exhibiting space was applied for 
several weeks belore the day of opening, and the Man- 
agers were compelled to deny admission to many de- 
sirable exhibits. ,.,,.,»»,, 

The Board of Managers desire particularly that tho 
arts the indnstries and natural pmducts of the coun- 
try should be well rupresented at the forthcoming ex- 
hibition, and no pains will be spared to make the^e 
classes of exhibits a special feature there. 

The Exhibition w.U be held iu the building con- 
structed for that purpo^e in 1874, but it will be ma- 
terially enlarged and improved iu many detuils lor the 
Exhibition of 1875. 

The space under roof will exceed 180,C.OO square feet, 
or about four and a halt acres, exclusive ot tuo Horti- 
cultural Garden, which will occupy il.oOO seiuare feet 
additional. 

The location of the Exhibition Bnilding. on Eighth 
street, between Market and Mission stnets. cannot be 
surpassed for eonvenience and aceessibility. and can be 
approached from every part of the city by means ot the 
various lines of street railroads, any of which bring 
visitors within two bloi-ks of the entrance gate. 

The utmost care hus bi en exercised in providing for 
ample ventilatiim and light, and during theeveningtlie 
building is brilliantly illuminated by over S.OCO gas 
ights. 

The promenade avenues are broad, and 3,''00 seats 
are provided for the comfort of visitors, for whose con- 
venience there is al«o an excellent restaurant, under 
the management of a flrst-class restaurateur. 

Every alternoon and evening the best orchestra the 
city can supply will discourse excellent music under 
the direction of an accomplished leader. 

The building is always well attended by visitors, and 
during the last Exhibtion over 29 000 were daily »d 
mitted for a number of days, and uuoer no similar cir 
cumstanccs can tho manuiaclurer, the mc hanic. the 
inventor, producer or business man so advantageously 
place himself before the people of the Pacific Coast. 

Persons desiring to oblaiu information, or to make 
application for space, should address 'Managers of 
Tenth Industrial Exhlbitiim, San Fran'isco, Califor- 
nia," or make personal application as below. 

It is expected that ihe various transport .tion com- 
panies will convey jjoods i' tended in good faith for 
exhibition, at half the usual rates. 

Exhibitors from abroad, if they have no agent or 
consignee in San Francisco, can consign goods a- d 
mark the same to the "Manager of the Tenth Indus- 
trial Exhibition, 17 Tost street, San Fran .isco." and 
they will be stored, i( they arrive before the day of 
opening, tree of expense; but no charges or expenses 
fur freight or torwardinir, etc., will be paid hy the 
Managers. 

In order to secure space, application should be made 
on or before July 2Uth, 1875. 

Blanks will be furnished on application. 

Premiums will be awar led as ioUows, viz: Hi gold 
medals, 60 silver medals. Society Diplomas. Oer- ideates 
of Merit and Special Premiums, as the Board may deter 
mine. 

Blanks for space can be obtained at the Mechanics' 
Institute ou application by letter er jotherwisc; and any 
information will be given, by applying to any member 
of the Board of Managers, as below : 

A. 8. B.MXIDIE 113 Pine street. 

James C. P.itbick 1'2'2 Battery street. 

Henby L. Davis 421 Calif, rnia street. 

D. E. Haves 213 Fr mont strct. 

Asa E. Welis Mechanics' Mill. 

P. B. Cobnwaix (3or. Spear *j Harrison streets. 

Chas. EiXIOT 516 Call ornia street. 

George hPAULDINO iU Clay ptreet 

BicHAKD SaVaGE 139 Kreiuont street. 

W. P. Stout 004 Merchant ptre<t. 

J. H Macdonald 217 Spear street. 

J. P. Ci'RTis -i-O ./acKson street 

B. B. WooDWABD Woodwar,. '8 Oardi ns. 

James Bpikrs "11 Howaid slree.. 

To the Librarian of the Mechanics' Institute, or to 
J. H. CULVER, Secretary, 27 Post street, S. F. 

Rules and Rpgulalious of tha Tenth 

ludustrial Exhibitiou, Mechanics" 

Institute, S. F., 1875. 

1. The Pavilion will be 0[ien tor the reception of 
goods on Monday, August 2d. The exhloition will be 
open to the public ou Tuesday, August 17th, at 11 
o'clock A, M. 

2. Applications for space must be made on or before 
July 20th, stating character of exhibit, amount and 
kind of space reciuired — wall, table or Hoor. And, if 
cases, state lengih, width and hight of case. Blanks 
will be furnished tor this purpose, and a clerk will bt? 
in attendance at the Library of t'-ve Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, every day from 12 to 1, and 7 to 10 P. M. 

3. All )iersons presenting articles fur exhibition 
must have them registered by the Receiving Clerk, who 
will give a receipt for the same, which receipt must ho 
presented when the articles are withdrawn, at the close 
of the Exhibition. 

i. Judges will be appointed by tho Board of Mana 
gers, immediately upiii ihe opening of the Exhibition, 
to examine all ariicles presened,in acc(trt ance Willi 
Article 111, and the Managers will award premiums on 
such articles as the judges shall der-lare are worthy, 
which will be delivered as soon as thty can.be pre- 
pared. Due notice will be given of tho announcement 
of premiums. 

5. The mornings of each day. until 10 o'clock, will 
be appropriated to the Judges, and no visitors will be 
admitted during the lime thus appropriated, ex ept at 
tho special request of the Judges, or by permission of 
the Ji&nagers. 

6. Articles intended for sale may b j labeled aixord- 
ingly, but cannot be removed until the close of the 
Exhibitiou, except by written permission of the Mana- 
gers. 

7. Steam power will be provided, so that machinery 
of all kinds may be seen iu actual operation, and every 
facility possible will be given to exhibit working ma- 
chinery to tho be»t advantage. 

8. The name of every article most be attached by the 
exhibitor to it. 

9. Articles Intended for exhibilloo mn^t be ester«d 
and placed ou exhibitiou on or before Saturday, 
Anguat 2lBt. 



10. Perishable articles will be received, or may be 
removed at any time during the exhibition, with the 
consent of the .Managers. 

11. The most effectual means will be taken, through 
the agenc.T of the Police and otherwise, to guard and 
protect the property on exhrbition; and it will be the 
purpose of the managers that all articles shall be re- 
turned to tht owners without loss or injury. Still, all 
articles deposited will be at the RiiK or the owkers. 

12. In case of any misunderstanding, application 
may b' mide to the Managers, who will at all times be 
in ' ttendance. 

13. The Managers are desirous that articles should 
be presented early. Those from abroad, iutended for 
exhibition, should bo properly packed, and if nut con- 
siiiued ti exhibitor's pgent. must be marked, " Mana- 
gers or Tk.MH iNDCSTllI*!- EXHIBITION. SaN FRANCISCO, 

t AL." All aitiiles thus received, arriving too early, 
will be stored tree of cost to the exhibitor, and ihe 
Mnuagers will have them duly pla<-e(lin proper position 
(or exbihitien. No frei.;ht charges will be paid by the 
Managers: but exhibitors are uotiflrd that arrange- 
ments are being made wiih various transportation com- 
eanies to repay freight charges on evidence of goods 
pxlilblted. 

Information will be fuinished by addressing Man- 
agers OF Testh Industrial Exhibition, San Fran- 
ctso. Tal. 



Bf\EEDEE\s' Otf^ECJOf^Y- 



rUBCHASERb OF STOCK WILL FIND IN THIS DiEECTOHY 

rHE Names of some ok tuk most kkliabls BBEXDEBti. 
OtJB Rates.- Six lines or lers insermd in thi^ directory at 
5U ctHa line per month, payablo quart«rLy. 



CATTLE. 



"R. ASHBTTRNER. Baden Station, Sin Mateo Co., 
CaV . breeder of Short horn cattle. Pure Bred Bulls 
for sale, from cows of choice milking strains. 



J. BRE'WrSTER, Gait Station, Sacramento Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



J. T>. CARR. Gabilan, Monterey Co., Cal,, breeder 
of Trotti'ig Horses. ehort-Horn Cattle, Thoroughbred 
Spanish Marino Sheep and Swine. 



A. MAILLAIRD, San Rafael, Marin Co., Cal., 

breeder of Jerseys. Calve B for sale. 

Py^GE B'ROTHKRS, 304 Davis street, 8;in Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petalumi. Souoma Co.) : 
Breedtrs of Short-H'rnB and their Grades. 



STANTON & PO'WERS. Sacramento, Cal. 
Breeders of Jersey Heifers and Bull Calves at low 
rates. Address L C Powers. Sacram'nto. Cal. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



H. E. BTTCKt-EY, Hopeton, Cal. Thoroughbred 
also '4 and H Cotswold grade sheep. 



MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, Centerville, near 
Nilea Station, Alameda Co., Oil. Pnre-Blooded 
French Merino Sheep for sale. 



N. GIIiMORE. El Dorado, EI Dorado Co., Cal., im- 
porter and breeder of Angora Goats. 



LANDRTTM <fc ROD^^ERS. Watsonvllle, Santa 
Cruz County. Pure-Bred Angora Goats and Cotswold 
Sheep for sale^ 

SEVERANCE & PEET, Niles. Alameda Co., 

Cal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 

Sheep. 

A. G STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, S'anislaus Co.. 
Cal. I breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



t,. TJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



POULTRY. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, Cor. 16th and Castro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale^ 

ALBERT E. BTTRBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market. San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbi ts, etc 



M. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Oeese, 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Rabbits, Ferrets. 



WILLIAM KNOWLES, Brooklyn. Alameda Co.. 
Cal , has for sale Ecgs for Hatching, carefully 
packed, from pure-bred Bronze Turkeys, at $7 50 per 
<|i.zen; Brown Leghorns at $4.00 perdoz-n; Houdans 
White Leghorns and Bufi Cochins at $ i.OO per dozen; 
two dozen for $5.(iO. Sent C. O. D. to any address. 



Mrs. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara. Preminm 
Fowls. White Leghorn, 8. 8. Hamburg, Game Ban- 
tams, and Aylesbury Ducks. Also, Eggs. 21v«.3t 



Live Stock Notices. 



Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos 



FOR «a.i:-.t:. 



60 one and two-year old Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Rams, California bred, frim Ewes Imported 
Irom Vermont, and sired by Severance & Peet's Cele- 
brated Bam "Fremont," and by their Ram "Green 
Mountain," which took tho first premiums at the Bay 
District and State Fairs. Last shearing — 35 Ji lbs- 
years' growth. 

Also, about lOO Ewe and Ram Lambs, all of "Green 
Mountain" Stock, bred this year. 

B. F. WATKINS, 

Santa Clara, Cal. 



12 Short-Horn Bulls, 

fat and sleek, tuoroughbred, just from 
Kentu ky, at oAXE'S Stables, 35 Ritch Street, between 
Folsom and Harrison, two blocks from Grand 
Hotel. Inquire at SAXE'S Stables, or Room 82 Russ 
Huose. 3vJ-3m 

FOR, JS^JLiK. 

400 Pure Blood French Merino Rams, 

On the Oristimba Ranch, six miles west of Hill's 
Ferry, Stanislaus County, Cal. All Rams delivered at 
the railroad, free of charge. Terma easy and prices 
liberal. 

A. O. BTONESEFER^ 



OAJlIIL<A.]V ii£:rd 



SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 



I havejust purckased of Mr: Oeorge Hammond, of 
Vermon , three car-loads of Spanish Merino Sheep, 
(335 head, Ewesand Bucks) 
which, with others that I 
purchased last Fall, (also 
direct from Vermont) 
makes my band of Thor- 
oughbred Spanish Merinos 
about 630 head. 
I am prepared to sell 
both Bucks and Ewes, of Pure Bloo Jel Spanish Merinos 
— as good as can bo had in the world— so says Mr. 
Hammond. Parties interested will please give me a 
call. I am ten miles from Salinas City, Gabilan P. O., 
Monterey county. 

J. D. CARR. 

N. B.— I have also Good Graded Bucks for sale, and 
can dispose of some Good Graded Ewes. J. D. C. 





Pure Blooded French Merino Rams 

For sale by MHS. ROBERT liLACOW, of renterville, 
Alaintdi Oou- ty, Cal.. near Niles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Itambouillet, and are equal, 
if not superior, to any of this breed in size and quality 
of wool, and arc proved to be the heaviest thearers in 
the world. 




"We respectfully invite Ihe attention of wool growers 
'o our fine stock of Cotswool Sheep and Angora Gnats 
We have 200 head of Pure Breed Angoras to select from 
we have some of the finest Goats in America; we 
guarantee everything we sell to be as represented; our 
prices are as low as any in America for the same grade 
of stock. Call and see, or address, 

LANBRUM & ROCGERS, 

13v7-eow-tf Watsonville. Cal. 



r>AVir> WOER.NER, 




COOPER, 

ITo- 104 and 112 Spear St.. San Franciaco, 

Wine Caska, Tanks, Tuba, Pipes, Beer Bar- 
rels, etc. Manufactured at Short Notice 
and LOW BATES. 

LUMBER for CASKS, etc., TANKS, etc. Steamed 
and Dried if required. . 

eow-bp. 



EMPIRE PARLOR MATCHES 

We havp imported th** rcqni-ite Maohinery and Chemi- 
caN to iidd td our t»reviouii a-sor ni nt of Mat'-hes the 
celebrated Pti* lor Match, de'et veilv popular amone f'*tDi> 
lies and -smokers, • d account of h illiani burnincuualitirs, 
and rtb^ence oi smell or odor Mauufacturt'd from tho 
best >URar pine, M wood ~u ertor to anv ollter, ai'd fou d 
iinty upon th- Piicific Co'sl Thev are full coiin , and 
wii lioiii <<bit cti n of a' y kind. Pjcked m b xe- of iu'>;'t 
de'irwblo blyle. Brim toi-e and lately Mi>tches ofsuperio-^ 
g'rality " anutHcturi d, and are guaranteed to give entire 
sansfaction. Encourage flome Indi str>'. ani gi;t Buperior 
goods at le.'^s cost ihaii the imporr.ed :<nicle. 

Ask your Grocer for the EVlP.KE I'ARLOR MATCHES, 
an 1 be aura you get no others. For Sale by all G!o- 
certi. 

B. BENDEL & CO., 

MANUFACTtlBERS, 818 FBONT 8TKEET. 

FACTORY— Corner Eleventh and Hiirrison etroets, S. F 
fe*>-eaw 



Dewey & Co. U,f^^i^ Patent Agt's. 



Banking and Insurance. 



Grangers' Bank of California. 

(Incorporated April 27th, 1874.) 
Offices, 415 California street, San Franolsoo. 

CAPITAL authorized. J.'i WHI.OO'i. in 80,000 fhares of 
tlOO each. Subscribed. »2.5f,8.7"0 (Number of 
chHreholders, l,.'.71) Paid up. $481,200. 

DIRECTOR— J. V WEB8TEB. Prei-ideiit: CALvni J. 
CRFesKY. Vice.Frp»i<lent; C 8 Abbott. J. f. 

CHI1I8M4N, O. W COIBY. J. H. HiLL. J. LrWKL- 

LTN. Thob. McCom.s li. J. C. Mekbyfield, a. F. 

WaLCOTT, F. J. W, ODO-ARD. 

OFFICERS -Managing Director. OAI,^^N J. CBKaSEY; 
Ca^hier. AI.EXANDEB Watson; Secretary, Jbank 

A. ClIKSSEY. 

The b«iik was oprned on fie iBt of AupuRt. 1871, 
for the purp'He of affordtnR additional banklDg 
facilities M the prodncerB of the State, and for 
tlie Iranfactioii of ordinary banking biinlneiis. 

CCRRENT ACCOUNTS are opened nnd conducted in the 
usual way, and intercBt allowed ou the minimum 
monthly balance at Ihe raie of three per cent, per 
f nniim. 

CERTIF1C\TES OF DEPOSIT are issued In gums of 
$.'0 and upwards, payable on .10 days' notice of 
withdrawul, bearing liitereBt at lates varying 
with the cnrrcnl rate of discount. 

TERM DEPOSITS are receiwd in jiold. silver or cni>: 
rency, and interest allowed as follows, namely: 
Thne months, six per cent, per annum: six 
months, aeven per cent, per annum; one year, 
(i^ht per cent, per annum. 

COLLECTIONS are made throughout the State on the 
mns favorable terms. 

DISCOl'NTS— The bank advances on real estate In the 
different count iei', on mer handise and grain In 
warehouBe. etc., with a fair margin, charging a 
uniform rat" of ono per cent, per month. Dis- 
count days, Tuesday and Friday. 

ALEXANDER WATSON, Cashier. 



California Farmers Mutual 
Fire Insurance Association. 

Office, 6 LeidesdorflT St.. - San Francisco. 

l>irectors: 

A. Wolf, A. W. Thompsojj, I. C. Stkei,!, 

I. O. QaBDNXB, J.C. MeRBYPI£LD. J. D. BLAhOBAB, 

G. P. Kellogg. Treas. 

Finance Committee: 

I. Q. Oabdkeb, J. C. Mebrifield, A. W. Thomfsok 

Trustees: 
J. M. Hamilton. Take C< |I. C Steele, San Mateo Co 
J.C. Merrypielk, Solano C< I \. B. Nallet. Sonoma Co 
O. W. Colby, . - Butte Co O. 8. Abbott. S'taBarb'aOo 
H. B. .JoLLEY. - Merced C. A. W. Thompson. SouomaCo 
A. Wolf. San Joaquin ColE.W. Ste£u;.SL Obispo Co 
J. D. BLANCHAR. Pres't. W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 

This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of safely 
InsuriTig against loss by fire, at actual coht of insurance, 
without l>eing connected with city risks. aA'22.tf 



?5= 



IMMIGRANT BUREAU. 

I. G-. GARDNER, Assistant- 

123 California Street, 
Second Floor. - _ - g^n Franoisoo, Cal. 

To the Immigrants Seeking Homes, 
Labor and iDformation. 

There is ample room In our State for all that are 
arriving to And homes, and th*-re is pUnty of wnrk for 
willing hands to do. By the iufurmation we expect to 
give through this Bureau, we anticipate nodiffi ulty in 
diidliig homes and empl> yment for all who may come. 
This office will be rutnisbed with mips of Oovernment 
and other desirable lands for sale, with full iiiforma- 
tion relative to location, soil, climate, etc. 

The simple object of the Bureau is to protect the 
inti-rcBts of Immigrants, giving reliable information 
where the new i-oii*er can tind employment, and hornet 
on landi with perfect Htle, fre^ of charffe; and since 
the Bureau V ill b- in corrcBpondi-nce with reliable or 
similar Bureaus throughout Ihe Slate, it cannot fall to 
accompli^h the object iutended. 

Mayor JAMES OTIS, 
I. FRIiDLANOER, 
C. J. CKEiSSEY, 

c. adijlpue low, 

JOHN MORTON. 

Tho Committee having selected the appointed Agent 
of the Granger!-' Immigrant Committee and the late 
Business Agent of the Stat«^ Grange as their Manafcer 
and A88l^t int. Bhi>ws a frl.ndlj disno^l'lon and dvBlre 
tonnite with us iu our en eriTises as Grangers that we 
should not ignore; and as this institution is to be eus- 
taioed by the people at large, we therefore appeal to 
Grangers, and ask th.-ir co-operation and fupport, and 
to tnko iuimediaie a.tion iu 6«le< tine some person In 
their Orange to receive ordfrs for help and send the 
same to this otHcc. that we may fill them.alBO to whom 
we may refer those seeking h<'me-; au'i situationa. It 
is desirable that we have full dehcription of lands for 
sale and to rent, 

J. EARL, Hanag:er. 



Office of Drain Pipe Works, 



S. W. Comer Sac 

ramento and 

;MontKom- 

ery Sts., 

S. F- 

DRAINS 

rONSTRTJCTED 

In any part of the 
State, and 

Woik Warranted 



E. 



T. MENOMY 
Proprietor. 
bp-eow-I yr 




July id, 1875.] 



D E W E Y & CO., 

American and Foreign 



M^imi 




SAN FBANCISOO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 
Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 
Patent Reissues Taken Out. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form, 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 
Examinations of Patents made here and a 
Washington. 

Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 

in Washington. 
Examinations Ordered and Reported by Tele- 

OEAPH. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity ol 
Patents and Assignments. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obt ained 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Send for Cieculab. 

To the Public: — 
I am the original inventor of a tube attachment to 

the furnaces of engines for the purpose of feeding 
straw to the furnace for fuel. My first patent was 
issued to mo by the United States Patent Office, on the 
11th day of February, 1873. Subsequently, on the 20th 
of May, 1873, 1 obtained a second patent for improve- 
ments in said tubes. The first patent covered a tube 
having a revolving partition or door outside of it, so 
that the straw could be pushed in under the partition, 
and the opening or passage in the tube kept closed, in 
order to prevent a draft of air from entering through 
the tube when the straw was being introduced. My 
second patent covera a tube provided with a valve or 
hinged door, which closes the passage through the 
tube. Finding that certain parties had commenced to 
infringe upon my rights by attempts to evade my pat- 
ented claims, I have recently, to wit. May 4th, 1875 
reissued my first patent, and being the first person who 
ever used a horizontal tube through which straw or 
fuel was fed to a furnace, was enabled to cover broadly 
any. horizontal tube or its equivalent which may be 
attached to the doors of boiler furnaces for the pur- 
pose of feeding fuel through, no difTerence whether th 
tube has a door, valve, partition or other device for 
closing the passage through it, or whether it la simply 
an open tube which is kept filled with straw. 

Messrs Treadwell & Co., corner of Market and Fre- 
mont streets, San Francisco, Cal., are my agents for 
the Pacific Coast. Any person who desires to attach a 
horizontal tube feeder to the furnace of a boiler or 
boilers, or is desirous of making and using them, can 
purchase the privilege to do so from my agents, and 
will receive a plate with date of patents marked on it, 
and which must be riveted upon each tube in use. All 
tube attachments for feeding furnaces not provided 
with this plate will be considered as infringements, 
and will be dealt with accordingly. 

DAVID aCOREY, 

Watsonville, Santa Oruz County, Oal. 

SANBORN & BYRNES, 




mechanics' UiUs, Blission Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 25v8-8m.bp 



Sdocessob to A. Pfisteb & Co., 

Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts., San Jose. 
CAPITAL, -...-.--- $100,000. 

WM. ERKSON PRESIDENT 

H. E. HILLS I.MANAOER 

Directors:— Wm Erkson, L. F. Cbipman Horace Litle 
J. P. Dudley, David (-aiapi>ell, James Singleton, Thomas 
E. Snell, 0. T. Settle, K. A. Bralcy. 

Will do a General Mercantile Buainess. also receive De- 
posits, on which such interest, will be allowed as may be 
Agreed upon, and make Loans upon approved security. 



Pacific ^ural pRESS, 

/ft ttrst-claSB 16-page Agricultural Home Journal, fllleu 
with fresh, valuable and Interesting reading. Every 
farmer and rurallst should take It. It is im- 
mensely popular. Bubsorlption, H a year 

DEWEY A CO., PubUshera, 
^o. SMBansome Btreet, 0AN FBANOISOO. 



The Hoadley Regulating Cut-off 




The above cut represents the Hoadley New Style Threshing Engine. IS-horse power, with patent Cut-ofl' 
Governor. We also have the same style and size, with HOADLEY'S NEW PATENT STEAW-BORNING FIRE 
BOX. This new Engine has been thoroughlv tested, and we are prepared to warrant it to give satisfaction. 
OUR GUARANTEE GOES WITH EVERY ENGINE INTO THE FIELD. This new Engine is fitted out com- 
plete, with High Seat, FootBoard for Driver, California Roller Brake (not shown in engraving) , Iron Hub, 
Patent Wheels, Forged Bent Axle, and all Mountings in Perfect Order. 

THE 

Hoadley Straw-Burning Threshing Engine 

Is no heavier than wood-burning engines of same power, and is unquestionably the Best ThresMiug Engine in 
the world. It is Lighter, Better Made, Safer, and will do More Work than any other engine of same size and 
price ever built. THIS FACT IS INDISPUTABLE. 

8^" Farmers aLd Threshers desiring to buy Straw-Burners for coming season, should secure their Engines 
Early, as the number is not largo, and many are already engaged. All Engines will be tested in presence of 
customers, when required. Send for Circular and Prices. Address, 

TREADWELL & CO.. Sole Agents, San Francisco. 




THE FARMERS' FRIEND. 

BEST IN USE FOR HOUSE AND STOCK PURPOSES. CAN 

BE USED WITH HOSE FOR WASHING 

WAGONS, WINDOWS, AND 

WETTING GROUNDS. 

SEND FOR CIRCTJI-AR. 

DUNHAM, CARRIGAN, & CO., 

Successors to 

Conroy, O'Connor &. Co., 

Han i^ranoisoo 



THE CALIFORNIA 

STANDARD BURLAP SACK COMPANY 

OF S?iA.lN FRAIVOIWC'O, 

Now offer for sale their GRAIN BAGS, 22x36 and 20x36, sewed by Machinery with the best of Flax Twine, 
warranted not to rip in filling, the stitch being the same as the Dundee hand-sewed Sack. The sewing has been 
examined by good judges, and pronounced euperor to any other. 

SAMPLES SENT ON APPLICATION AT THE 

Factory, No. 36 Clay Street. A. J. GOVE, Superintendent, 

For Sale in Quantities to Suit bv 

I. FRIEDLANDER. 



Cor. California and Battery Sts., 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



The attention of Wool cordially Invited to the 

Thoroughbred Stock Bred and Kept on the 
MERINO RANCH, 

Situated at Niles, Alameda County. Cal., only five minutes walk from the Ktatlon, "*?' 
junction of San Jose and C. P. R. B. Parties desiring to visit our ranch can leave San Francisco at J p. m. and 
^lave an hour at the ranch, returning on Overland train at 6 r. m. Or, coining out in mjrning, can return 
to city at H a. m. The proprietors make the 

THOROUGHBRED SPANISH MERINO SHEEP A SPECIALTY, 

Our flock are all Imported Bheep, and have no superiors in the United Htat'j. We always have on hand 
choice young BAMS and EWES, of all ages, for sale at Eeasonable Prices, giving time, H required, to responsible 
parties. Oity OfRoe— 3J B Oallfomia Btreet, San Francisco. 




A. NEW DISCOVEPtY 

To Save Time and Labor. 

The Magical Effect of 

ENGWER'S PURE BORAX SOAP 

Is wonderful. Washes without much rubbing. Every 
one knows the value of 

AMMONIA and BORAX 

For Washing Purposes; 

This Borax Soap is principally composed of the com- 
bination of the two ingredients, so that it entirely does 
away with hard labor. A trihl will convince any one 
of its fuperiorquiilitieg. Warranted to give satisfaction 
and not to injure the finest fabric. Ask your Grocer 
for 

Engwer's Pure Borax Soap, 

IF HE DOES NOT HAVE IT, ASK HIM TO GET IT. 

GRANGER SOAP- 
Once Used, Al^^-ays Used, 

Manufactured by 

FALKINBXJROH & CO., 

Or 'gon Street, near Front, San F rancisco, Cal 

LEVI, STRAUSS & CO., 

Patent Rivetea 

Clothing, 

14 & 16 Battery St., 
San Francisco. 

These goods are specially 
adapted for the use of 
FARMERS, MECHANICS, 
MINERS, and WORKING 
MEN in general. They 
are manufactured of the 
Best Material, and in a 
Superior Manner. A trial 
will convince everybody of 
this fact. 
Patented May 12, 1873. 

USE NO OTHER, AND INQUIRE FOE THESE 
GOODS ONLY. eow-bp 




J. Y. WILSON. 



WM. FAULL. 



W.L. MERRY 



WILSON, MERRY & CO., 

Provision Packers 

And Dealers in 

SALTED AND SMOKED MEATS, 

Lard, Etc. 

PROP'S BLACK POINT PACKING HOUSE. 

We respectfully call the attention of Farmers an 
Stock Raisers to the fact that we are always pre- 
pared to purchase hogs, cattle and sheep at 
full market prices, for Cash, and shiill be 
glad to answer promptly any in- 
quiries addressed to us on 
the condition of the 
Market. 

Office No. 223 Sacramento St., Near Fr^nt, 

San Francisco. 




l'!J\lHE QUEEN yf,; 

f c omptJexio n" I 




COOLING, REFRESHING, AND 

INVIGORATING ARE THE 

EFFECTS OF 

ROWLANDS' KALYDOR 

On the face and skin of 'ill exposed 
to the scorching rays of the sun 
and heated particles of dust. It 
eradicates Freckles, Sunburns, 
Tun, and all Cutaneous Eruptions, 
and produces a beautiful and del- 
icate comi>le](ion. In cases of 
ritings of inse<:t8 it is of the great- 
• st value, fold everywhere by 
nil chemists, druggists, and patent 
medicine dealers. 
Ask for Rowlands' Kalydor, of 
Garden, London, and 



mftJ^^'^'.Ss/J^,.'. '.:0, Hattoii Gardt: 
W^^S^^!!'' av'.id imitations. 



lOvT-eow 



Impoiteie and Breeders of SpanlBb Hwlno Sheep. 



Foil !rsA.U.fci 

In the Riverside, New England and Santa Ana Col- 
onies, in the valley of the Santa Ana river, San Bernar- 
dino county, C.ilifornia, twenty thousand (20.000) acres 
of cl( an, ri'h, lev 1, valley land, with an abundance of 
water for irrigiition. There is no better hind in the 
State for the orange and all other semi-tropical fruits, 
nnd no finer climate in the world. Inquire of W. T. 
SAVWARD, 420 Montgoniery street, San Francisco; 8. 
C. EVANS, Fort Wayne, Indiana; C. I. HUTCHINSON, 
31'4 Ciilitornia street, San Francisco; L. UPSON, General 
Agent. RiviTKide, San Bernardino county, Cal. 



I-. O O li I 

ALBERT E. BUHBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder nf Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for iKitching from the flnei-tof im- 
ported stock. Eggi and Fowls at 
reduced prices. yud fc>r Price 
List. 

ALBERT t;. BURBANK, 
Iv8-Siu 43 & 4' Cal. Market 8. 



One of our most valued exchanges Is the Pacxfic 
KuiiAL Press, published by Dewey h Co., San Francisco, 
California. Ev'ry number contains a large amoimt of 
general news from the far west, besides much valuable 
information In the way of Grange news.— Vh* Farmer'i 
Friend, Mukaniciburg, Pa. 




28 



[July io» 187 5- 



Continued from Fa^e 26. 



the final reversion to one of the ancestral forms- 
This is 80 nearly allied to the preceding propo- 
sition that it needs further explanation. If two 
species are crossed, with a hybrid as the result, 
and the hybrid individuals are then propagated, 
in one, two, three or four generations the paren- 
tal characters generally separate and individu- 
als generally appear, some having the charac- 
ters of one "of the original species, while others 
have those of the other species. This has fre- 
quently been shown in plants. Noticeably so 
in the crossing of two species of Datura, which 
at first showed a blending of the parental char- 
acters, bat in a few generations the hybrids re- 
verted to both the parent forms. Occasionally 
in plants, this last kind of reversion occurs as 
a reversion of parts; as when a hybrid flower 
has some of its petals of the color of one pa- 
rent, while others are like those of the other 
parent, or sometimes in the same petals the 
colors of one parent will be gathered into 
blotches or streaks, while the remainder of the 
petal will be of the color of the other parent. 
This is also shown when a branch r'iverts by 
" sporting" to one of the parent forms, as is 
sometimes noticed in fruit trees, but ihore fre- 
quently in the cultivated grains and flowers. 

Is the fixedness of any character efl'ected by 
its age y In other words, is it true that the 
longer any character has been present in a 
breed, the stronger and the less apt to change 
it will be V Many of our breeders lay it down 
as a fundamental principle, and believe in it as 
firmly as we believe in the law of gravitation, 
and what is more, they put their belief into 
practice and are successful in their breeding. 
Darwin says cautiously: "I doubt whether it 
can be proved." I shall not attempt a decision 
of the matter, but will simply put before you 
some of the facts taken into consideration in 
itsdiscassion: 

1st. Some new varieties are remarkably fixed 
in their characters. 

2d. Wild plants and animals in many in- 
stances change readily. Now it must be ad- 
mitted that wild forms are almost immeasur- 
ably older than our cultivated ones, and yet 
many of our wild plants and animals are quite 
easily made to vary if brought under cultiva- 
tion, and they even often vary much in their 
wild state. Now, if long culture influences 
character anywhere, it seems as if it ought to 
have done so in the time it had to work upon 
wild forms. 

3d. A fixed character, by the very fact of its 
persistence, proves itself to be adapted to its 
surroundings. In any animal or plant any 
character not adapted to its surroundings, 
(that is, of climate, soil or caltare,) cannot be 
made to persist. 

<lth. A character becomes old because it is 
adapted to its surrounding conditions, which 
conditions remain unchanged. 

I am inclined to doubt the proposition that 
the age of a character gives it fixedness. Be- 
cause it has age, the probabilities are greatly 
that it has fixedness, but it is not therefore age 
which gives fixedness. A tower is a thousand 
years old, and still stands; the probabilities are 
that it will continue to stand for many years; 
yet no one believes that the age of the tower 
makes it stand, or even gives it a tendency to 
stand. What its age does, is simply to assure 
us that the tower must have been well built, 
out of good material ; in other words, that it 
was adapted to its surroundings. Is it not 
possible to explain in this way all the cases 
brought up to show that the age of a character 
tends to give it fixedness ? 

Resume of Lecture Sixteenth. 

The stability of certain forms (species, varie- 
ties or breeds,) is increased by: First, Their 
Prepotency, or power of transmitting char- 
acters; Second, The intimate inter-crossing of 
any species, variety or breed; Third, Reversion. 
As to Beversion, we have the following well- 
established facts: 

1st. A pure breed may revert to a lost form. 
2d. A nearly pure breed may revef t to an un- 
desirable crois or impurity. 3d. Keversiou 
may be developed by age. 4th. Reversion may 
be developed by crossing. 5th. Hybrid forms 
(species, variety or breeds,) sooner or later re- 
vert to the parent forms. 6th. Reversion may 
be in parts ol a flower, fruit or plant. The age 
of a character does not give it greater stability. 



Industrial Items. 

Work at the Wilmington bar is proijressing 
Ba'i-factO'ily. The ^nJerpri.se tlioksdrtdg'Dg 
has brought to the surtactj indications which 
give assurance of a permanent channel. 

The U. S. steanaer Narraganselt, which has 
been for the last two ye irs eugiged in survey- 
ing the Gulf of California, ariived at this pore 
last Sunday. 

A OREAT bore is that San F>>ru«ndo tunnel 
getiing to be. It alroidy ext' nds 250 feet into 
the solid rock on the south side of the moun- 
tain. 

It is reported that thirSy-five bridges werf- 
destroyed by the recent floods ia the south of 
France. 

Ii seems to be an a-^sured fact judg'ng from 
what the TJfgisJtr says, that th.y ute to have 
a woolen facory at jfapa. 

The entire bn8ine-.B portion ofTu'areCity 
'vas deatrojed by fire last Tuesday afteruoen. 

Gbadino has commenced on the Petalama 

d Saa Rafael railroad. 



The State Fair. 

The twenty-second annual fair of the Cali- 
fornia State Agricultural Society is close upon 
us, commencing on the 15th and ending on the 
25th of September. Active preparations are 
now in order, and for the benefit of those who 
have preparations to make, we would state that 
the State Board of Agriculture, for 1875, is 
composed of the following oflficers : President — 
B. S. Carey, Sacramento. Directors — Colemau 
Younger, San Jose; T. L. Chamberlain, Lin- 
coln, Placer county; E. B. Mott, Jr., Sacra- 
mento; M. D. Baruck, S. F.; Marion Biggs, 
Butte; Frederick Cox, Chris. Green, Robert 
Hamilton, J. J. Green, Sacramento. Officers 
of the Board — Robert Beck, P. O., Sacramento, 
Secretary; L. A. Upson, Sacramento, Treas- 
urer. 

The department classification is as follows: 
1, live stock; 2, machinery, implements, etc.; 
3, textile fabrics (mill and domestic products), 
and juvenile department; 4, mechanical pro- 
ducts, and California inventions, designs, etc. ; 
5, agricultural products; G, horticultural pro- 
ducts; 7, fine arts, etc. Over $20,000 have 
been appropriated for premiums, with liberal 
special appropriations for all worthy articles 
exhibited, not mentioned, in the schedule of 
premiums. Also in addition to the premiums 
named, the Society will give a qold medal to the 
most meritorious exhibition in each of the 
seven departments. 

As we have before stated, the Central Pacific 
railroad company will transport all articles and 
animals exhibited at the fair over their respec- 
tive routes /r«e 0/ cAan/e. Freight being p.iid 
down on them to the fair will be returned upon 
reshipment by the same owner; and exhibition 
of certificate of Secretary that the same has 
been exhibited. The same company will issue 
excursion tickets to all parties going to the fair 
and returning at about half price. 

The rules and regulations of the approach- 
ing fair occupy more space than we can appro- 
priate to them in this issue; we will endeavor 
to give them in our next. 




Hog Raising. 

When properly managed, there is no more 
profitable stock business in this State than 
raising hogs for pork. Hogs increase here 
much faster than any other class of stock. 
Sows will breed on an average twice a year, and 
after they are one year old will average from 
six to ten pigs at a litter. At a year old these 
pigs are ready foe the market, and are always 
in demand. Indeed, there is no day in the 
year when there is not ready sale for good 
porkers. The Chiijese always eat and will 
always have pork. Pork is also worth more in 
proportion to the cost of production than any 
other meat. Hogs in this State will live the 
year round by grazing, and do well at that. 
Alfalfa is the best grass or clover for hogs. 
They will reject all other grasses or clover for 
alfalfa, and will thrive on it from the time they 
are two months old. The sows will give a good 
supply of milk for pigs on this clover alone, 
and keep in good condition. Ki one year old 
good Berkshire hogs will average 200 pounds 
with no other feed than good alfalfa pasture, 
and will be as fat as the Chinese markets re- 
quire. From the above it will be seen that for 
each one year old sow and good alfalfa fields 
the farmer can make an annual increase of 
from twelve to twenty fold on original stock. 
If in connection with alfalfa he raises barley or 
wheat, he makes the hogs gleaners of the stub- 
ble to good advantage, thus turning into pork 
and money much that would otherwise be 
waited. But barley or wheat may very profit- 
ably be raised especially for hogs, and the hogs 
will do their own harvesting. By the use of 
portable fences, a portion of the field may be 
fenced and the hogs turned in as soon as the 
grain is ia the dou'^h, and as fast as the grain 
on this p rtion is consumed, or nearly so, an- 
otbf r p iition miy b^ fenced and the fattening 
hogs turned into this, and so on until tbey are 
fat and ready for market. The store hoijs may 
follow the fattiug bogs, and in Ibis way the 
harvest may be completed and turned into 
me it without the expense of reaping, bticking, 
or threshing, or freigbtirg to maiket. Whati^ 
mote, sraiu thus made into pork fiuda, as we 
said before, at all times, a re idy homo market, 
and does not have to be sacked or freighted to 
Liverpool or any other foreign coun'ry, at great 
expense. The expense of running a firm 
stocked with hogs, after the same is well seeded 
to alfalfa, and fenced into api>ropriate sized 
fields, is comp>irHtively lii?hf. Th>J same value 
miy be turned oflp annually from such a farm 
with one-fourth the labor and expense required 
to run a griin farm when tbe grain is harvested 
and muketed in the ns'ial way. Our river 
farms are especially alapted it hog raising. 
Tiie laud is good for alfalfa and b irl-«y, and 
these larins generally have tulj lands con- 
nected with them, on which may, at very little 
cost, be raised large crops of pumpkins,' which 



also make most excellent feed for hogs, and 
which to a great extent may also be harvested 
by the hogs themselves. Good judgment and 
care are as necessary to this business as in any 
other, but with these we believe it to be about 
the most profitable branch of farming in the 
State. 

Precautions. 
Among the necessary precautions to insure 
Bucces.-i in the hog raising business may be 
m 11 ioue i, first, the care of the young. Pigs 
are h in'y and easy to raise, but they require a 
certa.n kind of care which cannot and must not 
be neglected. During all the wet season, at 
least, each sow and pigs should have a separate 
pen, and a good, warm, dry nest to sleep in. 
They should also be fed separately until the 
pigs are, say six weeks old. If any number 
are allowed to sleep in one common nest in 
cold, wet weather, losses will most surely oc- 
cur by smothering by the sows lying on the 
little ones or by fighting. Small pigs should 
be kept shut up in a pen until three or four 
weeks old. Until that age the sow should be 
turned out daily a part of the day, and after 
that the pigs may be allowed toaocempany her, 
but should be shut up nights till, say six weeks 
old. If large numbers of small pigs are fed 
together, or if pigs of different ages are fed in 
common, the stronger are bound to take ad- 
vantage of the weaker, and this will create runts 
or scrubs, which will always be runts or scrubs, 
and these, if allowed, will materially diminish 
profits. Some special care must be taken of 
the pigs when weaning them. The sows will 
generally wean them at about two months of 
age of their own accord. If the feed be good, 
the feed of the sow may be withheld when the 
pigs are six weeks old. When this is com- 
menced the pigs must have a little extra care 
and feed. For this purpose a pen may be so 
arranged that the pigs can get into it, while the 
sows are excluded. In this pen may be kept a 
little wheat or rye bran, or other good nutri- 
tious food. The pigs will soon learn where the 
hole is that leads to this food, and will pass 
through frequently and help themselves. None 
but the black breeds of hogs should be raised 
in this State. All others are liable to the scurvy. 
The best breeds are the Berkshire and the 
Essex, or these two breeds mixed. These breeds, 
if properly cared for, are proof against the 
scurvy and are the best grass eaters, and are 
plenty large enough for profit. One of the 
most necessary precautions to insure success in 
hog raising is cleanliness. The hog is a dirty 
or clean animal, according as he is treated. 
Whenever kept in a pen, if given a chance, the 
pig, big or little, will keep himself clean, and he 
should be encouraged in this natural instinct. 
Instead of a mud-hole to drink out of he should, 
whether in pen or field, be furnished with clean, 
cool water to drink. Salt and charcoal should 
always be kept where hogs can help thgmseves 
whenever inclined to do so. Both these articles 
are a necessity to hogs of all ages and condi- 
tions, and their plentiful supply at all times 
has more to do with the good condition of the 
hog than most hog raisers of experience imag- 
ine. — Record- Union. 



General News Items. 

JouN Miller, Secretary of the Western De- 
velopment company, an adjunct of the C. P. 
R. R, who was arrested some days since for 
embezzlement, turns out to be a most pre- 
cious scoundrel. Besides having stolen the 
funds of the company, he appears to have lived 
in this State for the past six years under an 
assumed name, his right name being Woodrufi', 
and although having a wife and family in the 
East, he had married an estimable lady in Sacra- 
mento and been living in princely style in this 
city. 

The American rifle team are having honors 
and attentions of all kinds heaped upon them 
by the Irish people. They paid a visit to Bel- 
fast on Tuesday, last were received by the mayor, 
cheered by the mob, dined by the city govern- 
ment, etc. They will be invited to shoot a 
match against a picked team of Englisk, Scotch 
and Irish riflemen. 

In the case of Patrick Lenehan, who was 
killed by the premature discharge of a cannon 
at the dock of the P. MS. S. Co. last week, 
the coroner's jury have found that the officer 
in charge of the firing is censurable for negli- 
gence, and that the company is blamable for 
employing inexperienced men to handle the 
guns. ___ 

At the celebration at RockHn. Placer county, 
on the 5th inst., four mnn, including a Chiua- 
man, were severely iijured by tbe premtture 
discharge of a small cannon. Ic was the old 
story, —tbe piece became red hot and the pow- 
der ignited as it was put in. 

Geokoe Walker, 2J vearsof age, shot himself 
in a lod.inghuu-e in Oakland Tuesday eveniug. 
No fii nds and tire I of life the excuse. 

DtjBiNG the celebration at West Unity. Ohio, 
on the 5th inst.. Peer Kriodle was kill>d by 
the premature discharge of a cannon. 

The assistant light house keeper at Point 
Concepcion light was drowned, last Tuesday 
morning. 

Or course the Beeoher jiry disagref d. They 
nre repotted to have stood nine for Beecber, 
three for Tilton. 

Tim Florence, an' ex-men ber of Congr»B3 
from Pennsylvania, died in Washington last 
week. 

There were three soicides in this city on tbe 
5th inst. 



gATENTS & 1NVENTI0N& 



A Weekly List of U. S. Patents Is- 
saed to Faoiflo Coast Inventors. 

[Fbom OrnoLiL Reports fob thi Mikinq and Scieh- 
TiFio PBE88, DEWEY & CO., PDELisasna amd 

D. 8. AND FOBEION PaTBKT A0BNT«.] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated 'Washington. 
D. O., July 6th, 1875. 

Fob Week Ending Jcnb 22nd, 1875.* 
Medical Compound.— Jennette Cooper, 8. F. 

Cal. 
Finger Bab fob Harvesters.— .'Viotor N. Col- 
lins, Nordhoflf, Cal. 
Fare Box.— Asa E. Hovey, S. F., Cal. 
Stamp Cancelbb. — Myer Lewis, 8. F., Cal. 
Door Seoureh. — Louis Marks, S. F., Cal. 
Venker Cctting Machinei — Geo. W. Swan 

S. F., Cal. 
Planing Machine.-— Henry C. Holloway, San 

Diego, Cal. 
Hay, Cotton and Wool Press. — Maria McBur- 

ney, admx. of Wm. H. McBurncy, deod.. 

Sac, Cal. 
Carpet Cleaner.— David B. Soofield. Baker 

City, Ogn. 
Fadcet. — Louis Chaize, San Jose, Cal. 
Governor for Steam Enginkb. — F. M. Mer- 

rell, Marysville, Cal. 

Re-issue. 

Type Casting Machine.— J. A. T. Overend. 

S. F., Cal. 

•The patents are not ready for delivery by tta 

Patent Office nntil acme 14 days after tbe date of lasne. 

Note.— Oopieg of U. 8. aud Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewet & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel< 
eifraph or otherwise) at tbe lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast Inventors transacted with 
perfect security aud In tbe shortest possible time. 



Campo, 8an Dieoo Co., Cal., July 3d, 1874. 
Messks. Dewey & Co.— Gentlemen: To-day I received 
the patent and other papers of my animal uap, that you 
80 successfully worked through tbe patent ' fBce for me, 
for which please accept my best wishes. The chances 
are that I will have another application for you to 
make for mc before long. I am well satistipd with your 
manner of doing business, and I think inventors of 
this coast stand in their own light when they do not 
put their business into your bauds. 

1 remain yours truly, A. M. GAS8. 



r>r. M:. a.. MiOItltELL'S 




ABDOMIML SUPPORTER. 



VTbea we take into consideration the vast amount of 
labor performed by the muscles of the Abdomen, we 
can readily see the necessity of mechanical assistance 
when for any cause they become weakened or relaxed. 
They are constructed on scientific principles, and will 
fit any form by adjusting the lacings as required. 
They are easily adjusted and comfortable to wear. La- 
dies who find it diCBcult to walk from heaviness or 
bearing down feeling will be greatly relieved by 
wearing them, and will be able to walk without inoon- 
venience. 

To Ladies who wish to retain their figure, tbe 
Supporter is indispensable after childbirth; also 
during the encionte period it affords just the support 
required. 

These Supporters are on sale at No. 327 )< Third 
street, San Francisco. Ladies not residing in tbe city 
can have the same forwarded to them, C. 0. D., by 
forwarding SO cents to'prepay Express charges; and in 
cage the Supporter does not give perfect satisfaction, 
the money will be refunded. 

The price of the supporter varies from $2.50 to $10, 
according to quality of material. 

In ordering, send the size around the top of the hips 
and tbe amount you desire to pay. 

Address 

Dr. U . A. MOBR£LL, 



327 Ji Third Street, 



SAN rEANCISCO. 



LOCKE & MONTAGUE, 

IMPORTERS OF 

Stoves, Rang^es, 

tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Iron Pipe, 

House FumisblnR Hardware, 

PlaiB Japanned, 

Planished and Stamped 

XIIV TTAR^E. 

112 and 114 Battery Street. 

SAN FBANOISCO. 



July 




29 



Weekly Market Review. 



DOMESTIO PRODUCE, ETC. 

San Fbancisco, July 7, 1875. 
Owing to the interest taken by their conductors in 
political' matters and Retting ready to celebrate the' 
"glorious Fourth," our weekly exchanges have devoted 
leas space than usual to agricultural matters. From 
what we have been able to glean, however, the harvest 
seems progressing satisfactorily, although we notice 
that in a portion of Colusa county the volunteer and 
winter sown Wheat will not come up to expectations. 
The Portland Oregonian, of July 3d, has this to say of 
the Wheat prospects in that section : From all parts of 
this valley, whence the great bulk of our Wheat exports 
come, we hear nothing inducing us to change the esti- 
mates heretofore made, of the surplus Wheat for export 
for the year ensuing upon the approaching harvest. In 
no county has the crop suffered any general damage, 
though the recent rains may have slightly injured a few 
fields of the earliest fall sown and which was far ad- 
vanced toward maturity. But the loss from this cause, 
if any at all, will be very trifling and will hardly per- 
ceptibly lessen the total yield. 

The rains throughout the Northwestern States appear 
to have done little damage to the Grain crop. The fol- 
lowing report from Nebraska is of a similar nature: 

Omaha (Neb.), July 6.— The Herald's special from all 
parts of the State represent the crops generally in very 
flattering condition. The copious rains for the past 
week have done but very little damage. 

Reports from the Canadas, however, aTe not so en- 
couraging to producers in that section, as seen in the 
following; 

ToEONTO (Ontario) , July .'>.— Crop telegrams from all 
parts of the Dominion show that the fall Wheat is par- 
tially killed. Spring Wheat will come up to the aver- 
age. Of Corn there will be a light yield. Root crops 
will be abort the average. Hay and Fruit will be light. 
A dispatch from London, England, under date of 
yesterday, says the Mark Lane Express thinks that the 
weather is calculated to greatly hinder haying and 
harvesting; consequently the prospects are rather 
threatening for future prices of Wheat. It is a shilling 
higher; in some markets, two shillings. 

In the Liverpool market this morning California 
Wheat was quoted at 9s@!)s 4d, while Club was held at 
98 .3d@9s 8d. This is a slight advance from last week 
Some items of information regarding crops in difl'er-' 
ent sections of the State may be found under head of 
"Agricultural Notes." 

iJairs— Market unchanged. We continue to quote 
the standard Wlieat Bag at 10)4®llc. 

Barley— Receipts since our last 9,4G9 ctls. The 
market for Feed is firm. We quote Brewing at $1.S5® 
»1.57; Feed. $1.37J4@$1.50 perctl. 

Beans — Receipts since our last only 260 sks. Quo- 
tations remain unchanged. 

Corn— White is quotable at $1.45, Yellow at $1.40 
per ctl. 

Dairy Produce— Butter and Cheese remain firm at 
last week's quotations. The hens appear to have been 
celebrating the Fourth, to judge by the advance in 
Eggs. Fresh California Eggs are stift' at 37)ic per doz. 
Feed — Receipts of Hay since our last 1,204 tons. 
Hay is firm. We hear of several sales at $20 per ton. 
We quote $14(g)$20 as the outside figures. The other 
varieties of Feed remain uncbauBed. 

Flour — Market quiet. Uecuipt.s since our last 65,- 
857 qr sks. We quote brands of Extra at $5.25@$5.823i. 
Buperline, $4.25@$4.50 per bbl. 

Fresh Meat — We note a slight decline in undressed 
Pork, quoting it at 10@lU!!ic. Other Meats unchanged. 
Fruits — Peaches are plentiful at 75c@$1.50 per box. 
Pears are in good supply at 50c(g)$l,25 per l»ox. Black- 
berries are cheaper, we quote them at 8@12c ^ ft. 
Figs are a diug at 3@5c. Strawberries in moderate 
supply at $8@S1U per chest. Gooseberries are very 
scarce. The few in market retail at 16@20c ^ Hi. '■ 
Apples are in g-ood supply at 75c and $1.25 per box. ,' 
Apricots are held at 76c(3)$l per box— but plentiful at 
these figures. Grapes are coming in more freely at 5® ; 
7c 1^ 1)}. Watermelons are quoted at 16@20c each. 
Cantelopes at $3.50@$4 perdoz. 

The following item from the telegrams to the daily- 
press may be of interest to our fruit growers: 

Chicago, July 6tb. — A meeting of merchants was 
held this afternoon at the Produce Exchange here, to 
consult with a delegation of fruit growers from Flor- 
ida in regard to establishing a regular trade in fruit 
between Chicago and that State. 

Game— The statutary restriction on the killing of 
deer ceased on the Ist inst., and Venison is quite plenty 
In this market. We quote at 8@10c It* Ih . 

Hides — Receipts since our last, 1,425. The market 
is weaker. We quote Dry at 17@18c; Wet Salted, 8@ 
8>!iC. 

Honey— We quote Comb Honey atl8@22Mc ^ ft. 
Strained, 6@10c. 

Onions — Receipts since our last, 843 sks. The price 
is lower. We quote Red and Yellow at Sl@1.12 1^ ctl. 

Potatoes — Receipts since our last, 5,987 sks. Half 
Moon and Early Rose are in good supply at $2 ¥> ctl. A 
small lot of Sweet Potatoes are in market at 7c ^ tfe. 

Provisions— The market is firm. We note a slight 
advauce in two Eastern grades, quoting Armour's Hams 
at \mc, and Eastern Smoked Beef at 9@10c ^ lb. 
Other prices unchanged. 

Poultry — There has been a material advance in 
Turkeys since our last. We quote Undressed live Tur- 
keys at 24®26c ^ Hi; Dressed at 25@27c. Hens also 
nave advanced to $7.5U@9 ^ doz. We quote Tame 
Ducks at $5@(;.50 ^ doz. 

Seeds— The new crop of Canary is in market in good 
supply, quotable at 22c. We note a slight decline in 
White Clover, quoting it at 55@60c 1{* lb. Rape is lower, 
9@10c ^ lb. 

i'allow- We note a slight advance in Refined, quot- 
ing it at 9®9"^c. We quote Crude at 6;^@7c ^ lb. 

Vegetables — The market is well supplied with 
luost kinds. We quote Green Peas at 4@4}<ic ^ ft. 
Green Okra, 12J4C. Tomatoes, 50@75c per box. String 
Beans, 6Uc@$l per sk. Green Peppers plentiful at 
C@6c ■$! ft. Green Corn, 10@3Sc per doz, according to 
•rorlety. Rhubarb is druggy at )<i@lc 'f* ft. 

Wheat— Receipts since our last, 64,822 ctls. Wa 
have little change to note in the Wheat market from 
last week. The aspect seems to be about the same, 
although Grain is coming in a little more freely, 
fchippera are paying $l.ti5®$1.67}<i. Extra milling 
fiaUs purchasers at $1.80, though $1.70@$1.75 is nearer 
the quotable figure. 

'Wool— Receipts since our last 821 sks, as against 
768 sks the previous week. There is little doing in this 
market, and last week's prices remain unchanged. The 
following telegram appeared in to-day's papers: 

Philadelphia, July 6th.— Wool quiet, with supply 
Increasing; prices steady. Colorado washed, 28® 30c; 
do unwai-bed, 21@25c; Extra and Merino pulled, 40® 
45c; No. 1 and Super pulled, 40@45c; No. 1 and Super 
pulled, 40<2)43c, Texas, fine and medium, 28®32c; du 
coarse, 21®25c; Oallforuia.fine and medium, 28®32c, d<> 
coarse, 21®26c. 
For other (luotations see cur tables belfew: 



Bayo 2%® 

Batter VA% 

Pea SM-a 

Pink \%^ 

Sm'l wh. pnr lb.. SJisrai 

bkoom: coKiv. 

PerB) 2'^2® 

COTTON. 
Oal. lS74,^Ib.... 12'^i 
D.A.IRY PKOn 

BUTTER. 

Oal. choice lb... . 27>^® 

Firkin 27)4(3 

Oregon 20 @ 

CHEESE. 

Cheese, Cal 12>^a 

Eastern 15 ^ 

EfiOS. 

Cal. freah — @ 

Ducts' 32 ® 

Eastern — @ 

Oregon — @ 30 

F£ED. 
Bran, per ton....— 3) 18 00 

Com Meal 34 00'<i35 50 

Hay 14 00^211 00 



Wednkbdat m., JuW 7. 1875. 
POTATtjES. 

New, per ctl — rd.2 00 

Sweet, per lb — (a> 7 

POCLTKTf A QAMB. 

Broilers, small. .3 00 aJ 50 

do large 6 CO (217 50 

Doves, per dozen 7.'i (oil 00 
Ducks, tame.dz. 6 00 @6 b<) 
Geese, per pair, 1 50 m2 00 
Hare, per cloz...l 50 @2 50 
Hens, ner dz....7 00 
Live Turkeys 

per lb 24 

do dre-^sed — 

Mallard Ducks.. — 
Prairie Chickens — 

Quail, perdoz — 

Rabbits 1 25 

do ^ame doz . 3 00 
Snipe, Eng., doz — ® 
Venison, per lb.. B m 
Wild Geese, gray — @ 

do white — @ 

FKO VISIONS. 



JOE. 

8 32!^ 
:tl 
2.5 

14 

20 

37M 
35 



lOM 
7 



Middlings gSO 00 

Oil cake meal... @35 00 

Straw, ^ bale...— 60'a)- 65 
Fl,OUK. 

Extra 5 25® 5 ^1% 

Superfine 4 2.5M 4 ,50 

FRFJ«H MKJLT 
Beef 1st qnality lb. hV^'^ 

Second do 4>si ' 

Thirddo 3>5i 

Lamb 5 

Mutton 3 

Pork, undressed 7' 
do. dressed.. .. 10 

Veal 5 

OBAIN. KT 

Barlev, feed, . . 1 37,'^® 1 .50 

do brewing. I 65 ® 1 57 

Buckwheat.... — ® — 

Corn. White,,. @ 1 45 

do, Yellow,. @ 1 40 

Oats 2 35 @ 2 37'<: 

Rve 1 tVAdi 1 30 

■Wlieat'shippingl 65 @ 1 (u'4 
do milling,. 1 75 @ 1 8r 
HOPS. 
California, 1874.. 27>^@ 
East'rn. '74.ch'ce 35 (3 
IIOIVKY, ETC. 
Beeswax. per lb. . 26 ® 
Honey in comb.. 13 @ 
do Strained ... 6 @ 
HIDES. 

Hides, dry 17 9 

do wpt salted 8 St 
NCTS-aOBBISro, 



30 

■ilii 
27; 

22' 
10 

18 



5« 00 



51 50 
|6 00 



10 



AlmMBh'rd.4h'l. 
do, snftsh'l... '20 ® 

Brazil do 14 & 

O.il. Walnuts,,.. H ® 
Peanuts per lb,, W^'cD 
Chile Walnuts.. 9 @ 

FiUinrts 17 & 

Pecaiiuts 1,^ (3 

ONIONS. 

Kflil, perctl 1 00 

Yellow do — 



10 

22 vj 

15 

II 

15 

10 

la 18 

m 17 

ffll 12'^ 
@1 00 



Oal. Bacon, L'ght 16 

do Mediam ... 15 

do Heavy — 

Oal.SraokedBeef — 

blastern do 9 

Itast'mShould's 9 

Hams, Cal 13 

do WhittAkers 15 

do Arraonr .... — 

do Boyd's 15 

do Stewart's . 15 

Lard 15 

SEEDS. 

Alfalfa, Chili,. . 9 

do California. 19 

Canary — 

Clover Red 17 

do White .55 

Cotton 6 

Flaxseed — 

Hemp 8 

ItalianRyeGrass 30 

Perenma do .... 20 

Millet 10 

Mustard, white. 1^ 

do. Brown 1? 

Rape 9 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 50 

do 2d quality.. 40 

do3d ouality,. 30 

Swtet V Grass.. 75 

Orchard do... 30 
Red Top do. 
Hungarian do ti ^ 

Law n do 50 m 

Mesquit do... 15 @ 

Timothy "8 ® 

TAI.I.OW. 

Crude 6'^@ 

Refined 9 (g) 

wool,, ETC. 
SPRING- 

Gond Shipping.. 16 @ 

Choice Long. ... 21 @ 

Hurry 13 fl) 

Heavy free . 14 ® 



WH0I.1!6ALE.J 




25 @ 30 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



BAQS, 

Eng. Stand Wht.. 10>^@11 
Neville & Oo'a... 
Hand Sewed.... 10;^®!! 

22x36 lOJigU 

24x36 115^(0)12 

24X40 \iyM\2% 

Machine do 24x40. 12 @12!^ 
" 23x40. -■••^-■ 
" 22x10. 
" 22x36. 
Floor Sacks >ia... 
•' '• Ms. 

" " %9 - _ 

Hessian 60-ln l2MW14>s 

do 45-in 8>^@ 9 

do 40-in V^(S> 8 

Wool Sacks,3J^ni9. 45 (350 

do 4". 

Stand. Gunnies. .. 

single seam do.. 

Bean Bags 

Bariev Bags 24x36. 

do 23x40. 

do 24x40. 

Oat Bags, 24x40. . . . 

do 28x36,. . 

Delrick'8"E, W.". 

do "E 

CANNED UOOD9t. 
Asst'dPie Fruits 
in 2>^ lb cans, 2 75 
do Table do,,, 3 .50 
Jams* Jellies 3 25 (6 
Pickles H gl.. — 
Sardines. qr boxl 80 
do hf boxes.3 20 
COAI>— Jobblni 
Au9tralian,*ton 9 26 ® 9 .50 

Coos Bay ®10 Jo 

Bellingham Bay, ® 8 60 

Seattle ©10 50 

Oumberl'd, cks.. 1820 00 

do bulk.. .16 00 iSn 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 m 25 

Lehigh ((»25 00 

Liverpool 9 OO @10 00 

" " U14 UO 

llO W' 
|27 00 
Sa .50 



WFDirasDAT M., July 7, 1876. 

Palm lb 9 ^ — 

'Linseed, raw.... 90 ® — 

do boiled — @ 95 

Chlnanut in 08.. — S 80 
Sperm, crude..,. — ®1 40 

do bleached.. 1 90 (32 25 
Coast Whales... *l)i@ .50 
Polar, refined.. .. — ® — 

Lard — m — 

Oleophine — Ml 28 

Devoe's Bril't... iVA® 31 
Long Island — — ® 25 

ttnreka 26 ® 27 

Devoe's Petro'm 31 @ 27,'^ 
Barrel kerosene — ® 




Olive — (0)3 50 



40 

■23 foj 25 



20 

20X2 

21 

18'4 

27 S 

19 

27 



tWHOLKSALE.J 

Wkdnksdat m.. 



July 7. 1875. 



FKUIT MAKKET. 

Tahiti Or. '^ M 30 00*35 00 

Lorita, (i.o — — @ 

Oal. do S 

Limes, W M.... 12,50(315 00 
Oal.Lemons,%* .VI30 00(340 00 
Australian do ,— — (3 — — 
doSicilvl^b'x.ll 00(314 00 
Bananas, Ift bnch 2 60,g 3 00 
Oocoanut8,TfSlO«0.80 00@100 00 
Pineapples, *dz.6 00 m 00 
Apples, ^ box. ,. 75 ® 

Cherries lb 8 

Blackberries.... 8 

FiKS S 

Huckleberries... 
Strawberries^ch. 3 OOglO 00 

Cooseberries — 

Raspberries,..-.. 15 
Currants. 1:* ch.,2 .50 
Apricots, TS box. 

Plums 4 

Pcacnes. %* bx. , . 75 

Pears, * bx .50 

Grapes'^ !b 5 ^ 

DRIED FKtIIT. 

Apples, « !b ^%(mi 

Pears,* lb 9 @12' 

Peaches, f, lb 12'-s@15 

Apricots, W lb VliimVo 

Plums, W m 6 @ 8 

Pittca.Q" li« lb 15 @16 

do Kxtrn, it» ib,. 15 ®18 
Raishas, '•» » 10 ®15 



®1 25 

m 18 

@ 12 
® 



§ 18 

§3 00 
75 
10 
@1 50 
m 25 
@ 7 



Black Figs, fl »).... 5 @ 6 

White, do 8 al2'i 

Prunes — (gj— 

do ticrman.... 14 ® — 

itron 32S!3 35 

Zante Currants. 10 @ — 

Dates 12,'-^® 

VEOET ABIDES. 

Asparagus 2)^® 3 

Sects 1 (3 1!^ 

Cabbage, 1» 100 lbs.. ai ,50 

Carrots, per ton. ... — @15 00 

Cauliflower, doz 7.5®- 

;elery,doz 40 @.50 

Garlic. * lb ' @ 4 

Green Peas 4 @ 4>^ 

Green Corn IS doz..— @35 
Suin'rSquasb ^ box. ,50^75 

Marro'tat Sq'sd.tn — (d> 

Artichokes.* doz.. 20 @35 
String Bean3,*sk.. 50 (M. 00 

Lima Beans — ^— 

rsnips — @20 

Shell Beans — @— 

Peppers, green, lb.. — 5@ 6 

Okra.Oroen -@12>4 

Cucumbers, doz 5'3lo 

Tomatoes, box 50375 

E2Z Plant, lb — 4fl 8 

Rhubarb 2 @ 3 

Lettuce 8 @— 

Turnips, ton — 10 00 

Waterm'lns.eaoh,. 16a 20 
Cantelopes, *:doz,3 .Wl®4 00 



METALS. 

(wholksale. 1 

Wednesday m. 



. 46 00 



Ajiterican Pig Iron, ■?» ton 

SooKh Pig Iron,* ton 

WhitwPig, * ton 

'Oregozi Pig,* ton v.-v 

RefiQGd Bar, bad assortment, * lb.. 
Refined Bar, good assortment, * lb. 

Boiler, No. I to 4 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 

Sheet. No. 10 to 14 

Sheet, No. 16 to 20 

Sheet. No. 22 to 24 

Sheet, No. 26 to 29 "... 

Horse Shoes, per keg 

Nail Rod 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, eto. 

Copper.- 

Braziers' 

Copper Tin'd.,*... 

O'Niel's Pat 

Sheathing,* m.-. 
Sheathing, Yellow 
Sheathing, Old Yellow 



July 7, 1875. 
@ 46 00 

m 48 00 

' 46 00 
46 00 
- 3)i 



Coinposituon Nails — 24 




West Hartley 

Scotch 9 00 

Scranton 26 00 

Vancouver's Isl..U 00 
Charcoal, *3k... 75® 

Coke, * bbl — ® 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — ® 
OentralAmeric'n 20 @ 
Costa Rica per lb 20 ® 

GuatemaU 18 (.01 

Java — @ 

.Manilla WMi 

Ground in C8 — 25 ® 

Chicory — ® — 

FISH. 
ac. Dry Cod, new 4i^® -5 

cases 6 @ 7^ 

do'boneless.... 8,S(^ 10 

Eastern Cod V/M 8 

Salmon in bbls. .9 00 m 60 

do a bbls4 50 (gl5 .50 

do 2>41b cans — ii«2 80 

do 2Tb cans..: 50 fal2 60 

do lib cans.l .50 ®1 75 

Do Col. H '4b...5 00 (<ii5 60 

Pick. Cod. bbl8.22 00 (3 — 

do >t bhlsll 00 (3 — 

Boa . Sm'k'dUer'240 ® ,50 

Maok'l.No.l,'^blB9 00 (fell 00 

Extra - @12 OU 

in kits.... 2 00 @2 ,50 

'• Ex mess. .3 00 @3 ,50 

" Ex mess. !4b3— .2)13 00 

Pic'd Herr'g.bx.. 3 0(. ® 3 ,Vi 

HARDWARE. 

Amuskcag handled Axes 

$!6@17 ; do unhandlcd do $13 

@14— less ,50c in 5 case lots. 

Amoskeag Hatchets, Shin- 
gling, No 1, $7.25; No. 2, $8; 
No. 3, $.s.2,5. Do do, Claw 
No. I, $7.75; No. 2, 8..')0; No. 3, 
$9.25-Tess 10 per cent. 

Locks, Yale Lock Mf'g Co., 
discount 'iV/i per cent, from 
list. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count 30 per cent, from list. 
Am. Tack Co'.s Cut Tacks 
72'^ percent, discount and 5 
per cent, extra. Finisbins 
and Clout Nails V.i off list: 
3d fine Nails $7.00 per keg. 
Ohio Butt Co's Loose Joint 
Butts .50 per cent, do Fast, 
35 per cent olV list.8 
Machine Bolts, 20((!>35 off. 
Square Nutt, 1(330 off list. 
Hexagon Nuis*i((iy3c off list. 
Wrought Iron Washers, 
2(a3o otl list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 

m:iscei>£.aneoi;s. 

Pulu @ 8 

NAILS. 

Assorted size. lb. 4 00 @7 OH 

OII.S. 
Pacific Glue Co 

NeatF'tNo. 1,1 00 

Pure — 

Castor Oil, No,!.. — 

Baker's A A — 

Cocoanut .55 

Olive Platmiol..5 OO 

do Possel 4 75 



Downer Kerose'e 
Gas Light Oil,,.. 

PArNTS, 

Pure Whits Lead 10,'^ &\\)4 

Whiting — ® 2 

Putty 4 ® b% 

Chalk — @ 2ii 

Paris White 2?<® — 

Ochre 3 a 5 

Venetian Red... 3'4@ 5 

Redhead 10 @ II 

Litharge 10 i3 II 

Eng. 'Vermillion — @2 25 
Averill Chemical 
Paint, per gal. 
White & tints.2 00 @2 40 
Green. Blue & 

Ch Yellow,, 3 00 (5)3 50 

Light Red.... 3 oO @3 rO 

Metallic Roof.l 30 @1 60 

RICE, 

China No. 1, * lb (,%<' 

do 2, do. 6'4(J 

Japan 6 

Siam Cleaned... 7 

Patna 6,'-^: 

Hawaiian 8 

Carolina 10 

SA1.T. 

Cal. Bay.per ton 10 00(313 00 

do Common.. 5 00® 10 00 

Carmen Island., 13 00(ail4 00 

Liverpool fine,, .23 l)0®'25 00 

do coarse20 00(3 

SOAP. 

Castile * lb 10 @ 13 

Common brands.. 5 ® fii. 
Fancy do .. 7 @ 10 

SPICES. 

Cloves 50 @ .55 

Cassia 26 ® 27 

Citron 33 (3 35 

Nutmeg. 1 -20 @1 15 

Whole Pepper... 23 S 25 

Pimento — S 15 

Gr'nd Allspprdz — ®1 12 

do Cassia do.. - ®1 .50 

do Cloves do.. — .§1 50 

do Mustard do — @1 20 

do Ginger do.. — (31 OO 

do Pepper do.. — (31 00 

do Mace do,. . — W2 00 

SI7«AR, ETC. 

Cal. Cube per lb.. UM® - 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bbl or 100 B) bx3 — @ 12 

do in 50 lb bxs.. — ® 12 

doin25ftbxs. — (3 12 

Circle A crushed — @ ^^ 

Powdered — @ ^^ 

Fine crushed... — (3 11 

ijranulatea — ® H 

Jolden O — W }! 

lawaiian 9 (21 iC 

California Beet. 

Oal. Syrup in ds. 

do in ]i bis. 

do in kegs.. 

Hawaiian Molas- 



RETAIL MARKET RATES. 

W3DNE8DAT, M., July 7, 1875. 



POCLTRV, eAME. 1 Choice D'fHeld 

'- ' - - - (FISH. MEATS 

Flounder, * lb — 

Salmon, * lb 5 

Smoked — 

Piokled.* B).. 3 

doSpr'gp'kl'd — 

Salmon bellies — 

Rock Cod,* B).. 12 

Cod Fish, dry, lb — 

Jo fresh 

Perch, swater,lb 10 

Fresh water, lb 10 

Lake Big. 'Trout* — 

Smelts,large*lb 10 

Small Smelts — 

Herring, Sm'kd. 75 

do fresh — 

Pilchards.* ft.. — 
Tomcod, * lb 



114 00 



50 



Spring Chickens 60 (§) 75 

Hens 75 ®1 00 

Eggs Cal 40 S — 

do Eastern 30 @ 40 

do Ducks' — ® 35 

do Farallones. — @ 35 

Turkeys, * lb.. 30 & .15 

Ducks, large, pr.l .50 @2 nO 

do small, pr,.l 25 Wl ,')0 

Tame, do 1 .V) (g)2 00 

Teal * pair ® 

Geese. wild, pair. — (^ 

Tame, * pair.. 3 00 
Snipe, * doz... — 
do English.. — 
Quail, per dozen — 
Prairie Ch'k 8,pr 
Pigeons, per pr.. 

Wild, doz — wi I 

Squabs, doz... 4 00 @4 ; 

Hares, each ... 25 (3 I 

Rabbits, tame.ea ,50 '3 ' 

Wild, do.* dz.l .50 @2 i 

Squirrels do 1 -''lO (32 i 

Beef, tend,* lb. - ® 1 
Corned, * lb.. 6 (m 
Smoked,**.. 10 ® 1 
PorterHouscSt'k — @ '. 

Sirloindo 12 ® 

Round do 8 @ 

Pork, rib, etc., ft) — @ 
Chops, do, * lb 15 @ ! 

Veal,* B) 10 ® ; 

Cutlet, do 15 a ' 

Mutton-chops, B> 10 @ 
LegMutton, * ft) 6 9 

Lamb, * B) 10 a 

Venison 12 ® 

do dry 20 @ ! 

Tongues, beef, .. KO la ' 
do, do, smoked 75 (31^ 
Tongues, pig, B) 12'^'3 
Bacon, Oal., * B) 18 @ 
Hams, Oal, * B). 16 ® 
Hams, Cross' s o 12'-^ ($ 

FRUITS. 

Apples, pr lb.... 5 te) 

Pears, perlb 5 @ 

Apricots, B> 6 (3 

Peaches, B) R (^ 

Plums 12'i:§ 



18 ® 22 
'S, ETC 



iTerrapin, * doz. 

m ' ■ ■■ 



aokerel, p'k, oa 12;^® — 

Fresh, do lb ... — @ — 

Sea Bass, * B)... — 9 6 

Halibut 62^9 75 

Sturgeon, * B).. 6 @ 6 

Oysters, * 100.. 75 @ — 

Ohesp. * doz.. 60 a 75 

Clams* 100 _ ® 50 

.Mussels do - m '25 

Turbot - ® 75 

Crabs * doz.... I 00 ®1 25 

do Soft Shell. 25 § 40 

Shrimps 10 @ — 

Sardines — ^ ~" 

Anchovies — @ 8 

Soles 25 ® 40 

VoungTrout.bay — ® 30 

Voung Salmon.. — ^ — 

Salmon Trout eal 00 ®2 00 

Skate, each 20 ®37>< 

Whitebait,* B).. — @ 16 

Crawfish * lb... — @ 10 

Green Turtle,. ., — (g — 

do*B> — ® — 



® 90 



@1 40 
(31 45 



67H 



25 & 



m 60 



TEA. 

Oolong.Canton.B) 19 ® 25 

do Amoy... 28 (3 .50 

do Formosa 40 (3 80 

Imperial, Canton 25 @ 40 

do Pingsuey 46 ® 80 

do Moyune.. 60 ®1 00 

Gunpo'der.Oallt. 30 ® 42!< 

do Pingsuey 60 @ 90 

do Moyune. 65 (31 25 

Y'ng Hy., Canton, 28 ® 40 

do Pingsuey 40 @ 70 

do Moyune.. 65 ® 85 

Japan, % cbests, 

bulk 30 @ 76 

Japan, lacquered 
^xs,4.'^and5 1b3 4S ® 67 
Japan do,3 to bis 45 (3 90 
doprnbx,4'4n) 35 (3 65 
do %&l lb paper 30 (3 .55 
TOBACCO— aobblnar. 

Bright Navys 55 @ 65 

Dark do .... ,50 (3 55 
Paces Tin Foil.. — @ 75 
Dw ..f Twist.... 65 (0 75 
L,ight Pressed. . . 70 <& 80 
Hard do .. .50 (3 KO 
Conn. Wrap'r.... 40 (3 60 
Penn. Wrapper.. 20 ® 45 
Ohio do .. 15 @ 20 
Virgi'aSmok'g.. 45 @1 00. 
Fine ct che'g,gr..8 50 ®9 
Fine cut chew- 
ing, buo'ts.* ft). ,75 @ 
Banner fine cut.. — ®9 00 
Cal Smoking.... 37 @l 00 

TURPENTINE. 
Eastern .52H®'55 



LEATHER. 



PineApples.each .50 
Crab Apples — — 

Grapes — 

Bananas. * doz. . 75 
Muskmelons .... 25 
Watermelons... 25 
Blackberries'.... 8 

do wild — 

Cal. Walnuts, B). — 
Green Almonds. 10 
Oranber'es, Org.. — 
do Eastern ~ 
Huckleberries, . — 
Strawberries. B) 
Chili Stra'berriea 
Raspberries, lb.. 
Gooseberries. .. 
Currants 

do Black 

Cherries,* I0... 

Nectarines 

Oranges,* doz.. 

Quinces 

Lemons 

Limes, per doz .. 
Figs.dried Cal. . 12: 

Figs, fresh 3 

Figs, Smyrna, fi) 25 
Asparagus, 3».. 5 
Artichokes, doz. 25 

do Jerusalem. . — 

Beets, * doz 15 

Potatoes, * m . . . 2 
Potatoes.sweet,. 10 
Broccoli, each.. 20 
Oauiiilower. . . . 
Green Peas * lb 



15 



5 '0)1 (10 



10 «a 
6 ® 



teortabi.es. 

Cabbage, per hd.. 10 
Oyster Plant.bn — 
Carrots, * doz... — 

Celery,* dz 60 

Cucumbers, "c^doz 15 
Tomatoes, *lb.. 8 
String Beans..., 6 
Kgg Plant, »).... — 
Cress, * doz Dun 20 

Onions 3 

Turnips, * doz 

bunches — 

Brussels Sprouts — 

Eschalots — 

Dried Herbs, doz 30 

Garlic* !b 10 

Green Corn. doz. 25 
Lettuce, * doz.. 20 
Mint, * hunch. - 
Mushrooms. * ft) — 
Horse radish,** 20 
Okra, dried, * B) 40 
do fresh, * ft) — 
Pumpkins. * B). 5 
Parsnips, doz.... 20 

Parsley 20 

Pickles,frsh.*B) 
Radishes, doz.. 

Sage 

Summer Squash 5 

MaiTowfat, do — 

Hubbard, do — 

LimaBe.ins.fr'sh — 

do fresh shelled 6 

Beans 5 

Mangoes, * doz. 75 
Spinage, * bskt. 25 

ahubarb 5 

Ireen Chilies. .. 10 

Dry do — 

East Chestnuts.. — 
Ital. Chestnuts.— 



20 



LUMBER. 



CAROO PRICES OF 
REDWOOD. 

Rough, * M ?18 00 

Bougn refuse, * M 14 00 

Rough clear. * M 30 00 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 20 00 

Rustic,* M 32.50 

Rustic, refuse. * M '24 00 

Surfaced, *M 30 00 

Surfaced refuse,* .M. . . %) 00 

Flooring. * M 28 00 

Flooring, refuse, * M.. '20 00 
Beaded flooring, * M... 30 00 
Beaded floor, refuse, M. '25 00 

Half-inch Siding, M '22 .'iO 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half -inch. Surfaced, M. '25 00 
Half-inch Surf, rel'., .\I . 18 00 
HalfiHCh Battens, M... '22 .50 
Pickets, rough,* M,... 13 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 
PioketB, fancy, p'ntd.... '25 00 
Shingles, *M 3 00 



PUOET SOUND PLNE 

— Retail Price. 

Rough, * M 22 50 

Fencing, * M 22 50 

Flooring and Step, * M 32 .50 
Flooring, narrow. * M.. 35 00 
Flooring, 'id quahty, M. .25 00 

Laths,* M 3 50 

Furring, * lineal ft.... 

R ED WOOD— Retal 1. 

Rough,* ,V1 '22 60 

Rough refuse, * M 18 00 

[lough Pickets. * M 18 00 

Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pickets, 'f* M 30 00 

Siding, *M '25 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded 37.50 

Flooring 35 00 

Dodo refuse, * M 25 00 

Half-inch surfaced, M.. 32 M 

Rustic, No. 1, * .M 40 00 

Battens, '*»line«l foot... k 
Shingles* M 



[wholesale.] 

Wednebdai m., 



July 7, 1875. 



- 24 

- 20 (3 — 25 

- - (i - 16)^ 

- 18 @ — 22 

- 9 @ — 10 



Composition Bolts 

Steel.— English Cast, * Tb 

Anderson A Woods' American Cast.. 

Drill 

Flat Bar 

Plow Steel 

Tin Plates.— 

lOxH I O Charcoal 12 00 @ 12 .'iO 

10x14 1 X Charcoal 14 00 M 14 50 

Roofing Plate I Charcoal 11 00 (5 11 50 

Banoa Tin —30 (oi — 32 

Australian — 28 (^ — 30 

ZiNO By the Cask. @ — U 

Zino, 8neet7x3ft, No7 to 10 *» ® — 11 

do do 7x3 ft. No 11 to 14 ® - 11'^ 

do do 8x4 ft, N08 to 10 @ — 11>4 

do do 8x1 ft. No 11 to 10 ® - 12 

Nails A.s8orted sizes 4 25 (ai 8 70 

goiCKSILVEE, DOrft) — 65 @ — 70 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., July 7, 1875. 



Butter.Oal.ch'ioe 
do common — 
Cheese, t'al., B) .. 
l.ard. Cal., ft). ... 
Flour, ex. fain, bl 5 ,50 

Corn Meal, ft) 

Sugar, wn.crsh'd 

do It.brown.ft) » 
Coffee, green, B>.. 22 

O.G.Java - 

Tea, fine blk, 50, 65,75 
're»,fln8tJap,55,75, 90 
Candles, Admant'el5 
Snap, Oah, ft).... 7 

Klge, B>..... 8 

TtSttPOwdirdz.l W 




Bowen Bro. large 

can per doz — 5 00 ®— — 

Small, do 2 ,50 ® — 

Oan'dOysler8,dz.2 00 ®3 ,50 

Svruo.S F.Gol'n. 85 ®l 00 

Dried Apples.... 8 @ 10 

Dr'd Gcr.Prunes 15 ® '20 

Dr'd Figs, Cal... 9 ® 10 

Dr'd Peaches 11 (gl 15 

do Peeled — •(§"'25 

Oils. Kerosene .. 30 @ 40 

Wines, Old Port, 3 50 ®5 00 

do Fr. Claret„l 00 ®2 60 

do Cal,,dz.boC,3 00 (34 60 

Whl?ky,0.B,g»1.3 .50 @,5 00 

Fr. BniKly 4 00 ®8 00 



City Tanned Leather,* ft> ■26®29 

Santa Oruz Leather, * B) ■26(®'28 

Country Leather, * B) ■24@'2l; 

Stockton Leather,* ft) ■SififS 

Jodot,8 Kil,, perdoz »50 00(3 ,540" 

Jodot,ll to 13 Kil.. per doz 68 00(3 79 00 

Jodot 14 to 19 Kil., per doz 82 00C394 00 

Jodot, Booond choice, U to 16 (til. * doz .57 00® 74 00 

Cornollian,12 to 16 Ko 57 00(3 67 Oil 

Cornellian Females, 12 to 13 63 00® 67 00 

Cornellian Females. 14 to- 16 Kil 71 00® 76.50 

Simon Ullmo Females, 12 to 13, Kil 60 00® 63 ,,0 

timon Ullmo Females, 14 to 15. Kil 70 00^< 72 00 
imon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 00,*75 00 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz 61 00® 63 W 

Simon, 20 Kil.* doz «5 00® 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil.* doz 72 00® 74 OO 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 35 00«s 40 '10 

French Kips, * B) 1 OO® 115 

California Kip, * doz 40 00®] 6' H) 

French Sheep, all colors. * doz 8 00(3 15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs,* B) 100(3 1 '^5 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colon, # doi 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,'* doz 5 ,501^ 10 ,')0 

California Russett Sheep Linings 17,5® 4,50 

Best Jodot Calf Boot Lega, * pair 6 0019 6 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, * pair 4 00® 4 7,^ 

French Calf Boot Legs.* pair 4 00(<5 — 

Harneaa Leather, * ft) 30® 37 

Fair Bndle Leather. * doz 48 00® 72 — 

Skirting Leather, * lb 33® 37>j( 

Welt Leather, * doz JO 00(? .50 00 

Bnff Leather, * foot 17(a H 

Wax Side Leather. * loot 17(3 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by Oharlks Sotro A Co.] 

San Franoisoo, July 7, 3 p. M. 

Leoal TENDEns in S. F., 11 A. m., 86 to 86>i. 

Gold in N. Y., 117;;; 

OoLn Bars, 890. Silver Bars, 4 and V4 per cent, dis- 
count. 

ExcHANOR on N. Y., -lii per cent, nreraium for gold; on 
London bankers. 49: Uoinmorcial, 49^; Paris, live trancs 
perdollar; Mexioaa dollars, one and two per cent, dis- 
count. 

London — Conaols, 93 to 93><i ; Bonds. Wl% 

QuiOKSiLyEB In S. F., by the tUsk. per lb, «5o(370o. 



The Pacific Rural Press 

Is a Large ami Handsomely Illustrateii Agri- 
cultural Home Journal; Original, Instrmctive 
and Attractive; its varied contents, ably written 
and condensed, render it popular with its 
eaders. We endeavor to make it a credit to 
the field it occupies, and to every intelligent 
circle it enters. Entirely fkke fbom politios, 
its columns are filled ■with cheerful words of 
encouragement for our Paciflo Industries and 
instruction for the people. It extends infor- 
mation of the growing wants and necessities of 
our rapidly increasing and progressing agricul- 
ture. You can read it with pleasure, for present 
and future profit; you can send it with satis- 
faction to your friends anywhere. Its editorials 
are earnest and its contents reliable. No ques- 
tionable advertisements darken its pages. It 
is a journal for rural hoino.4 throughout the 
©oast. It is a handsome home print, without 
a rival on this half of the Continent. Sub- 
scription, in advance, $1 a year. 

DEWEY & CO., Publishers, 
No. 22'i Sansome St., S. F. 3p-t{ 



CALIFORNIA PORTBAYED. 

The columns of the Paoifio Rural Press from .Jan- 
uary 1, 1870, contain the most comiileto and reliable in- 
forrasition concerning tbo soil, climate, products and 
capabilities of the different soctloLS of California, of 
any publication yet made. Neither now comers or old 
settlers in the rural districts can well alVord to do with 
out this cnterprlsinK and leading agricultural weekly 
It Is a good helper at homo and a welcome guest abroad 



New VoLnME.— The Rcral Press, one of the best 
papers published on the coast In Its line, commences 
its tenth volume to-day. Farmers could not take a 
better general newspaper for their Interests.— iitjer 
more Enlerpriit. 



30 



[July 10, r875 



AgricultURl articles. 



KIMBALL GAR, CARRIAGE 

— AND- 

AO-RICULTURAL IMPLEMENT 

MANDFAOinEINQ 00., 
Cor. Bryant and Fourth Sts., San Francisco 



The CALIFORNIA TUBULAR IRON AND WOOD 
FRAME HAKROW-^two, lonr and six-horse Iron Hsr- 
rows, $60, $7(1 and $76. Wood Frame Harrow, 110 less 
on each ei/.c tlian the Iron. 

The Harrow tiaa an easy seat for the Driver. The 
middle section rests on three wheels with wings hinged 
on each side. 

By use ol Levers the Driver in his seat can raise or 
lower the Harrow, regulatin;; at will the depth of the 
teeth in the soil, and in the same manner fold or raise 
the wings from tlie ({round so as to drive from the road 
to the field, savinR the use n( a wagon. 

Our CALIFORNIA 8CRAPEK is also made for the 
ease of the Driver, enabling one person to ride, manage 
the team and do the work. 

Is adapted for leveling and preparine the surface of 
the soil for irrigation. And for making roads, remov- 
ing dirt from ditches, cleaning barn yards, sheep corals, 

The IMPROVED EAGLE HAY PRESS— Best In use 
on this Coast. Cheap, Economical, Powerful, and easily 
repaired. 

Will press bales weighing from 260 to 326 pounds, 
using less rope than any other press. 

Three men with a good team of horses will bale from 
10 to 15 tons ijer day. 

Adapted for baling wool, hides, cotton, rags or moss. 
Price, $250. Weight of press, 2,500 povmds. Please 
send for circulars. 



0. ORBOO. 



8. O. BOWLEVf 



CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Importers and manufleictui-erB 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 merchant's Exchange, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN FRANCISCO 



Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
and open Rockaways, Jump-seat Buggies, Track and 
Road Sulkies, Skeleton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and finest workmanship. 

We would call particular attention to our fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Cbarlps S. Coffrey, Camden, New Jersey; 

Eelfield & Jackson, Bahway, New Jersey, 

Gregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double BT- 
uest, of the most celebrated makers: 

0. Grah:UB, New York; J. R. HIU, Concord; Pittkln 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Burciugles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO ft BOWLET, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

34T6-3m 8an Francisco. 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match is Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re. 
quired in the construction ol Gang Plows. It isquicilj 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls withont changing the workinii 
position of the shares. It Is so constructed that tht 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Bust and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 



Uva.Sm 



MATTESON ft WILLIAMSON, 
eteckton. Cal. 



THE GRANGER ENGINE. 



Farmers' and Threshers' attention is called to this 
splendid Engine. Especially adapted to burning straw, 
wood or coal. This is the only Engine in the market 
hat is designed to run Derrriok Forks by steam. The 
saving of fuel to run the Engine, and the men and 
horses dispensed with in running the Derrick Forks, 
will amount to the Price of the Engine In one season. 
Manufactured and sold by 

J. li. HEALD, Vallejo. 



Farmers and rrhreshers 

WISHING TO HATB 

StraAv Burning Engines 

For next season must engage them soon, as most of 
those now building are already sold. Thres ing En- 
gines for Repairs should be sr^ut in now. A number of 
iiecond-hand Engines — taken in exchange for "Straw 
Burners"— for sale cheap. For particulars and prices, 
address: H. W. BICE, 

SiivS.Sm Haywood, Alameda County. 



J. W^A^GNEK, 

UANITTAOTUKSB OP 

FRENCH BURR MILL STONES 
PORTABLE MILLS. 



AND 




General Mill FurBishing. Portable Mills specially 
adapted for Farmers' use. 113 and lis Mission street, 
San Francisco. 13v7-3m-2am 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO UAXaS Z^BOB CHOPS 

ITOTJ »fUS!»T JRHIOATJi:, 

irrigate Baccessfally, you must have the puwer that 
does not give out when the wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churchman's Horse-Power, 




[Patekted Febbuabt 13th, 1<:2.] 
Never fails to supply more water thun four or five Wind- 
milU, eveu eupposiuc you hail all ttie wind you want. Il is 
aNo suitable for runnink' li^ht machiDery, such as ttatley 
Crackers. Corn SSheliers. Fannint: Mills, Grain Separafirs. 
or. for Sawmg Wood. They arc never failing, cannot eel 
out ol" order, easily workea, subet-antial, and alwiiys give 
satisfaction wherever they nave been used. One hor-^e can 
easily work two H-inch pumps, with a coatinuous llr.w of 
water. Force Pumps, tr-m 3.000 to lO.'iOO irallons per hour. 

WINDMILLS or all kinds manutacEured to order. Wells 
Bornd, Windmills and Horse-Powers set in any part of the 
StAte, and repairing of all kinds dune. 

Manufactured and for sale by 

LAUFKOTTER BROS., 

Oor. J and lOtb Sts., Saoramento. 



T7-2m-3m 



Boomer's Patent Press, 

The Simplest and Most 
Powerful Wine, 
Oider, Lard, Pa- 
per, Tobacco 
and Hide 
Press 
in Use — Guarantee 

Fruit drjiini; apparatus. 

Knowles' Steam Pumps for 

irrlRating now and second-hand machinery. 

A. L. FISH & CO., 

Nos. 9 and 11 First street, San Francisco. 




LANE & BODLEY, 

John & Water Sts., Cincinnati* 

Manufacturers ot the Best 

FARM ENGINE, 

Mounted and ready for use. Send for onr lUiil« 
trated catalogue. 



THE ALJOKISr 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 426 MONTaOMEBT ST., S, F. 

Our improved apparatus will do one-third more worls 
than that erected last season, while our prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the purchase 
money may he paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. We guarantee against infringements. The 
Alden is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
knewn for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would be unwise to purchase the new and untried 
dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work. Send for onr cir 
culars. • 



A. WT. THOMPSON, 
Attorney *'•'*' La "<*' , 



No. 6 I^ldesdorff Street, B. F. 



Nurserymen. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Established in 1858.) 



PETALUMA, OAL. 



Qreen Houses and Tree Depot oomer Wash- 
ington and Liberty streets. 



i Green Houses. 



3,000 feet of Glass. 
Specialty. 



Fruit Trees a 



We offer for sale at lowest market rates a general as 
soriment of Fruit and Shaile trees, amall Fruits, Vines 
etc. Evergreen trees and Shrubs in (frt-at variety. Green 
House, Oon-'ervalory and Beddine Plants. Roses, etc. 

Eucalyptus, in variety. Eucalyptus Globulus, per 1000 
for fore-i planting, at very low rates. Catalogue and price 
list furnished on ai>plicalion. 



Address, 



19v«.tf 



W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaluma. Sonoma Go., Oal. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES 

TRXJJB TO TSJ^T^E. 



A flue collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Australian Sum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or thousand. Monterey Cypress in quan- 
tities and sizes to suit all. Orange and Lemon 
Trees at reduced prices. A g<. ueral variety of Nursery 
stock. 

Also, Rhubarb an*^ Asparagus roo.- 

' T. CORLEY. 
8v29-tf 315 Vrashinuton Street, S. F. 



CHAS, F. CRESWELL, 

SEED AND PLANT MERCHANT, 

Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales. 



The L.arg'est Collector and Exporter of the 

Eucalyptus Olobulus (Tasmanian 

Blue Oum). 



C. F. C. having Branch Houses in the three Chief 
Colonies, and botanical collectors throughout Australia, 
can olTer the best advantages to dealers in Australian 
Native Seeds, Plants and Ferns. 

Eucalypti and Acacia Seeds in endless variety and of 
the most excellent quality. 

His most convenient branch for exporting to Europe 
and America is found by addressing to 

O. F. CRESWELL, Seedsman, 

No. 37 Swanston Street, 
Melbourne, Victoria. 

Union Box Factory, 

GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

115 and 116 Spear St., bet. Mission & Howard 
SAN FRANCISCO. 



Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Cherry, Orape, 
Orange, Lime and Wine Oases. 

Tomato, Potato, Fig and Baisin BozeB. 

Strawberry, Raspberry and Blackberry Chests 
and Drawers, and Baskets for all kinds of Berries. 

Peach and Picking Baskets, Butter Chests and 
Boxes, Cheese Boxes, Square and Round Egg Carriers. 

Drums (or Figs, Cherries, Baisius, and for 
other Dried Fruits. 

Free Packagps— Boxes not to be returned — a 
good article, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 

L»rd Caddies, Coffee and Fruit Caddies. 

Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hives, Etc. 

PackiDf; Boxes for Drv-Gooods, Cigars, Can- 
dies, Candied Fraits, Honey, Maccaroni, Crackers, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Etc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes mannfrtctured in 
the ITnion, and turned out in the Best Style at Favor 
able-Prices. Orders from the country well attended to 



Kich Farm Land For Sale. 



L. F. MOTTLTON. of Colusa, 

OFFERS FOR SALE VERT CHEAP, THREE THOU- 
SAND ACRES OF EXTRA GRAIN LAND, AD- 
JOINING WHICH ARE NOW GROW- 
ING FIELDS OF GRAIN WHICH 
WILL YIELD FORTY BDSH- 
ELS TO THE ACRE. 

This land is as' good as any in the State, and will bo 
sold very cheap. 

Address the owner, at Colusa, for partio- 
ulars. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

EMPLOYMENT OFFICE, 
CROSETT & CO., Prop'rs, 

»■ 623 and 626 Clay Street, 8. F. "«« 

COUNTRY ORDERS for MEN almost invariably 
filled, and with FIRST-CLASS HELP. 

J^T' German, French, American and Scandinavian 
help, a specialty. 

Farmers will secure men In any number desired, 
especially by giving a little timely notice. Hotels can 
always get the best of MALE or FEMALE HELP. We 
have the BEST OF FACILITIES FOR PROCURING 
DESIRABLE HELP. Send us your orders and we will 
endeavor to give yoo satisfaction in every particular at 
all times. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



IRRIGATED LANDS. 

Sure Crops and Larg-e Yields— Water Com3 

munication with San Francisco and 

Cheap Freights. 



^^^ 



WIIX SELL 



S. 



Three (3) Tracts of Land on Staten Island. The Jersey 
Tract, 4,000 acres, on San Joaquin River. The Brad- 
ford Tract, 2,230 acres, on San Joaquin River. Also, 
offer other Tule Lands in tracts to suit purchasers. 

■3* These are the most desirable grazing and farm 
lands in the State. Partly cultivated, improved and 
easy ot access. 

L. 0. McAFEE, Real Estate A^ent, 

411 H California strei t. Boom 4, S. F. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
al 1 parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
evi-ry family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches, Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

StocJcton, Ca.1. 



LAND PLASTER. 

(Sulphate of Lime.) 

This fertilizer is especially well adapted to California 
lands and climate, and is destined to be usi>d to im- 
mense advantage. 

PRICES GREATLY REDUCED. 

In bulk, flO per ton; In barreU or bags, (12.60. 

Golden Gate Plaster Mills. 

LTTCAS QESNER & CO., 

216 and 217 MAIN STREET, SAN FRANCISCO. 



CHARLES CLAYTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants 

GRAIN, 

FLOUR 

and WOOL, 
N. E. COR. FRONT & CLAY STREETS 

SAN Z'RANCisCO. 



J. M.NEVILLE. 



O. H. BRYANT 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 114 Commercial Sts., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

BA.Grisi of All Kinds, 
XENXS, All Sizes and Descriptions. 
HOWE for Hydraulic Use. 
CANVAS, All Numbers. 
TTVIIVE for Sewing, Etc. 



CARD. 

EXCELSIOR FORCE PUMP 

greatly improved. Copper Lined 
Bbass Valves and Valve Seats 
every way equal to a BRASS 
PUMP. Pbices reduced. Send 
for Circular. BRITTAN, HOL- 
BROOK & CO., Agents. 



B. X, ornomns. 
1868. 



1R76. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesal* Fruit and Produce Oommiaalon 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 1868. 

No. 434 Battery street, southeast comer of Washing 
ton, San Franciseo. 

Onr busioass being eiclnaively Ccmmisslon, we h»T« 

o interests that wiU conflict with th' >se of the prodnosr. 

4y2S-lr 



$25 



a day fmaranteed usine our Well 8 
Auaer A. Drills. $IOO a month oj! 

paldto aood Aiffnts. Aufcer lK)olt — i 
free. JlLz Auger Co., St. Loula.Mo S 



O«o. W. Chapln, Real Estate A»ent, 484 
Moiit«omery St., Ban Franolsco, b«v» and sells Kanohea 
n all part* of the 8t»t«. City R«al Katat* exohanged for 
ountryProperty. MoSET Lo/ihKD. Post OiHce Box 1I» 



riifniiiirfiifiiT'"" m ■~»»^«— 



July 10, 1875.] 



31 




AMES' CELEBRATED STRAW and WOOD BURNING ENGINES. 

Best and Most Complete Threshing Engines in the World. 

Every Straw Burner Guaranteed to Burn Straw without Choking up, and they will also Burn 

Either Wood or CoaL 

A Late Testimonial. 

Farmington, June 25, 1875. 
Messrs. Baker & Hamilion, San Francisco: 

Dear Sirs: — We have given the No. 4 Ames' Straw Burn- 
g Engine, bought of your agents in Stockton, a severe 
and thorough trial, and w& are perfectly satisfied with it in 
every respect. The Engine works like a 
charm, and steams easier than any threshing 
engine we ever saw. In 36 minutes we 
raised 40 pounds of steam, and then com- 
menced to thresh, and in eight minutes 
steam raised to 70 pounds pressure. It 
burns all the straw clean up, does not clog 
or choke up and make us stop and lose 
time in cleaning out the flue and tubes, as 
is the case in most of Straw 
Burners. We are well pleased 
with our purchase, and think any 
one would do well to select an 
Ames' Straw Burning Engine if 
they intend to purchase a thresh- 
ing engine. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. J. CROSS. 
E. O. LONG. 

SOLD ONIiY BY 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 

San Francisco and Sacramento, 




DURYEA'S SATIN GLOSS STARCH 

AND 

DURYEA'S IMPROVED CORN STARCH 

ABE THE BEST IN THE WORDD. 

USE IT ONCE AND YOU WILL USE NO OTHER. 

FOR SALE BY ALL GROCERS. 




The Mts'ir.-i. Diiryea have succeeded in refining Starch to entire purity and developing its entire strensth and clpar- 
ness, an improvement ihyt will be readily perceived in the groat slrengih of the Stare n, the eupeiior luater that tt nives 
and in its reliable uoif rmiiy. Much of the sn-calied staroh contums froiu one-four h !o ono-thtrd foreign matter, 
readily perceived by^anurncss, mnsliness. or a golden yellow tin^re, peculiar 10 inferior siarcliea, a color not desirable for 
one's linen, but inseparable frtim the uso of common starch. They piedgo themselves to thu public to give a unifornily 
superior article, from one-K'urth to one-third stronger than any other starch in the world, and at the common mar- 
ket rate<. 

EGERTON. ALLEN & CO., Sole Agents for Pacific Coast. S. F., CaL 



SUPPORT HOME INDUSTRY. 

WH E ATE N STARCH, 

MANUFAOTDRED BY 

a. .ToiiPfsit'X'oiv, 

SAN JOSE, _ . _ - - OALIPORNIA. 

This starch Is made from the best of 'wheat, and is 
used by the laumiries and hotels, who prououuoe it 
Superior in Strength and Fine Satin Qlosu to any im- 
ported starch— one pound being equal to one and a 
half pounds o( Eastern starch. 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse, 

Japan and Townsend Streets. 

San Francisco, July, 1874. 

I be(? to inform you I have leased the above first-class 
Firo-Proof Brick Warehouse, now bein,' erected by Geo. 
F. Hooper, Keq., and will be ready to receive st-oraee on 
the Isl oi August. This wnrehouae offers superior induci!- 
meaia to parties (lesirinK to store tfraiii and Hour, a* it is 
situated on the Water Front, ami on the line of tbe O. F. 
R.R. and S. P. K. R. It is well ventilatcU, rat pro"l', and 
combines all the modern advantages and improv,emenlB. 
Yours rcapeotluUy, JOHN JENNINGS. 

Advances and insurance effected at the lowest r»te». 
Storage taken at lowest current ratea. 4T8-fl 



OUR IMPROVED HAINES' HEADER, 




With Compound Leverage, 
Doing aivay -with all Ballast or Weights, 

Either on the Lever or Frame; will be appreciated by Header Men. Also, a new device for driving the Knife, 
making the Header run one horse lighter ihan any header ever imported. The driving of the Keel is an im- 
provement; in mruiug, the Reel runs just as fast as when driving (Straight ahead. The improvements will be 
found to meet the demands of California trade. 

Our Excelsior Mowers are Improved for 1875. 

Three Sizes— "Junior," "Medium" and "Senior." 

J. I. CASE & CO.'S 

SEPARATORS AND STEAM ENGINES 

Are the Larg-est Works of the Kind in the World. 

The Threshers and Engines are Made Expressly for this Trade. 

Pitts' Down and Mounted Powers, 'Toust's" Hay Loader, and 
Keller & Co's Sulky Revolving Hay Rake, 

^n age iu advance of any other Eake. See tlicBO goods before buying; they can bo found with )19 only. 
Oui Stock of Implements is Complete. 

Haines' Header Sickles, Excelsior IVIowing Knives, Buci<eye Mowing Knives, (Nos. 1 and 2), Sections, 

Rivets. Etc. 

THREEiHERS, ENGINES. POWFRS. HEADERS, KKAPEuS. MOWERS, RAKK3, HAY PRESSES, CORN 
PLANTERS, CORN CULTIVATORS, CO N SHELl.ERS, OlDH'Jt AND WINE MILLS, HAY 
CUTTERS, DERRICK FORKS, liELTINCi, PUSH CARTS. PLOWS, 
HARROWS, CULTIVAIORS. OOHHAM Si EDERS AND 
CULllVATORS COMBINED, FI-H m\OS., 
PACIFIC WAGONS, HEOULATOR 
WINDMILLS AND 
PUMPS, ETC. 

43, 45 & 47 J Street, Sacramento, Cal. 

SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



KELLER & CO., 



BOOKBINDER, PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

521 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank BookB Ruled, Printed, and Bound to Order. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Emits: also tor the sale of Butt«r^KK(j» 
t'hrese, H"p-, 



la prnlts: also lor tne saio oi nuiiflr, i:.kkb 
, Green and Dried Fruit't, etc.. ?.^ Warren 



street. New Vork. Refer to Anthony kMl«ey, Cashier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank, N. Y. ; Ellwanger A Barry, 
Rochester, N. Y. ; 0. W. Reed. Sacramento, Cal.; A 
Lnak A Co., Paoifia Fruit Market, San Franolsoo, Oal. 



FaiiusitB write for yonr paper. 



32 



[July 10, 1875 



The Pacific Rural Press, 

AN IIXUSTBATED 

A6R/CULTURALJWME JOURNAL. 

Among other Keaaons for Subscribing are the 
Following: 

BecauRO It l8 a permanent, flrst-clasa, conscientious 
able, and well condncted Journal. 

Became It is the largest and best agricultural weekly 
west of the Rocky Mountains. 

That Patrons may be fully posted on the progress of 
the Order in this and other fields. 

That more fanners' wives and children in their 
isolated homes may be cheered by its weekly risits, 
laden with its pleasing, yet moral reading, and sound 
instruction. 

That a more extended interchange of views and opin- 
ions may be had among farmers, upon all the great 
questions touchiDR their mutual interests and progress. 

That the agricultural resources of the Pacitic States 
may be more wisely, speedily and thoroughly developed 
by an open and free discussion in our columns. 

That all the honest industries of our State may be 
advanced in oonnection with that of agriculture, our 
columns being ever open to the discussion of the merits 
of ali progressive inii)rovemenl6. 

That the Rdr-U,, after having been read and pondered 
over by the home circle, can bo filed away for future 
useful reference, or forwarded to the old Eastern fire- 
side of the Atlantic border, in aid of an increasing im- 
migration to our snnny clime. 

BEWET & CO., Publishers, 

San Francisco, January, 18T6. 

Our A.sents. 

OUB Fbienbb can do much In aid of onr paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We Intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. Ij. Tharp— San Francisco. 

B. W. Chowell— California. 

A. 0. CHAirpioN — Tulare, Fresno and Inyo Counties, 

John Kostron— California. 

A. C. Knox, California. 

G. W. McGrew— Santa Clara county. 

Ohas. T. Bell— California, Oregon and W. T. 

D. J. James— Australian Colonies. 

James Kkaenv— California. 

Wilson Spenceb— California. 



"Indispensable," Etc. 

St. Helena, May 13th, 1875. 

Mkssbs. Dewey & Co:— Enclosed please find check 
on Grangers' Back. Continue my subscription; I can't 
get along without the Kdeal. To those who feel an 
Interest in the Grange movement, or in any branch of 
agriculture, the Rural is one of the indispens.tble lux- 
uries. If they carefully read and analyze its contents, 
they can find information enough in almost any num- 
ber to pay their yearly subscription. 

Respectfully yours, J. W. C. 



More than double the number of Farmers and 
their families read the PACIFIC RURAL 
PRESS than any other journal on this 
Coast. 



IMMIGRANT BUREAU, ) 

123 Calivobnla Street, [ 

8.\n Francisco, Cal. ) 

For the purpose of directing Immigrants, this Bureau 
desires information of all irrigating ditches in process 
of construction. 

We can, with safety, send Immigrants to neighTjor- 
hoods where land can be irrigated. 

Please stite dcfliiitely where such ditch is taken out 
from the river or stream, and the land through which 
it passes or will pass, and, if possible, send also a 
description, by section, of the land proposed to be 
brought under the influence of the water. 

Such information, i( given to the Bureau in detail, 
will be used in directing Immigrants to the lands, and 
will tend to settle the country so designated. 

B3" If you have or can procure a map of the exact 
location of the ditch it will be of great service. 



SECURE A HOMESTEAD 

With an Income. 

RAISIN CULTURE 

and FRUIT DRYING ! 

The Most Profitable and Delightful 
Industry of California. 

Only Nine Hours' Ride 

Fr6m San Francisco, by Rail. 

J300 X-^^enty-A-cre Farms, 
91000 C^acb. 



mTi-pTV/rCj , $100 cash; $12.50 per month for 60 
XJJXbJxLOi months, and $160 at the end of the 
time, unless the income pays it before, will buy a 20- 
acre Farm in 

THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COLONY, 

Near Fresno, on the Central Pacific R. E., improved 
as follows: 

The whole tract, 4,000 acres, will be enclosed with a 
tight fence. Twenty-three miles ef roads will be laid 
out within it, and lined with choice shade trees. 
Water for irrigation will bo brought to the land within 
60 days, from King's River. The water is purchased 
with the land. Two acres of choice Raisin Vines will 
be set out on each 20-acre farm. A nursery will be 
established, and additional vines, or the more valuable 
fruit trees will be set out by special contract, on very 
moderate terms. The land is of the best for the pur- 
pose in California, and the climate Is especially favor- 
able to the business of Fruit-Drying. 

Those wishing: to locate immediately upon 

the property can do so, and cultivate 

the same to suit themseWes, the 

Company carrying- out their 

original plan of planting' 

the two acres of Vines, 

in addition to the 

Shade and Fruit 

Trees. 

Pamphlets, Maps and particulars at the 

California Immigrant Union Office, 

No. 1 WEBB STREET. 

WM. H. MARTIN, . ■ General Agent. 



SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



Bronze Turkeys 

12 Gobblers from 8 

to 20 months old, 

22 to 40 lbs each, 

for sale now. 

Hens 14 to 

18 lbs. 




Emden Geese 

40 to 60 pounds 

per paur at ma- 

ttirity. 

BlJlCE 
OATUGA DUCKS, 



Games. Brahmas. Legboms. Houdans. Ban- 
tams, etc. 

Egg's, fresh, pure, true to nanse; ■well- 
packed 80 as to hatch after arrival. 

For Illustrated Circular and Price-List, address 

M. E YRE, Napa, Cal. 

FERRETS. RABBITS. PIGEONS. 

Please state where you aaw this advertisement. 



OF EVERY VARIETY. 

Fresh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIJIOTHY, MESQUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JDTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TRUE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALIAN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA OIGAH- 
TEA, PINUS INSIGNIS, Ere. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Successor to £. £. Mooref). 
425.Washlngton St., San Francisco. 22v7-Iy 

SuBSCRiBEiu) are requested to examine the printu d 
address on their papers. If mistakes occur of any time, 
please report them to thj^ office. The last figures (nt 
the extreme right) represent the year that your sul)- 
scription is paid to. Next to these the day and mont h 
is represented. For instance, your subscription being 
paid to July 4th, 1876, it would be represented, y|e: 
jul 4 76; or4jl76; or Jul 4,76. 



THoroHTLESSNEBS.— Persons sometimes return thei 
paper, marlied "stop this paper." Their name being 
pasted on the sheet they think that is all we need to be 
al>le to cross their names off. Now that Is thoughtlesB- 
uess. Your P. O. address is needetl as much as yonr 
name. We have thousands of names arranged only 
according to locality. Onr mailing clerk does not know 
where everybody lives. 



NEW CHOP OF 

BLUE OUM SEED. 



CLOVER 

FLOWER JLND 
VEGETA-BLE 

TREE A.N-D 
FRUIT 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



OP EVERY DESIRABLE VARIETY AND OP THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED Al WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 



4v8-tr 



No. 317 Washington Street, 

BAN FRANCISCO 



T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

SEED AND PRODUCE 
Commission House, 



IMPOR-rERS OF 



Seeds and Semi-Tropical Trees, 
Plants and Fruits, Etc 



..I 



500,000 Australian Blue Gum at iK to f40 per M, In 
boxes; 250,000 Monterey Cypress at $25 t« $40 per M, 
in boxes; also a consignment of Australian Blue Gum 
Seed, warranted 1874, per steamship City of Melbourne, 
at 75 cents per oz., or $10 per lb. 

Navil (or Seedless) Orange Trees, 
Lisbon Lemon Trees, 

Passion Fruit-Bearing Vine and Seed, j- Australian, 
Norfolk Island Pine (Elcuria) Seed or 
Plants. J 

Grange Trees. — Wilson's Seedlings, Kona, Malta 

Blood and St. Mikcl's. 

Chuchapela, Pemambuco and Sweet Acapulco: also 
Vegetable, Grass, Field and Flower Seeds. Australian 
and Sicily Lemon Seed in barrels. Orange and Mexican 
Lime Seed In barrels. For sale by 

T. O'CONNOR & CO.. 
426 Sansome street, near Clay, S. F. 



1874. GUIDE AND OAT ALOGUE 1875. 

FREE. 

To persons contemplating purchasing I will send 
my iLLtrsTRATKn, DiscBnrnvn Cataixioue and QtJiDi 
to the Vkoetable and Floweb Gabden withoct 
CHABOE. It containg the most extensive and valuable 
list of 




Flowerinir Bulbs. Roots and Plants. Seml- 
Tropical Trees, Ornamental Shrabs, Fruit 
and Shade Trees, etc., ever offered in this market. 
It tells how to successfully grow the Australian 
Blue Gum, the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., and the proper method of Ctiltivatinir To- 
bacco on this Coast. 

•^My stock of Seeds Is in part my own raising 
and in part direct importations from the best E<iro- 
pean and Eastern growers, and is unsurpaSHcd in all 
respects by that offered by any other establishment. 

100,000 Australian Blue Gums and Mon- 
terey Cypress In boxes at from $30 to $50 per 
1,000, raised at my own Nursery at Ban Rafael. 

R. J. TRTTMBtTLI.. 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Seeds, Shrubs, Trees, etc. 
20v8-«m.l6p 427 Sansome street. S. P. 



University of California. 

BERKELEY, near Oakland. 

COLLEGES OF AGRICULTURE, 

CHEMISTRY, MECHANICS, 

MINING, ENGINEERING 

and LETTERS, 

Examinations for Admission, August 11th and 12th, 
at 10 o'clock A. M. 

Tuition free. Circulars sent on request, 
bp-td 



Eice's California Pioneer Straw 

Burning Engines Highly 

Endorsed. 



CONCOBD, Cal., lune ?Oth, 1876. 
H. W. ElCF.:— 

Dear Sir. — The Engine and Boiler are doing well 

Tour business has not suffered by my purchase, and I 

think another year will create a larger demand for yonr 

Engines than you reckon upon. I have had all the 

skeptics examining it, and It took but very little time 

to win them over. Everybody is iou<f in its praise. It 

has power enough to drive two separators in headed 



SAN JOSE 

Institute and Business College. 

A day and boarding school for both sexes. 

The 27th session will commence Aug. 'id, 1875. 

THE INSTITDTE, under the supervision of Isaao 
KiNLFY, has been carefully graded, and a thorough 
academic course has been added. Students completing 
the course will receive diplomas. 

THE BUSINESS COLLEGE, under the direction of 
•Tah. ViNsoN^iLEn, is complete in all its appointments, 
and in thoroughness and efficiency ranks with the best 
business colleges in the State. Those from a distance 
have the privilege of boarding in the Institute build- 
ngp. Letters relating to the Institute should be 
addressed to 

ISAAC KINLET, 

Superintendent San Jose Institute, 

San Jose, California. 
Letters relating to the Business College should be 
addressed to JAMES VINSONHALEB, Principal of the 
Business College, San Jose, Califoraia. 



grain. 



In haste, I remain yours truly, 

CHARLES S. LOHSE. 



STRAW BURNING ENGINES. 



PAT. JtrxE 4th, 
1874. 



BE-IBSUED MAT, 
1876. 



The re-issued patent is allowed, and as soon as it 
arrives, proper steps will be Immediately taken to pros- 
ecute all paitles who afe now infringing upen it. 
Arrangements have been made to have a supply of 
these Engines (with all new improvements) constantly 
on hand, and they will be sent to agents in all parts of 
the State. Secondhand Wood Burners in good order, 
for sale very cheap. Address, 

H. W. RICE, 
Hajwoorl, Alameda Co., Cal. 



GEO 



BAYLEY 



IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

Jersey Cattle, 

Choice Poultry, Etc. 

OAKLAND 
Poultry Yai-ds, 

Cor. Ifitb & Castro Streets. Oakland. 

Send stamp for circular, containing a full (ieflcription of 
all the best known and most profitable fowln in the couniy. 

G. B. BAYLEY. 

P. 0. Box G59, San Francisco. 
N. B.— A car-load of Jersey Cattle loarrtvein June. 




Dewey & Co. {sa^omIst} Patent Agt's. 



Calistoga Real .Klstgite CoirLpany. 



Calistoga, with a population of abou 800 persons. 
Is a village watering place at the head of the valley of 
Napa, in California. It is four hours' travel north of 
San Francisco by steamboat and rail. 

Its shipping port is Vallejo, on the bay of San 
Francisco, forty miles distant by rail. It lies at the 
hoad of (he most charming valley in the State. 

THE BEAUTIES OF NAPA. 

In traversing this thirty-seven miles of fertile dale, 
the eye never wearies. If one ascends the sides ot the 
leafy mountains that bound the valley on either side, 
whether looking up the valley or down, and from 
whatever point of view, the scene is one of ravishing 
beauty. 

Mounting the summit of fet. Helena, which towers 
over all, lar to the east the snowy Nevadas bound the 
view; and to the west spreads the Paciflc ocean, with 
its winded ships and its blue horizon. To the north 
are the vast forests of Mendocino, its stately trees, 
ttimed to shrubbery and Clear Lake in its pride of 
expanse dwindled to a mill dam. 

THE WARM SPRINGS. 

From the beauties of Calixtoga we turn to its other at- 
tractions. The estate covers 2,000' acres of f;rtlle 
land. Its warm springs are crowded with Invalids, 
who flock to its healing waters, and who return cured 
of their rheumatism, their dyspepsia, their torpid 
livers and their tender kidneys. The- medicinal ele- 
ments of the hot springs are principally iron, magne 
sia and sulphur. In this climate, the season of water 
tng placee is prolonged. 

THE SURROUNDINGS. 

Bj consnltlng a map it will he apparent that Calis- 



toga ia destined to become a commercial town of Im- 
portance. It is the center to which converge innu- 
merable highways leading to many of the richest cul- 
tivated valleys of California. 

INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES. 

A new industry is now being introduced at the head 
of the valley ef Napa, which will give easy employ- 
ment to all the boys and girls, and contingently it will 
support other new industries. It is but the beginning 
of many others. Three miles below Calistoga is selec- 
ted as the Bite of a large factory for saving and canning 
fruits ami vegetables that now go to waste, and encour- 
aging the production of more. In no part ol Califor- 
nia can these healthful elements of human food be cul- 
tivated more cheaply or more abundantly. Consider- 
ing the depth of its rich soil, its prolonRed season, and 
the extraordinary vegetable growth in this country, one 
acre may be considered equal to three wherever this in- 
dustry Is carried on in the Atlantic States. If irriga- 
tion be wanted, artesian waterflow may surely be found 
all alouR the valley, for it ia l>acked by mountain 
ranges full of living waters. 

GOLD AND SILVER AND QUICKSILVER. 

Calistoga is the center also of a great mountain range 
rich in mines of cinnabar and silver. Already its ^fur- 
naces are producing raercnry, and the product is in- 
creasing yearly. A numbeK of valuable mines are n<»w 
being profltably developed In the region around t tie 
base of Mt. St. Helena, at Pine Flat, on the Great Q ey- 
ser road, and near Sillies' Mill, on the Clear Lake ro td. 
All of these are from ten to fifteen miles beyond Oa Us- 



loga, to which point their products come, and from 
which their supplies are earned. The deposits of cin- 
nabar occur in well deflned veins, and as they are now 
being scientifically developed they bid fair to rival in 
productiveness the celebrated mines of New Al'maden. 

CALISTOGA REAL ESTATE CO. 

First grand auction sale will be held on the tract on 
"Wednefcday, August 4th. 1875, at 12 o'clock M. Those 
holders purchasing at the sale will be credited with 
the amount paid on their stock, and still share in the 
profits of the company. 

The splendid property above described, containing 
2,«82 acres, divided into town lots, suburban lots, 
country seats, hotel property and farm tracts, has been 
bought by the above named company, and is now 
offered for sale to tbo public. 

The Capital Stock of the Company is 

$1,000,000, 

Divided into 20,000 Shares of $50 Each. 

The sale of a certain number of shares has been 
authorized by the Board at the rate of 

Twenty-five Cents on the Dollar, Staking 
12.60 Per Share. 

By an arrangement between the former owner and 
the present company, no portion of this lanil or the 
proceeds of lis sale, Is consumed by expenses or In even 
the smallest degree diverted from the use and l>«neflt 
of the stockholder. 



Whoever buys Stock ■ In the Company receives his 
pro rata share of this property, with its Crops and 
Rents in the meantime, without one cent of deduction 
for expenses of any kind, even Including Taxes. And 
this, too, no matter how valuable the property shall 
become. 

Unlike the homestead schemes which have hereto- 
fore attracted our people, this plan gives homes and 
interests in and adjoining a town already built; where 
trade and growth are already assured, and where daily 
increase gives promise of greatly added values to all 
Its property. It is a division of this ripened heritage 
that is now offered to the subscribers. 



TRUSTEES: 

E. "W. BTJRR, 

President Savings and Loan Society. 

C. HARTSON, 

President Bank of Napa. 

J. B. FRI8BIE, _ , , „ ,. 

President Vallejo Commercial Bank. 

JXJLIXrS WETZLAR, „ ^ „ 

Free. Capital Savings Bank, Sacramento 

CMiONEL J. P. JACKSON, 

San Francisco, 

WILLIAM H. MARTIN, 

GENERAL AGENT, 
No. 1 Webb Street, cor. California, B. F. 



[WM M B LL II J Il 




Volume X.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 17, 1875. 



[Number 3. 



An Improved Cauldron. 

How is the following for a description of a 
certain implement which politiciann are about 
to "fire up:" 

"Thank heaven, we see a little bright ray 
now evolving from the gathering, clashing, fer- 
menting vats of the political cauldron, that we 
fcope may cause the Pot to boil over and the 
scum pass o£f, and from its heated and purified 
process good may come, and although we 
hardly dared to hope OtJR Candidate of former 
years, could be induced to come out against all 
the combined elements of various partisans, we 
remained very quiet, spoke not, nor openly 
acted, but only tiwught much and hoped much, 
and shall prayerfully wait, and as the old vet- 
eran of the revolution said, on the eve of the 
battle: 

' Trust in God and heep our powder dry.' 

"So we have tented, slept on our arms, resdy 
to do battle when the goodly morrow comes, as 
come it surely will when the various parties 
lead 'forth for battle." 

The above extract is from a city contempor- 
ary, the name of which is Withheld, out of con- 
sideration for the feelings of friends of the ac- 
cused. It has not been tampered with in the 
least, the capitals and italics remain just as we 
found them. We don't know how others may 
enjoy this choice bit of simon pure journalism, 
but for oar part we consider "the gathering 
clashing, fermenting vats of the political caul- 
dron " good; decidedly good. Whatever terror 
might be aronsed by the approach of these 
vais, is at once modified when "we see a little 
bright ray evolving from the gathering," etc.; 
and like the writer we are constrained to 
"hope" it may "may cause the Pot to boil 
over and the scum pass off, and from its heated 
and purified process good may come." 

The witches' cauldron, which was visited by 
a certain Scotch politician by the name of 
Macbeth, has hitherto enjoyed considerable 
notoriety, but it must "pale its inefifectnal 
fires" before this new invention. And the 
economy of the thing; only think of "a bright 
little ray" causing this cauldron or "Pot" to 
boil over! And, be it understood, this same ray 
is "evolved" from the vats themselves. Talk 
about your "straw bnrners" as economizing 
fuel! What are they, we would ask, compared 
with this improved cauldron? Is it not really 
a remarkable coincidence that these "gather- 
ing, clashing, fermenting vats" should come 
along simultaneously with the "new motor," 
one to purify the political, the other to revo- 
lutionize the mechanical world? 

These political campaigns are of some bene- 
fit; sermonizing to the contrary notwithstand- 
ing. For, without them the Simon Pures would 
scarcely have an opportunity for proclaiming 
their political religion upon the house-top; con- 
sequently we should never know that there is 
really any salt in the great political sea. We 
often hear of some good cause being "dragged 
into politics." Nonsense, they go thither of 
their own accord without any dragging what- 
ever; and the world at large would scarcely 
know that there is such a thing as a "political 
cauldron" if it were not for the sermonizers 
who are forever stirring it up. 

It would really be interesting to know by 
what inventive and adventurous writer the em- 
blematic cauldron was first "dragged into poli- 
tics." Whoever he was he is answeraole for » 
vast amount of bosh and hypocrisy that has 
been uttered concerning it. 

Probably the reader has heard of instances 
where parties wishing to "runout" certain 
fashions in dress, have succeeded in doing so 
by dressing up in the same fashion slightly ex- 
aggerated, some disreputable persons, and hir- 
ing them to promenade the places where " style" 
is most exhibited. Now may we not hope that 
some one who is sick and tired of the " politi- 
cal cauldron" whine, has employed the writer 
of the above extract to drag this implement out 
Qf politics by slightly burlesquing the affair ? 
Whether there has really been any deep 
laid scheme in this matter will, in all proba- 
bility, never be known ; but we are strong in 
the faith that this writer's "gathering, and 
clashing and fermenting vats" will do this and 
nothing more. And we believe it may as truly 
ba said of this, as of many other articles, that 
all who properly examine the improved politi- 
cal caularon " will have no other." 



The Editorial Visit. 

The latest report from the editorial excur- 
sionists before going to press, was from Salt 
Lake City; but, before our subscribers receive 
their papers, the party will, in all probability, 
have arrived in San Francisco. As heard from 
at various points along the route, good health 
and a feeling of satisfaction prevailed through- 
out the entire party. There have been no at- 
tempts at parade in the receptions given them, 
and in this good taste has been exhibited on 



"we are prepared to give the excursionists a 
hearty welcome." 

Since writing the above, we have received a 
note from H. W. Williams informing us that 
the party will arrive on Saturday, 17th inst., 
instead of Friday as formerly announ ced. 

A Fall Apple. 

Our fruit illustration this week represents 
the FameuHe apple, which is described as fol- 
lows: 

Synonyms — Pomine ds Heige, Sanguineus, 
Snow. Fruit — -Size — medium; form — roundish, 
slightly flattened; skin — smooth; color — green- 




THE FAMEXTSE APPLE. 



the part of th* hosts, and the occasions have 
undoubtedly been more enjoyable to the guests. 
Some unpleasant things have been said by cer- 
tain papers in alluding to the paity atd their 
prospective visit, but this w.is undoubtedly 
done because certain other papers said some 
pleasant things on the subject. The excur- 
sioni3ts,;being of the editorial persuasion, will, 
of course, understand this matter, and making 
due allowance for the characteristic jealousy of 
the craft, will excuse a questionable courtesy 
on the accepted rule, that anything is honor- 
able in war — especially in journalistic warfare. 

At North Platte, July 8th, the party were re- 
ceived in a particularly cordial manner; and on 
the next day as they passed from that place to 
Cheyenne, they hart an opportunity of viewing 
200,000 cattle herded along the line of the rail- 
road. At other stations the agricultural pro- 
ducts of the country were displayed, affording 
much satisfaction to the beholders. 

For our part, we can say, with the Call, that 



ish ground, mostly overspread in the sun with 
a clear rich red; in the shade the red is pale, 
streaked, and blotched with dark red; stem — 
slender; cavity — narrow and funnel-shaped; 
calyx^smiill; baiin — narrow and shallow; flesh 
— remarkably white, tender, juicy, nega'ive 
character, but deliciously pleasant, with a 
slight perfume; core— close, small, compact; 
seeds — light brown, long and pointed; season 
—in Ohio, October and to December; in Cali- 
fornia, probably four to six weeks earlier. " 

Tree— hardy, healthy, moderate grower, of a 
rather diverging habit, with dark colored shoots 
and long narrow leaves, bearing annually a 
fair crop, with a profusion in alternate years. 
A rich but dry or well drained soil seems to 
suit it best. No orchard in the north can be 
counted as complete without this variety; for 
while its fruit is not of the highest character, 
it is just so good that everybody likes to eat it; 
and whegi cooked it is white, puffy, and deli- 
cious. This apple is of French drigin. 



San Francisco and Tropical Fruits. 

The people of San Francisco are great fruit 
eaters, even at tho present somewhat extor- 
tionate prices; and when the machinery of this 
important trade is adjusted in workmanlike 
order, and is run iu a proper, economic man- 
ner, there will be much more fruit consumed 
here. The uncertainty of getting just what he 
wants, and at a fair price, and the certainty of 
being compelled to pack home a full box and 
bring back an empty one — or pay more than 
the original cost for it — paying more for its 
contents than it could be purchased for in 
countries that are supposed to envy us in our 
great abundance of fruit, causes many a man 
to restricthimself and family in the use of fruit. 

Still, the home consumption of California 
fruit is enormous; while San Francisco, as a 
market for tropical fruits, occupies a position 
imperfectly understood outside the trade. The 
following from the Bulletin of July 12th will 
give our readers an idea of the extent and 
workings of this branch of the fruit trade of 
San Francisco : 

"Few persons outside of those immediately 
engaged in the business are aware of the mag- 
nitude of the tropical fruit trade of San Fran- 
cisco. The orange, the lime, the lemon and 
the cocoannt are the principle varieties received 
in this market, and until the productive groves 
of Los Angeles commenced to yield generously, 
the supply was principally derived from Mex- 
ico and Tahiti. The Tahiti oranges usually 
come into the market abort the m'ditlc :..' 
March, and continue to arrive in large quan- 
tities up to September. A few straggling lota 
are received thereafter, frequently as late as 
November, and even December, but they find 
slow sale. The California crop, coming 
mostly from Los Angeles, commences to ar- 
rive about the first of December, and the re- 
ceipts continue large up to the close of the 
season, about June first. Large quantities of 
oranges arrive from Mexico, but the season is 
brief, lasting only from about the first of No- 
vember to the last of December. The Mexican 
oranges, when picked and packed, arrive in 
good order, and as they are generally sold at 
lower rates than either the Tahiti or Los Ange- 
les varieties, they meet with ready sale. 

Notwithstanding the very large arrivals of 
Tahiti and Mexican oranges, in addition to our 
own large crop, this market can never be said 
to be glutted, and very often the supply is far 
inadequate. Considerable quantities find their 
way to the intvior of the State, but the great 
bulk of them are consumed here. An effort 
was made one season to fiud an outlet across 
the mountains, and two car loads were shipped 
for Omaha, but the venture did not prove profit- 
able, and was abandoned. This senooa oranges 
have not brought the very extreme figures real- 
ized in former yenre, but the general average 
has been better. Tho receipts of California 
granges the last season amounted to upward of 
5,300,000, a few thousands of which came from 
Alameda, Contra Costa, Sonoma and Solano 
counties, and the balance from Los Angeles 
county. This was the largest crop ever pro- 
duced in California. The quantity annually 
imported from Tahiti and Mexico will 
reach 5,000,000 in number. From Janu- 
ary last up to the present dato 2,- 
403,000 oranges have arrived from Tahiti 
since January Ist; 15,000 limes have reached 
San Francisco from Tahiti, and the quantity 
produced last season in California was upward 
of 80,000. Mexico contributes large quantities 
of this fruit each year to our market. There 
were over 600,000 California lemons brought 
last season to the San Francisco market. As 
the California product has a very thick rind, it 
is not so much in favor as some other kinds. The 
Sicily variety is most in demand by those who 
can afford to pay the difference in price. Lime 
juice has become a noticeable feature among 
the imports from Tahiti, eighty-three barrels of 
the article having been received since January. 
On arrival, the juice is taken from the barrels, 
the seed and pulp extracted, and the most of it 
finds its way in bottles to the sideboard, the 
dispensary, and the cook room. California can 
never entirely shut out the immense importa- 
tions of oraages from Tahiti, as when the Cali- 
fornia crop begins to fall off the Tahiti crop 
comes on, and nearly fills up the time until the 
next appearnnce o( the )Joe Angeles product." 



34 



[July 17, 1875 



Correspondence. 



From North Land. 

Messes. Editobs :— According to promise, I 
give you some notes from "North Land." "SVe 
started from St. Helena May 25tb, with wagon 
overland through Solano, Yolo, Colusa, Te. 
bama, Shasta, and Siskiyou counties. A heavy 
norther commenced blowing the 26th, continued 
three days and shook out what grain was ripe, 
or at least so badly it was hardly worth cutting- 
At Redding we left the old stage road, crossed 
the Sacramento river to the east side, and trav" 
eled through a country of which we had little 
previous knowledge. We found no more level 
plains, but a succession of limbered ridges, with 
narrow valleys intervening, traversed throug- 
out by mountain streams which have their 
so^jrces around Lassen's peak. 

Millville is the first village of any importance. 
It has a good flouring mill driven by water 
power, two stores, a tin shop, blacksmith shop, 
hotel, church (used by all denominntions), a 
fine brick school house, with Odd Fellows' and 
Masons' halls up stairs. The population of 
this town is made up principally of stock 
owners, who spend the summer months in the 
mountains with their herds, and return in the 
winter for social enjoyment, and the education 
of their children. The narrow vales through 
which we passed are possessed of a productive 
soil, and some highly improved farms are to be 
seen. At the head of Oak run, we go up, up, 
until an elevation of some 5,00U feet is reached, 
when we take a parting look at old Mt. Shasta 
with her everlasting snows, when we begin to 
descend and soon find ourselves at White's 
station in Birney valley, on the east side of 
the Western Sierra Nevada range. 

This valley is small, but there is some very 
fine land, judging from the appearance of the 
growing crops, iiarley, oats, timothy and po- 
tatoes were growing luxuriantly ; but probably 
a month later than in the valley below. This 
region of country is full of interest to the ' ' tour- 
ist" and should not be overlooked by the seekers 
of either pleasure or health ; as it is only one 
day's travel (24 hours) by stage from Redding or 
terminus of railroad. All the streams are as 
clear as a dew drop, swarming with mountain 
trout, those 

Speckled Beauties, 
Which can be seen at the depth of ten feet, as 
easily as one. 

Among the wonders in this neighborhood 
is Birney falls, which are said to be truly 
beautiful. We visited the dairy ranch of Mr. 
J. A. Brown & Sons, who showed us a beautiful 
lake on their premises three-fourths of a mile 
long by one fourth wide, and surrounded, 
except at one end, by a rim of low hills. It is 
fed by a huge spring which bursts up at the 
upper end from the bowels of the earth, and 
empties itself at the other end by pitching down 
an irregular ledge of rock, having a fall of some 
ten feet, and atlording water power enough to 
run several mills. The only power used at the 
present time, is to churn the milk from Mr. 
Brown's dairy. The waters of the lake are 
soon joined by those of Hot creek, which takes 
its rise in Lassen's peak and has a series of 
rapids well worth a visit. The rapid is nearly 
a mile long, and comes rumbling and tumbling 
over huge boulders at a fearful rate. Your 
correspondent in company with Mr. Brown 
climbed upon a huge rock overlooking the 

Bewildering Scen»; 
We were struck with its grandeur. 

Another scene worth a visit, spoken of bv 
Mr. Brown, was a spring that bursts out of the 
Blao of an almost precipitous clitf, affording 
power enough to run the largest mill. Twelve 
miles from here, aua over a low range of moun- 
tains, is Fall River City, ot the mouth of the 
river of that name, where it empties into Pitt 
river. This river has its rise as the lake spoken 
of— bursting up from the earth beneath, some 
three miles west of old Fort creek; thence, 
after a meandering course of some thirty miles, 
it empties itself over a series of rapids into Pitt 
river. It affords an immense water power. A 
good, flourishing mill has beea erected here. 
The log houses of Fort creek are tumbling 
down and fast going to decay; and the only 
one occupied is the old "headquarters" of the 
little general, it being a more preteutious one 
—a hewn log house. There is some very good 
land along Fall river, and places can be bought 
cheap enough, and some of our many immi- 
grants might do well to turn in this direction. 
At the head of Fall river we entered the great 
Umber belt which stretches away west to Mount 
Shasta, some fifty miles by forty wide. This 
region is heavily timbered with yellow and 
sugar pine and fir, and in time will be a source 
from whence California v^ill draw 
An Immense Supply. 
The Oregon and California railroad survey 
passes through the edge of this belt. 

From Fall river to Sheep rock, in little 
Shasta valley, a distance of sixty miles, not a 
human being was to be seen, save one lonely 
cattle herder and a dairyman on the McCIoud 
river, who go there to herd cattle or make but- 
ter through the summer months, but return 
with their herds to the valleys in the fall. 
After the first day's travel, we camped on 



the banks of the McClond, on a small prairie 
of an acre or two, all alone; nothing to be 
heard save the twittering of birds and the moan- 
ing of the winds in the tree tops. Before the 
twilight had faded away, we retired for the 
night, with mother Earth for a bed, the broad 
canopy of heaven for a covering and the all 
seeing eye of God to watch over us, we soon 
fell asleep to wake no more till morning. We 
rose early and traveled some fifteen miles, when 
we came into a large opening of several thous- 
and acres of sand, washed down from the 
Butte. Mt. Shasta was now in full view, and 
apparently at our very feet, cold and grim, with 
her everlasting snows. We involuntarily 
draw our overcoats close about us as we gaze 
upon the majestic scene. 

Presently we see a cloud drifting from the 
southward, which seemed to be attracted to- 
wards the peak ; it finally reached it and struck 
about two-thirds the distance above the snow 
line, when it seemed to part, a portion passing 
to the west side and the other to the east. Be- 
fore passing the peak, a mighty whirlwind 
seemed to rift it into atoms, the fragments of 
which floated away to the northward, gathering 
re-inforcements until evening, when a sudden 
clap of thunder announced the 

Return of the Scattered Forces. 
Soon after reaching the house at Sheep rock, 
it began to rain, which it kept up pretty much 
through the night. The next morning, June 
9th, the pass, through which we cnme the day 
btfore, was white with snow, reaching nearly 
down to the valley. That morning we bade 
the old " father of storms" adieu; crossed the 
Siskiyou into Oregon, down Rogue river to 
Ashland, one of the prettiest villages in all this 
country. 

Ashland creek, a bold mountain stream, fed 
by the everlasting snows of the Siskiyou, af- 
fords an everlasting supply of water for family 
use, irrigation and mill power. The place 
boasts of a woolen mill, flour mill, planing mill, 
four stores, postoffioe, express office, livery 
stable, hotel, and the best of all, a good 
academy, which accommodates some 300 stu- 
dents. Many are settling here for the advan- 
tages of education. The town is incorporated, 
consequently every nuisance is removed and 
the streets kept clean and neat. Mr. A. D. 
Hellman was the original proprietor, and de- 
serves much credit for his efforts to prevent 
any spiritous liquor being sold by the drink, 
which he has succeeded in doing so far, there 
not being a saloon in the place. 

John Mavitt. 
Waldo, Josephine county, Oregon, June 25th. 



Lompoc Temperance Colony. 

Messrs. Editobs: — There is not now a very 
large amount of land for sale here, but there is 
still room enough for a good omny arable and 
grazing ranches, and smaller sxiburban and 
town homes. But now to the progress made 
since the first sales, held in November last. 
At that time there was not a plank of lumber 
erected in a building, except in the old adobe 
ranch house. How many dwellings there are 
now, from the temporary camp of the new 
comers to the family residences already costing 
hundreds, and some of them yet to cost thou- 
sands of dollars when finished— I cannot tell, 
nor have I days of leisure sufficient to ride 
round and count. But I do know that, accord- 
ing to the return of the school census marshal, 
there are sixty families with children actually 
resident on the colony lands. This makes no 
note of those who "bach." or of those families 
where there were no children when the census 
of scholars was taken. In the whole district 
(including much more than our valley) there 
are 29G children, of whom 224 are old enough 
to attend school, and will entitle us to $1,.5UU 
of public money, with more it there be any 
surplus after the first divi ion of the appropria- 
tions; and heretofore there always has been. 
We expect to build two good schoolhouses 
early this fall. 

Standing on the foot of the grand hills that 
guard the town, one can coutit, in our seven 
months old town, three general and one hard- 
ware stores and tin shop, a butcher's shop, a 
bakery, a large hotel, the rooms being hard 
finished, a printing and newspaper office — the 
Lompoc Record — three blacksmith shops, one 
livery and stage stable and another one build- 
ing, a large boarding house, a saddle and har- 
ness shop, a drug store, the house and office of 
the Secretary of the company, and the district 
schoolhouse. We also read the signs ot two 
physicians (who, poor follows, report the com- 
munity as distressingly healthy) a Justice of 
the Peace and Notary Public. Close to town 
are two limekilns and a brickyard, the products 
of both being now in extensive use. China- 
men have not failed to follow, and they have 
two washhouses. In fact we have almost all 
the institutions of a modem town, save and ex- 
cept saloons, the introduction of which is pro- 
hibited alike by a clause in every deed or lease 
of land, and by public moral sentiment. 

To show the extent of business done I in- 
quired of our postmaster, and he iufornied me 
that by our tn-weekly mail we have from 300 
to 350 letters and 700 to 750 newspapers come. 
We have also a weekly stage to Santa Barbara. 
It is thought that the coast line stages will run 
through town daily before long. We have a 
live and good toned newspaper, edited by W. 
W. Broughtou, th« founder of the Odd Fellows' 



paper N«w Age, printed and published in town 
every Saturday, and distributed by hundreds 
over the Pacific coast and in the East. The 
editor has announced that he will forward 
copies, postage paid, to any one applying by 
postal card. There can be sean also, exclasive 
of the stores named, at least twenty houses 
within the city limits, with others on suburban 
lots. A number of cottage and villa residences 
are hidden in the nataral cosy groves of maple 
and elder. Within a few miles are two good 
dairies of thirty or forty cows each, to be 
largely increased next season. There is quite 
a camp of men at the point where the fine sub- 
stantial wharf, 1,200 feet long, is being built, at 
a somewhat sheltered spot on the ocean. A 
second school may bs seen down the valley like 
the first, in full operation. We have a resident 
minister of the gospel. Elder J. W. Webb, of 
the Christian Church. Concerning him mod- 
esty forbids me saying much, though they do 
say that he is an earnest worker in the religi- 
ous, temperance and general interests of the 
colony, and preaches with evident acceptance. 
He also teaches the town school. Other min- 
isters visit us, regularly or occasionally. We 
have a good union Sunday school, an active 
lodge of Good Templars, and a growing Grange 
are working away harmonioualy. In happy 
homes can be heard the sweet tones of the 
piano, and organs are becoming somewhat 
common among ns. The attendance at pic- 
nics, social gatherings, spelling matches, lec- 
tures, church and Sunday school, show conclu- 
sively, that our society possesses the elements 
of sociability, morality and refinement. 

In the main valley is a large breadth of pota- 
toes, barley, beans, corn, pumpkins, sweet po- 
tatoes, beets, etc. There would have been 
much more put in had time permitted of more 
clearing and planting. Experiment* with to- 
bacco and flax, walnnt and other trees, and 
vegetables are very encouraging. Neither in 
this nor in the Santa Maria valley, so far as I 
have seen, have the grasshoppers amounted to 
much this year. Gophers love this moist 
loamy soil, and rabbits, quail and deer are very 
numerous and a little destructive. But the 
three latter are good for food and sport, and 
will soon be thinned out. Settlers have cut 
and sown hay, and stacks are dotting the val- 
ley all over. Although, by the provisions of a 
most righteous law, the "no fence law," settlers 
are not compelled to fence out every wealthy 
man's large herds of cattle from his little home, 
still mauy are doing more or less fencing, 
mostly from our fine willow thickets. So moist 
is the ground that these willow stakes soon 
sprout and make live fences. Some planted 
long ago near the old Purisima mission have 
grown into large trees. Some are using sawed 
lumber — notably, Mr. Thomas Dibblee, who 
has enclosed his eighty acres of English wal- 
nut trees with a five-foot board fence. 

Down the valley is a second brick yard; some 
of the brick is being used by Mr. J. S. Reed, 
for erecting a dwelling, our first brick house in 
the valley. 

In the Honda (grazing) valley, are a large 
band of sheep and some cattle, it having been 
rented for that purpose till required for homes. 
Ultimately we shall have dairies and a cheese 
factory or two. The feed grass, wild oats, clo- 
ver, etc., is most luxurious in growth. Up the 
oinon is one of the grandest natural groves of 
live (evergreen) oaks ever seen. Five acres 
of this.on the banks of a living stream of clear, 
cool water, is given forever to the colonists for 
recreation purposes. Already several picnics 
have been held there, all well attended, and the 
platform and seats called into requisition by 
singers, players, speechifiers and dancers. 
There is now a proposition made by a reliable 
citizen to build a grist mill, using for power 
the water — also, by the way, given to the town 
for a water supply. 

The soil in the valley is mostly rich sediment, 
moist and easily worked, there is some adobe. 
The valley is well wooded, and fair water is 
easily obtained, going down deep it is soft as 
rain water. The climate is remarkably even 
and healthful. At times the wind blows pretty 
strong, more so than seems absolutely needful, 
but most of the year it is exceedingly pleasant. 
Y'esterday —Fourth of July— two religious servi- 
ces by different miiiisters were held, in a lovely 
grove close to town. The schoolhouse is too 
small now for the audiences, and in this cli- 
mate it is so pleasant out of doors. The trees 
and rocks are full of honey. Many hundreds 
of pounds have been taken, and nearly every 
household has hived swarms of bees, some 
from two to twenty and thirty each. How 
much in this hasty sketch is untold, it is 
hard to say, but surely this is a good showing 
to be truthfully made of the transformation of 
what was a wild sheep ranch last November. 
Who is wise enough to predict what it will be 
five year* hence, when the forty acres near 
town reserved for a college shall be so used, 
and we shall have commodious and well fur- 
nished schools, churches and society halls, and 
private houses will be many and of good style, 
and Lompoc may be the county seat of a new 
county? James W. Webb. 

P. S.--At the postoflBce and in the town 
reading room I frequently see the Rural 
Pbess. 



From New Castlb.— Messbs. Editobs:— For 
the past throe days the weather has been cool 
and comfortable. The fruit crop here, this 
year, will be very light. Mr. Charles M. Silva 
is the only person in this vicinity whose peaoh 
crop is not an entire failure. B. P. Tabob. 

New Castle, July 6th, 1875. 



Rice Culture. 

Messbs. Editobs :— Having been a resident 
of tropical Florida for five or six years, where 
cane, rice and cotton were the staple produc- 
tions, and seeing the striking similarity in 
climate and seasons here and there, I am 
forced to believe that the same things will pro- 
duce equally as well here, and better, because 
the soil here is far more productive, and in its 
natural state contains all the elements neces- 
sary to bring to the highest state of perfection 
all the productions of the temperate and torrid 
zones; and all it lacks to consummate this, in 
every fruit and seed, is a lack of frost for the 
one, and a very little too much for the other. 
But if it is a little too chilly here in winter for 
those very tender, juicy fruits of the tropics, 
such as the banana, sapadilla, sugar apple, 
guava, aligator pear, lemon and lime, cane, 
rice and cotton can be very successfully raised, 
and that, too, very remuneratively. 

I wish to speak particularly of rice, which I 
have seen grown" on poor land compared to 
this, at the rate of nearly thirty bushels per 
acre. There are two kinds of rice, wet land 
rice and dry land rice. ' The upland or dry 
land rice is preferable, as it is more pleasant to 
cultivate and can be grown on any land where 
you can supply it with moisture which would 
be sufficient for corn or potatoes. The ground 
should be well prepared— if possible, plowed 
in June — and occasionally stirred with a culti- 
vator until the last of February or first of 
March, then plowed again; harrow well, then 
sow your rice in drills from six to eight inches 
apart. 

There is but little use in committing any 
seed to the ground unless the ground is pre- 
pared for it. This lazy, shiftless farming, as 
well as this extensive, greedy farming, is a real 
calamity in many ways. Broken promises, loss 
of credit, debts, duns and lawsuits, failures, 
want and poverty are their legitimate conse- 
quences. Cultivate less ground, do it well, 
meet all the requirements of natural laws with 
reference to the growth and well being of what- 
ever kind of seed you sow, then you can reap 
the rich rewards of your labor in an abundant 
harvest, and all of its concomitant comforts. 

Rice may be harvested with a header and 
threshed the same as wheat. The only diffi- 
culty there is to overcome is to separate the 
kernel from the chaff. The chaff does not ad- 
here to the kernel, but is a loose, closed, tough 
sack, within which the rice kernel grows. Sep- 
arating is done by running it through a mill 
constructed on the same plan as the grist mill, 
the millstones being made of wood. On the 
grinding surfaces of the wooden millstones are 
fastened narrow strips of common sheet iron, 
running from the center to the circumference, 
and placed at equal distances from each other. 
There may bo a better apparatus for that pur- 
pose. The seed can be obtained, probably, at 
San Francisco. Db. B. Hamlin. 

Grangeville, Tulare county, July 5th, 1875. 

Artesian Wells Wanted. 

Messrs. Editors: — The principal land own- 
ers in and around Cloverdale have of late dis- 
cussed the utility and practicability of sinking 
one or two artesian wells in this place; but not 
being sufficiently informed as to the source of 
water supply and under what conditions ar- 
tesian welis succeed best, they wish to get some 
information on this important subject. Clover- 
dale is surrounded by hills on three sides, 
west, north and east. The highest ridges are 
about 1,200 feet high. We have in most parts 
of the town good water, at a depth of sixteen 
to thirty-eight feet, sufficient for family use, 
but yrh&t is wanted is water to irrigate. Now 
the question arises, is there a probability that 
water in large quantity can be had by 
boring artesian wells here? Any information 
on this point by anybody conversant with the 
matter would be thankfully received, either 
through the columns of the Press or by ad- 
dressing either of the following gentlemen: 
Henry Kier, Fred. Gerkhardt, or the under- 
signed. O. HCNZIKEB. 

Cloverdale, July 6th, 1875. 

[The desire for artesian wells is one of the 
notable signs of progress to be seen in Tarions 
parts of the country, and we cannot think so 
poorly of the energy and skill of our mechanics 
and engineers as to suppose that such an urgent 
and increasing want as this will long be com- 
pelled to make itself known through the Pbess, 
We will do what we can for our correspondents 
in this as in other matters and would here call 
upon parties engaged in or specially acquainted 
with this business to respond to the above re- 
quest.— Ed. Pbess.] 

Fbom San Luis Obispo Cot;iiTT.— Messbs. 
Editobs: — Your paper has been worth ten times 
the amount of the price to me. One little re- 
cipe which I cut from its pages two years ago 
has benefited me at least S150. 

Within three years this neighborhood haa 
quadrupled in population. In this, the Arroyo 
Grande district, we have two schools in session 
and 204 school children between five and seven 
years of age, and ninety-three under five. 

Our crops are looking well. 

D. F. Heweon. 

White Sulphur Springs, San Lais ObispvOo, 



riflfeaatwiMMiiH 



July 17, 1875.] 



35 



''Trouble Amongst Calves." 

Mbssbs. Editobs. — Mr. Morris' calves being 
sticking calves, I will presume that they are in 
high condition, if so, I would advise him to 
give, as a preventive, three or four ounces of 
castor oil— or more, if large calves — beat up in 
the yolks of two or three eggs. And as a remedy, 
should the symptoms appear in other calves, to 
hleeA freely— till the animal staggers, if in full 
flesh, small bleedings being worse than useless 
in almost every case— and give raw linseed oil, 
in about the same quantities as castor oil — or a 
little larger, as nothing is more efficacious in 
reducing any kind of swelling in cattle than 
linseed oil. I have never known it to fail in 
the worst cases of hoven, or swelling from gas, 
and nothing is more likely to relieve spasms 
than bleeding, as, if carried far enough, it re- 
laxes the whole system. 

If there is any reason to suspect poison of 
any kind to be the cause — as the swelling and 
snddfn death indicate— oil, or the white of 
eggs, will be the proper remedies. 

Yours, RoBEET ASHBUBKER. 

Baden Station, San Mateo Co., July 12th. 

From Santa Clara. 

Messes. Editoes: — Harvesting here has com- 
menced; headers are busy at work and the 
'•toot" of the steam threshers has been heard; 
but the majority of them (or their owners) 
seem to be waiting to steam up on the Fourth, 
after which harvesting will commence in 
earnest. 

Crops in the central part of this valley will 
not average five sacks to the acre; but lands 
skirting the foothills will bear a fair crop. The 
consequence is, irrigation is strongly talked 
of. Every spot where plenty of water could be 
bad last winter, shows emphatically, that an 
immense crop could have been raised if water 
had been used, and there was enough went to 
waste to have supplied the valley. The hay 
crop is short' compared with other seasons. 
Fruit also of nearly all kinds. Vegetables, ditto. 

A. R. WOODHAMS. 

Santa Clara, July 3d, 1875. 



glasB of the oommon spirits of tar, miz«d with 
twelve times th« amount of water is sufficient 
for one. If mixing for a hundred, six gallons 
of water with six pounds of commo* soda ought 
to be warmed to the boiling pitch, then add the 
spirits of tar . 




Eastern Wool Markets. 

New Yoek, July 10th— The market shows but 
little change from last week. California spring 
clip is taken to some extent for consumption, 
this being the only class in the market in 
abundant supply. Woolen producers have 
taken hold of it quite freely, as it is found to 
be as cheap stock as anything else available. 
California fall clip is well used up. Prices are 
quite firm. Quotations for spring California 
are the same as sent last week, and remain 
steady. Texas wools are selling at least 2c be- 
low prices realized a week ago. New fleeces 
arrive slowly, but are placed without difficulty 
upon receipt. Sales for the week include 180,- 
000 pounds fleece, at 50c; for Ohio, 52c; for 
medium choice do 43c; for unmerchantable, 
32%c for fine washed, and 37y^c for medium 
Missouri; 320,000 pounds spring California, at 
22@27%c for burrv, and 28@32c for free; 10,000 
pounds fall, at 18@22J^c; 21,000 pounds Colo- 
rado, at 30c; 2,500 pounds black do at 25c; 
14,000 pounds Western Texas, at 23@29c; 100,- 
000 pounds Eastern do at 28@33o; 100,000 
pounds Mexican, at 24c; 61 bales East Indian, 
at 24@35c; 8,000 pounds Cape and 190 bales 
Donskoi, on private terms. 

Boston, July 10th. — Transactions in Cali- 
fornia wool show considerable falling ofif from 
last week, but a fair business has been done, 
although holders are compelled to concede a 
little to eS'ect sales. Fall California sold at 20c. 
There is in fact no firmness for any kind of 
wool, and buyers have things pretty much their 
own way. The demand for pulled wool is quite 
limited. Sales of the week have been 110,000 
pounds, at 40@50c for good supers, with an 
occasional small lot of good Eastern and Maine 
super at an advance on the latter rate. — Cail. 



AvEBAGE Yield OP Grain. — Messrs. Editors: 
— Now, as a large portion of grain has been 
threshed, the result of the yield throughout 
the county is not as satisfactory as many de- 
sired. With the drouth cutting off the late 
sown grain, the north wind, shrinkage, and the 
late heavy rains beating down the heads, there 
will be a loss of one-third, giving an average 
of sixteen bushels to the acre. The loss may 
be lessened by those who have stock of any 
kind by pasturing, as there is plenty scattered 
on its surface. Grain is daily being brought to 
market, either being stored or sold at market 
price. Farmers are in need of a large ware- 
house where small parcels could be stowed 
away, and, when a sufficient bulk is gathered, 
a shipment could be made that would remuner- 
ate all concerned. Would that some Grange 
would make a start in the right direction, and 
others follow. G. B. 

Elk Grove, Sacramento county. 



SlfEEf \^D Wool. 



Scab In Sheep. 

We extract the following from the transac- 
tions of the Highland Agricultural Society of 
Scotland : 

It is clearly ascertained by scientific men that 
the §cab in sheep, like the itch m the human 
being, is connected with and propagated by 
certain minute insects belonging to the class of 
acrai, which inhabit pimples or pustulec;. But 
the question naturally arises, how came it first 
into existence ? This problem is very difficult 
of solution, and puzzles the most eminent phys- 
iologists. But, as I have never known it to 
break out spontaneously among a flock of sheep, 
properly managed, during thirty years' experi- 
ence as a shepherd in pastoral districts. Va- 
rious and conflicting opinions exist as to what 
extent the disease is infectious. Some affirm 
that it requires sheep to come in contact with 
the isease before it can be communicated, 
while others mantain that the disease is propa- 
gated by the mere traveling on the road, such 
as a public drove road, from large markets or 
fairs.' I, however, do not think the disease is 
80 catching as the latter advocates affirm. For 
example, I acted as shepherd for sixteen years, 
on various farms, where the drove road from 
Falkirk to the south passes through the sheep 
pasture, and every year some of the lots of 
sheep were more or less affected with scab, and 
during all that period not a single sheep of 
■which I had charge caught the disease. 

The cure of scab lies in the destruction of 
the insect, but the important question is, what 
is the best composition or infusion for that 
purpose ? The remedies that are commonly 
applied are numerous, but the most effectual, 
with the least danger of injuring the animal, 
that I have ever seen applied, is the common 
spirits of tar ; and, if properly applied, it will 
penetrate and destroy the insect concealed in 
the pustules, buried beneath the skin. The 
quantity applied may vary according to the con- 
dition and age of the sheep, but for hill, or ordi- 
nary breeding stock, one bottle of spirits of tar 
mixed with twelve sheep, or one common wine 



Mountain Eanqes foe Sheep. — Once our 
valleys were covered with flocks and herds of 
various kinds. Of late years the surface has 
been broken, and converted into smaller parts 
and parcels by the onward march of immigrants 
to our western clime, thereby causing its flocks 
and herds to break in smaller ranges, conse- 
quently a larger field had to be sought, which 
was found throughout our foothills and all 
along up to the summit and some past to the 
other side in the State of Nevada. Many of 
these mountain ranges are owned by stock men 
who reside in the valley and pass to and fro aS' 
desired during early spring. Until May the 
plains are covered with good pasture, which 
when in a dried state makes good feed for 
sheep. The herder passes to the mountain 
home during summer and then returns to win- 
ter quarters. 

Conversing with one who has just returned, he 
stated that the late rains did no serious damage 
to the mountain feed, but have plenty of various 
kinds. There is a summer grass of fresh- 
ness growing profusely o'er its rough and rug- 
ged surface; also, higher up, a tall bunch grass. 
If found beside the grass they are fond of 
browsing the poison oak shrub that grows 
abundantly here, so that Mr. Sheep is well pro- 
vided for by nature's handiwork. 

Those of smaller herds are kept at home, es- 
pecially on farms along the river course wkere 
the growth of alfalfa remains green, and there 
luxurate throughout the year. G. E. 

House Youe Sheep. — The first thing a hus- 
bandman should do after building a comforta- 
ble home is, he should see that his flock has a 
good shelter through the heat of the summer 
and a warm house during the winter months. 
Under the same roof you can arrange parts for 
hay, grain and farming implements, stalls for 
your horses, sheep and cattle in a comfortable 
manner, and you will gain in a short time the 
outlay with interest. Here and there as we 
pass over the valley such a structure is found, 
presenting a fine view, with all the late im- 
provements attached. We need more, and no 
doubt others will go and do likewise, as many 
are already seeing the benefits and the gain that 
we realize in gathering live products under 
cover. 



Points of Short-horn Cows and Heifers. 

Having failed *by my former letter to draw 
out any remarks from your correspondents upon 
my proposed scale of points for judging short- 
horn bulls, I must consider that as in a meas- 
nte established, and would now proceed, ac- 
cording to promise, to give a similar scale for 
cows and heifers: 

Starting, then, with my innovation in the 
case of bulls, I would begin in the same way 
with — Ist, quality; 2d, substance; 3d, style; 
and would then revert to my old scale — 4th, 
the rump; 5th, the loins; 6th, the girth; 7th, 
the neck; 8th, the head; 9th, the buttock; 10th, 
the flank; 11th, the brisket. It will be seen 
that the order of points is somewhat difi'erent 
from what it was for a male animal, but for 
that there seems to be good and sufficient rea- 
sons, to be given afterwards if required. This 
scale hag these great advantages over all the 
others with which I am acquainted: The 
points follow each other in pretty regular suc- 
cession, so their respective values can be easily 
remembered and readily reduced to practice; 
and, moreover, they are not too numerous. 

Not to interfere with the ordinary method of 
judging, which in good hands may be upon the 
whole pretty correct (though in most cases it 
must be admitted three difi'erent judges would 
very often place the prize animals in a some- 
what different position to one another), I 
would propose that some one possessing the 
means, and having enthusiasm enough on the 
subject, should give the thing a fair trial, in 
the way of ofi'ering an extra prize for the most 
perfect of the first prize animals, judged ac- 
cording to this scale of points. "The same 
judges with a very little training, would easily 
manage to count up the deficiencies of the dif- 
ferent animals, having always reference to the 
values of the central points. Bulls, cows and 
heifers might be thus compared together ac- 
cording to their respective standards, and there 
would be no clashing of judgments more than 
at present, seeing that former first prize ani- 
mals would alone be eligible for competition 
with one another. 

I am convinced that such a method of judg- 
ment would introduce (in perhaps the least 
disagreeable fashion) a new and superior 
method of judging cattle at shows, a clear, in- 
telligible process, in place of the present one, 
connected as it is with a certain amount of dim- 
ness, shadowiness and speculativeness, not to 
speak of anything worse which may sometimes 
creep in under these garbs. 

One leading object with me would be to re- 
move cattle judging out of the dark domain of 
mere fanciful prejudice, and bring it into the 
clear light of day, making it more in accord- 
ance with the stern realities of pounds, shil- 
lings and pence. — Cor. British Agric ulturist. 

Horned 



Rosewood. — It has puzzled many people to 
decide why the dark wood so highly valued for 
furniture should be called rosewood. Its color 
certainly does not look like a rose, so we must 
look for some other reason. Upon asking, we 
are told that when the tree is first cut the fresh 
wood possesses a very strong, rose-like 
fragrance ; hence the name.' There are half a 
dozen or more kinds of rosewood trees. ■ The 
varieties are found in South America and the 
East Indies and neighboring islands. Some- 
times the trees grow so large that planks four 
feet broad and ten in length can be cut from 
one of them. These broad planks are princi- 
pally used to make tops of pianofortes. When 
growing in the forest, the rosewood tree is re- 
markable for its beauty, but such is its value in 
manufactures as an ornamental wood, that 
some of the forests where it once grew abund- 
antly now have scarcely a single specimen. In 
Madras, the government has prudently had 
great plantations of this tree set out, in order 
to keep up the supply. — British Trade Journal. 

A PUTTY of starch and chloride of zinc har- 
dens quickly, and lasts, as a stopper of holes 
in metals, for months. 



Cattle 



at the International Ex- 
hibition. 



The CentennialCommission proposes to adopt 
a scale to regulate the respective numbers of 
each breed of neat or horned cattle to be en- 
tered for competition. 

It is assumed that seven hundred (700) head 
will cover all desirable entries; and upon that 
basis will be calculated the number of stalls 
which will be apportioned each breed. 

The scale divides the aggregate number into 
ten parts, and of these, four-tenths (4-10) are 
assigned to short horns, two-tenths (2-10) to 
"Channel Islands, one-tenth (1-10) to Devons, 
one-tenth (l-lO) to Holsteins, one-tenth (1-10) 
to Ayrshires, and one-tenth (1-10) to animals 
of other pure breeds. 

The exhibition in each breed will compre- 
hend animals of various ages, as well as of 
both sexe.s. Draft and fat cattle will be ad- 
mitted irrespective of breed. 

The exhibition of horned cattle will open 
September 20th, 1876, and continue fifteen 
days. 

It is desirable that all persons who contem- 
plate exhibiting, will make application for stalls 
without delay, and if necessary at a later day 
such applications can be amended. 

Inquiries may be addressed to the Chief of 
the Bureau of Agriculture, International 
Exhibition, Philadelphia. 



A Mineral Paste.— A French chemist pre- 
pares a mineral compound of paste, which is said 
to be superior to hydraulic lime for uniting 
stone and resisting the action of water. It be- 
comes as iard as stone, is unchangeable by 
the air, and is proof against the action of acids. 
It is made by mixing together nineteen pounds 
of sulphur and forty-two pounds of pulverized 
stoneware and glass; this mixture is exposed 
to a gentle heat, which melts the sulphur, and 
then the mass is stirred until -it becomes 
thoroughly homogeneous, when it is run into 
molds and allowed to cool. It melts at about 
120^2 Cent., and may be re-employed without 
loss of any of its qualities whenever it is de- 
sirable to change the form of an apparatus, by 
melting at a gentle heat and operating as with 
asphalt. 

Chiming Clock.— A large clock, striking tjie 
hours, and playing the Cambridge chimes, has 
just been placed in the parish church at Syston 
Leicestershire. The movement i« a good spe 
cimen of mechanical skill, having all the latest 
improvements, including Denison's double 
three-legged gravity escci^ement. Mr. Smith of 
Derby, has carried otit tli« work. 



Horizontal Grain Elevator. 

The Chase elevator has been invented just in 
time for California— just in time to destroy the 
only real objection to handling grain in bulk 
that has ever existed -namely the cost of build- 
ing elevators on the old plan, and the rapidity 
with which the foundations built in our waters 
are destroyed. This real objection being de- 
stroyed, all the false fabrications built to serve 
private interests— such as the changing of grain 
in vessels, the disinclination on the part of in- 
surance companies to insure grain in bulk, amd 
the liability to heat or sweat in crossing the 
tropics — will soon fall to the ground, and 
a great load of expense will be lifted from 
the shoulders of the grain producers of the 
State. 

The Chase elevator is just in time for Cali- 
fornia for another reason. The Granger's Busi- 
ness Association are now contemplating the 
building of warehouses at important shipping 
points, for the purpose of receiving, shipping 
and storing grain, and they will undoubtedly 
adopt the Chase plan of elevating or handling 
the grain in all of them. Should they do so 
the farmers themselves will have the problem 
of how grain shall be handled and shipped en- 
tirely within their own hands. They will at 
least dispense with sacks in conveying their 
grain to and storing in their warehouses, and 
will thus throw the expense of sacking upon the 
shipper. This being done, we shall hear no 
more of inability to find insurance or of wheat 
sweating. 

To give our readers a plain idea of many ad- 
vantages of the Chase elevator we will give a 
brief description of the invention: 

First, however, we will state that there are in 
the State of Illinois already eight of these ele- 
vators in use; in Iowa, thirteen; in Minnesota, 
seven; in Nebraska, two; in Kansas, three; in 
Missouri, two; in Kentucky, one; and in 
Indiana, three; and it has been but about 
three years since the first one was built. The 
Chase plan consists of a series of grain bins, 
built directly upon the ground, arranged in 
double rows on both side of a passageway, in 
which passageway is a double line of convey- 
ors—one line placed above the top of the 
bins for distributing the grain to the bins, 
and the other line placed below the bins for 
taking the grain out for shipment. The plan 
can be adapted to the crowded city or to the 
way station. The grain is moved by screws, 
on the same principle of the screw of the steam 
propeller. The screws are worked by steam. 
The expense of building an elevator on the 
Chase plan of a given capacity is but about 
one-third that of building on the old plan. The 
transfer houses, with six weigh hoppers and 
engine, and elevating machinery, with a capac- 
ity for unloading and loading 100 car loads a 
day, cost in the Atlantic States about $8,000, 
and the house is so conveniently arranged that 
but one high priced man need be employed 
about the building, and his work may be all 
on the ground floor. Without going off of this 
floor he can superintend the loading and un- 
loading of the cars, inspect the condition of 
the cars, inspect the grain as it comes in and 
as it goes out, draw all the slides and spouts, 
attend to the weighing and disposition of the 
grain, make all the original entries and records 
in his books, and all without leaving a room 
twenty feet square. With this system, and a 
man of ordinary intelligence, mistakes are im- 
possible. In the old plan of elevators, super- 
intendents and weighers and bookkeepers have 
to be employed all over the building to avoid 
mistakes and keep the work going on in good 
order. The store bins are set directly on the 
ground and in the rear of the transfer houses, ' 
and railroads connect the bins with the trans- 
for houses. 

Receiving houses at way stations, with a ca- 
pacity for storage of 30,000 to 100,000 bushels, 
and machinery for loading twenty-five to fifty 
cars a d£iy, operated by a small engine, cost in 
the Atlantic States, all complete, for ten cents 
per bushel on the storage capacity. Now, if 
the Grangers of this State were to adopt this 
plan of elevators for their general warehouses, 
and in conjunction with them build local ware- 
houses in all the grain diaiilcts and furnish 
them with elevators, and thus prepare them- 
selves lor handling all their own grain iu bulk, 
they could in a very short period of time pro- 
duce a complete revolution in the whole grain 
movement of the State on the land, and right 
upon the heels of this revolution would follow 
another, the shipping of all wheat out of the 
State iu buYk.— Record- Union. 

Curious Fact.- Friction impedes the pro- 
gress of the railway train, and yet it is only 
through friction that it makes any progress. 
This apparent paradox is explained when we 
remember that by reason of the frictional bite 
of the drivers upon the track, they draw the 
train. The bearings of the wheel upon the rails 
are a mere line where they come in contact, 
iroB and iron, yet this slight and almost imper- 
ceptible hold is sufBoient to move hundreds of 
tons of dead weight with the speed of the wind. 

A Living Raft.— The leaves of the gigantic 
water lily known as the Victoria Jiegia, in the 
Botanic Garden at Ghent, having attained a re- 
markably large size, Mr. Van Hulle, the chief 
gardener, recently undertook to determine their 
buoyant power. One leaf easily supported a 
child, and did not sink under a man. Mr. Van 
Hulle then heaped bricks over ita entire area 
and found that, before the leaf became Bub- 
merged a weight of 761 lbs was floated, 



36 



[July 17, U875 



pifRQlf^ %t ||bPMBHI. 



THE HEADaiTARTEBS of the California 
State Grange are at No. 6 Liedeadorff street, in rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 415 California 
street Ban Francisco. 



Orange Clubs for the Bural. 

The Secretary (or pome other Patron) is invited to 
act as club agent for the Pacific Kubal Pbesb in every 
Grange. Circular and san pie copies sent free. Five 
or more names will constitute a club, at the rate of $3 
a year. No new Bubscriptions will be taken without 
payment in advance. We will pay the postage after 
January lat. 1875. All club subscriptions in Granges 
ahould end on the last day of the month. Old eub- 
icribers may join the club by paying the Secretary up 
to club dates. Every Patron farmer fhould read a 
reliable agricultural paper. We need the support of 
•11 on this coast. Help the Secretary (or club agent) 
to make up a large list in your neighborhood. Don't 
delay. 

Secretaries will be supplied with a printed list of 
Buscribers for this paper upon sending a list of thc\r 
offices within the range of their Grange. Also with 
blank reporte, etc., for clubs. 

Orange Directory.— A full list of officers of the 
State Grange, Deputies, names of Councils, Subordi- 
nate Granges, Masters and Secretaries will appear in 
this department on the last Saturday of this month. 

MaKUAL of JtrRlBPRUDENCE AKD CO-OPERATION OF THE 

P. OF H.— This valuable work of 200 pages, by A. B. 
Smedley, Master of Iowa State Orange, should be read 
by every patron. Price, $1.25. Now on hand at this 
office. 



The Mission of the Grange. 

The Massachusetts Bailroad CommiBsioners 
recently, in effect, complimented and endorsed 
the Grange movement in their admission that 
it has established three important principles, 
viz. : The accountability of railroads to the 
public, as well as to their stockholders; the 
necessity and advantage of dealing equitably 
■with all men; and the existence of a broad dis- 
tinction between a railroad corporation and a 
manufacturing company. 

Public opinion and the courts have not in 
every locality as yet come up fully to this ad- 
vanced position; but time and the spirit of pro- 
gress will soon bring the entire country, with 
all its judicial and legislative institutions, fully 
abreast of the position assumed by these 
farmer reformers. 

The Grange movement has also produced 
other decided changes for the better, such as 
greatlj diminishing the number of middlemen; 
breaking down the intensity of political par- 
tisanship, and ia introducing more thinking 
and more sociability into farm life. 

The reduction in the number of middlemen 
has not only added to that of the producing 
classes, but it is also enabling the producers to 
Bf cui« better returns for their products without 
any additional cost to the consilmers. By a 
reduction in the number of middlemen, and by 
substituting those whose iaterest is made 
identical with the producers, the farmer is 
brought into more direct contuct with tjoth the 
consumer and the manufacturer, whereby he 
is benefited in two ways with ab^lute lots to 
no one; for the middleman, who is constrained 
by the exigencies of business to change his 
activities and become a producer, is not only 
benefited in person, but confers a vastly greater 
benefit upon the public by his change of avo- 
cation. 

One of the greatest and one of the most 
akrming evils growing out of our peculiar 
political institutions has been the force of party 
discipline, by which, heretofore, a few individ- 
uals iu any county or State have been able to 
control the political destinies of the same. It 
is one of the leading principles of every true 
Patron to ignore party rule, and to think and 
act for himself — to support for office none but 
good and true men. The firm and faithful ad- 
herence to this principle by such a vast body of 
voters has already struck terror into the hearts 
or corritpt politicians, and is introducing a re- 
formatory and «ilf!vatiug influence into Amer- 
ican politics, which is acUnowledged and wel- 
comed by the better portion of all partips. 

'Ihe great change which the Grange has also 
introduced in the way of improved social in- 
tercourse and intellectual eft'ort among farm- 
ers, "starting where still life had prevailed for 
GO long a time," has astonished the nation. 
The isolation of life among farmers has here- 
tofore necessarily impeded thc-ir brain devel- 
opment. The beneficial results of the Grange 
organization in removing this bar to intellect- 
progress is daily becoming more and more ap- 
parent. It is always a good thing to learn to 
think, and such efforts are greatly aided by the 
attrition of mind with mind. While individ- 
ual effort is limited and weak, the power of 
collective mind is boundless and invincible. 
The time has been when people generally, and 
farmers in particular, were not expected to 
think much for themseJves; but that time is 
now fast passing away. The producer, whether 
upon the farm or in the shop, is everywhere 
waking from his long lethargy. The produc- 
ing elements of city and town and country are 
joining hands in the great revival of human 
rights, and in the onward march of material 
social and political progress. 

The way to make the Grange more useful is 
to put more stress on the social and intellectual 
features contemplated. Financial benefits must 
follow in the wake of improvement. 



The Grange and Patriotism. 

[Address delivered before Plymouth Orange, Amador 
county. May 29th, by Ohablks T. Black, lieotorer ol 
JaoksoB Valley Orange.] 

Upon an occasion like this, where citizens 
and friends are together by common consent, 
away from the cares of life to spend a few 
hours together in recreation and social re-union 
around the festive board, it is only meet that 
we should for a short space of time remove 
from our minds the cares and troubles of life 
and concentrate our thoughts upon such views 
and ideas as are adapted to the furtherance of 
human happiness. 

The stream, when it becomes too powerful, 
overflows its banks and spreads desolation and 
devastation in its onward course. Yet, because 
this is so, we eannot do without the pure water 
from the little rivulet that makes glad the for- 
est and field, clothing it in its beautiful garb 
of luxuriant green, where nothing but an arid 
waste existed before. Nor the broad river 
upon whose bosom majestic ships bear the 
commerce of the world. 

For without the performance of their un- 
divided duty and concert of action in bearing 
oceanward the descending rains that God in 
his wisdom sends to us, this beautiful earth 
would be naught but a fetid cesspool, tainting 
the very air with its exhalations and infecting 
it^with pestilence and death. 

Governments are as necessary to the welfare 
and happiness of nations, as breath and food 
and water is to our mortal existence. Yet if 
these governmeuts are not held in check by oppo- 
site forces they soon become despotic and oppres- 
sive, beneath whose mad sway humanity is 
crushed ont and man with his boasted great- 
ness is speedily returned to his primitive de- 
gradation and abandoned to ignorance and 
want. 

Hence we see plainly the broad field 
which lies before us. Self preserva- 
tion being the first law of nature 
we feel ourselves called upon to cease to be 
subjects of pity and want, and awaken from the 
destructive lethargy, arising iu the might of an 
empire, giving a united effort in our own be- 
half, ever bearing in mind that God helps him 
who helps himself. 

Then, seeing that every art, craft or calling 
under the sun have, as we have stated, their 
legitimate associations, organized according to 
their peculiar occupations and wants, put in 
working order so that they may labor as an 
aggressive body in defence of their peculiar 
principles, or simply to hold others in check, 
that their own rights may not be impaired. 

Do not the foregoing tuoughts make it appa- 
rent to every thinking mind that we, as farm- 
ers, have more than a right to organize our- 
selves into an association looking to our own 
peculiar interests? Not simply as a matter of 
dollars and cents, but also in a more noble and 
glorious light, which, if kept steadfastly in 
view, will enable us not only to counteract 
demoralizing forces, but will enable us to steer 
clear of superstition, avoid the rock of preju- 
dice and bring us ont upon the broad ocean of 
prosperity, iu full view of the polar star of uni- 
versal brotherhood. When we let the banner 
inscribed to the Patrons of Husbandry gently 
sway to the breeze and challenge the respect of 
the world. 

But to this end we must have ready bands 
and willing hearts, ever keeping in mind the 
great cardinal virtues, justice, prudence, tem- 
perance and fortitude. For the first of which 
no better rule can be found than the measure 
of every man's own heart. It is that nice 
equability of right which enables us to compre- 
hend the rights of others, without prejudice to 
them or ourselves, so plainly shadowed or set 
forth in the golden rule, which teaches us to 
do unto others as we would have them do to 

US. 

The others are of equal importance, and 
commend us to prudently consider and weigh 
well every thought and word, doing all things 
in season, neglecting no propriety, cautiously 
guarding our passious, that no intemperate act 
may cause our friends to blush or fill our hearts 
with regret, thereby building up a fortitude 
which will bid defiance to every obstacle, not 
despising the most humble duties of humanity, 
nor yet elated by any position in which it is 
possible to serve or be served. And in this we 
neither assume nor take upon ourselves any 
new or extraordinary obligations; for these are 
the common duties of mankind and have been 
for all time. But by binding ourselves into 
more intimate relations, thus laboring in solid 
phalanx, we propose to do what no men can do 
separately. 

It is not new for us to make it our duty to 
cultivate in ourselves and our children moral, 
mental, physical and social virtues. We be- 
lieve that it is a great social benefit for us to 
meet together often, as it enables us to devise 
plans and carry them into effect that will mate- 
rially benefit us as an organization. We can 
also lay plans that will have a tendency to ele- 
vate our children socially above the low esti- 
mate under which they are placed by those 
who have had the advantage of atteuding the 
city schools. 

What more noble field of labor can we enter, 
or on what basis can we unite, with a bettor 
hope of reward to ourselves and posterity? 
And more especially on this occasion, when 
such views and ideas constitute the foundation 
upon which our institutions must rest. 



To do this at the present time it has become 
necessary that something of an address should 
be delivered before us, setting forth what the 
Order of P. of H. must labor to accomplish if 
they would fulfill that worthy destiny to which 
they have been appointed. And while we 
deliver this address to the Sisters and Brothers 
of this Order, we are only too happy in the 
pleasure of addressing so many of our fellow 
citizens, whom we hope may see nothing in ns 
to despise, but with hearts overflowing with 
(parity may be constrained to fall into rank 
and labor with us for the common benefit of 
mankind. 

Every class of people in the world, we might 
say, have their societies, the intent of which is 
to exercise a vital influence in favor of their 
peculiar wants. We might refer for examples 
of this kind to the carpenter, the miner, the 
stonecutter, the shoemaker, the pailor, the sol- 
dier and to every laborious occupation under 
the sun, whether on the sea or on the land, for 
they find that in union there is strength. 

These societies are not confined to the poor, 
who like us labor for their bread and earn it by 
the sweat of their brow, but merchants, bank- 
ers, lawyers, doctors, ministers, princes and 
kings all have their peculiar organizations or 
societies, their boards and clubs, where they 
meet together, exchange ideas, discuss plans 
pertaining to their peculiar wants and aims in 
life, and how they can accomplish most with 
least exertion and capital ; and whilst we can- 
not justify all that they may adopt, yet we are 
bound to admit that they are legitimate asso- 
ciations, laboring together for the common 
good of their members. 

Notwithstanding it may be truly said that in 
their aims to benefit themselves they are often 
over zealous, and, to an extent, become the 
oppressors of others. But this is a difficulty 
common to all things by nature — the strong to 
become the masters of the weak. To obviate 
this it becomes necessarj* that the weak adopt 
such measures as will assure them strength ac- 
cording to their necessities. For it is infi- 
nitely better to ctiltivate and thereby strengthen 
the weak than to attempt the destruction of 
the strong. 

He who with a patriotic heart, under popular 
excitement, flies to rescue the banner of his 
country from insult by entering the battle field, 
leading, as it were, a forlorn hope, and laying 
down his life upon the altar of liberty, does a 
great and glorious work for which future gen- 
erations will not fail to reward his name and 
perpetuate his memory with a suitable monu- 
ment inscribed with prose and verse. But 
how much more noble a work does he accom- 
plish for mankind who by his efforts elevates 
them to that degree of perfection, charily and 
self respect that at once places them upon a 
basis far above that of appealing to the cannon 
and the sword. 

Now if he who causes two blades of grass to 
grow where but one existed, is greater than he 
who conquers a kingdom, then he wtio by 
his efforts elevates mankind into a universal 
brotherhood, thereby preventing the necessi- 
ties of war with its train of horrors, is as much 
above hiui who fights and dies for his country 
as the sun that is supposed to rule this vast 
universe is above the satellites which revolve 
around their majestic centers. 

This world of ours is so wide that great re- 
forms are scarcely perceptible even for ages, 
yei because of this we must not cease to labor. 

Now, as every drop of water adds to the 
ocean, so every act and deed of ours, no mat- 
er how small, has an eternal weight that will 
never cease to exert an influence so long 
as the laws of the universe remain unchanged. 

Now suppose that every drop of water in the 
ocean had the power to separate itself from the 
main body and each one to exercise that power, 
the great ocean of mighty water would soon 
dry np. 

So It would be with the human family, were 
all men and women to become perfectly selfish 
and refuse to assist one another ; there would 
be no union of feeing, sentiment or action, the 
fountains of sympathy and charity that 8t. 
Paul says never fail, would instantly be dried 
up and the human family with all its greatness 
would soon cease to exist. 

What we want is less selfishness and vice, 
more sympathy, charity, temperance, and mare 
godliness, more unity of spirit and concert of 
action. No great results were ever acoomplished 
without great hardships. To illustrate this 
more plainly I will refer you to the brave band 
of heroes who composed the old revolutionary 
army. 

Nearly ninety-nine years ago, the Conti- 
nental Congress, composed of only a few score 
of men whose hearts were true as steel to the 
patriotic emotions common to all freemen 
everywhere, assembled in Philadelphia. These 
brave men signed their names to the Declara- 
tion of Independence, which declares in the 
face of King George and monarchs everywhere, 
that " all men are born free and equal, and are 
endowed by their Creator with certain inalien- 
able rights, among which are life, liberty, and 
the pursuit of happiness." These men pledged 
their ' ' lives, their fortunes and their sacred 
honor" that universal litiertv should be estab- 
lished on American soil. They well know that 
a failure would cost them their lives, for their 
relentless foe, King George, did not possess one 
spark of the charity and forgiveness of which 
the very heart and soul of the immortal Wash- 
ington Was filled to overflowing. And with the 
whole brave band of patriots it was liberty or 
death. This brave band of true hearts who 
signed their names to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, were not the only ones who were 
ready to sacrifice their liven on the altar of 



Liberty. For while Congress was disonssilig 
the Declaration, the streets of the city were filled 
with crowds anxious to know what it would do. 

When the old bell ringer rang the bell of the 
state house, as a signal that the bill had passed, 
their joy knew no bounds, bonfires were lighted 
and houses were illuminated. In New York 
the people showed their delight by puUing 
down an immense leaden statue of King George, 
and monldiig it into bullets to fire against his 
soldiers, and in all the cities great joy was 
shown by patriotic demonstrations. But this 
was only the beginning, and although the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence did 
not all live to see their brightest anticipations 
realized, yet their immortal souls, though rest- 
ing iu peace in heaven, must feel the thrill of 
enthusiasm which pervades the breast of every 
true hearted American throughout our republic 
on this the birthday of American independence. 

It is unnecessary for me to state 10 this in- 
telligent audience the vast amount of suffering, 
desolation and death which followed, in order 
to establish on the corner stone of eternity the 
undying principles of liberty, which is, in the 
nature of things bound to last till time shall be 
no more, if we do our duty. 

We are to-day enjoying the benefits and 
privileges vouchsafed to us by the old soldiers 
of the revolution, who bled, suffered and died 
that we might live in peace and happiness. 

We, the Patrons of Husbandry, are banded 
together to fight against a stronger power than 
was ever possessed by kings or monarchs, the 
unmitigated combination of capital to grind 
down and oppress the producing classes of the 
United States. We do not propose the de- 
struction of the power, but merely proti'ct our 
own rights, thereby confining theirs in its 
legitimate sphere. We do not expect to ac- 
complish our purposes without depriving our- 
selves of some conveniences; we must work, 
and watch, and wait. We need the assistance 
of all good Qien. Come to the rescue if yon 
are satisfied that we as an organization are 
striving to regain rights which properly and 
justly belong to the farmer everywhere. The 
concentration of capital in the bands of a few 
men leads directly to aristocracy, and we have 
only to refer to the present history of Europe 
to sea the inevitable result. There the toiling 
millions must live in want and misery to main- 
tain in influence the princely land owners and 
money brokers. Will we, as American free- 
men, wilfully neglect our own rights and allow 
them to be legally taken from ns by this mon- 
eyed power? We say no. 

Now, just let us look and see what encroach- 
ments nave already been made. As the farmer 
yokes his cattle or harnesses his horses and 
works them to his wagon or his plow, and teaches 
them to do his bidding, so the farmer does the 
bidding of the leading politicians; and by this 
means legislation has been so shaped as to take 
many of our rights from the farming commu- 
nity and place them on the other side. To il- 
lustrate this, I will only refer you to the Wall 
street ring, that to-day controls the value of 
the currency of our country, to say nothing of 
the doings of the railroad, grain and wool 
rings or monopolies. 

In conclusion, it may only be necessary to 
state that the foundation of our institution 
rests on the broad principles of the nniversal 
brotherhood of mankind, temperance, charity, 
prudence and godliness. In thi.s let ns all 
unite; placing our confidence in the wisdom 
and goodness of the Almighty, and having 
faith in the perpetuity of our glorious republic. 
And when in another short year the great Cen- 
tennial or one hundredth birthday of .American 
independence arrives, let us all unite with will- 
ing hands and patriotic hearts to celebrate it as 
the occasion deserves. I have already detained 
you too long and will close by thanking you 
kindly for the attention you have given me. 



From the Granges. 

Elk Grove Grange. 

Messbs, Editors:— As the opening month 
dawned, many festive throngs were iu anticipa- 
tion, where happy faces were to greet each 
other and pass the holiday together. We may 
first refer to the festal gathering at Elk Grove 
hall, lately erected by the spirit and energy of 
the "followers of the plow," a suitable and 
commodious one, there to spend a social eve, 
and gather facts and points practically gained 
through the daily events as they pass; a school 
of thought, reflection, and ideas; one of social 
gathering of sexes, where the wife, mother, 
father, daughter and son may engage. Thoughts 
may not be brought out in a polished style, but 
the point, though rough, may be easily under- 
stood, and in time the rough edges may be 
smoothed down by common practice. 

The third of July opened and many assem- 
bled from all quarters at Beach's grove, at 
Freeport, and spent the Fourth in good style. 
An oration was given — here and there groups 
assembled under the shade of oaks, with baskets 
laden, enjoying themselves in regular picnic 
style — with various plays, the day was enjoyed 
by all. 

The Fourth occurring on the Sabb:ith, no 
demonstration was given till the fifth, except a 
boat excursion up the river. The fifth broke 
with a cannon roar. A south breeze cooled the 
atmosphere, and a pleasanter day could not he 
had. Many who kept the third enjoyed the fifth, 
engaging in two Fourths in one year. The 
principal feature of the celebration was the 
Grangers' turn out, as they constituted the 
main assemblage; still it was far from the main 
strength of the district. Q. R. 

Elk Orove, Sacranento county. 






July 17, 1875. J 



37 



In El Dorado County. 

Messes. Editobs: — The Grange meeting ap- 
pointed at Plaoerville, Monday evening, July 
5th, and the afternoon meeting, on the 6th, at 
Coloma, the site upon the South fork of the 
American river, ■wh6re the celebrated old Sutter 
mill stood, which has given its name to their 
flourishing Grange, came off in due time. They 
•were largely attended, and illustrated, as did 
the gathering of the 3d, the earnest love for 
our Older, confidence irtits bright future and 
final success, devotion to its purposes, and 
eagerness to learn and correctly apply, in every 
■way, its pure and liberal principles, which I 
must in truth say, characterize peculiarly the 
many fellow Patrons I met in this 

Attractive and World Renowned 

IRegion of our Sierras. 

Before visiting our friends there, I was well 
aware of the great yield and reputation of its 
placer and quartz mines, since gold was first 
discovered in the old Sutter mill race, by John 
Marshall, in September, '47; I was aware that 
the first Grange on the Pacific coast was organ- 
ized by A. A. Bailey, at Pilot hill, formerly 
Oenterville, in that county, the date of which 
was August 10th, 1870; but I had no idea that 
its agricultural interests were so great or rep- 
resented by so large a proportion of its people as 
I found them to be, either in conjunction with, 
or now succeeding its vast mining interests. 

But now almost all available space in the 
valleys and glens, along the mountain sides and 
nipon the hilt tops, where the soil is not still 
scarred or l«ft bare by the sluice and hydraulic 
methods of the gold hunters to the granite bed- 
rock, apiculture asserts its useful and peaceful 
sway, as tha rightful heir and coworker of the 
gold mining, which first peopled its deep and 
beautiful valleys, and which is still conducted, 
among its richer deposits, on an extensive scale. 

About Placerville, Diamond springs, El Do- 
xado, Granite hill and Coloma are considerable 
faacts of what they term 

"Made Land." 

These tracts, which they claim to be their 
most productive soil, are made by putting 
dams across their gulches or small ravines. 
Streams used for mining on higher levels are 
allowed to empty their contents into the reser- 
voirs thus formed, and the earthy deposit, or 
silt, or tailings, as miners call it, fill the space 
to a level with the top of the dam in a remark- 
ably short time. 

Oae of Ihe most interesting examples of this 
which I had an opportunity to examine, is a 
garden-spot of good size, on the valuable place 
ot Brother Francis Veercamp, at Granite hill, 
.a few miles from Coloma. This land was 
■^'made" oniy last year, and now he has upon 
it as good a vegetable garden as I saw in the 
county. Two other noteworthy facts I learned 
on his ranch. After our heavy and unusual 
rain a month ago, his soil was so thoroughly 
wet that he summer fallowed about 10!) acres, 
to sow in wheat and barley next fall, before 
the winter rains set in. The valley in which, 
he lives produces both of these crops well. 
They inform me they have never had a failure 
yet. Brother V. showed me some as good 

Elump wheat, variety, "Pride\)f Butte," raised 
y him this year, as'l have seen in this State. 
By this process of remaking soil, many spots 
which mining long since made rough and bare, 
are now being refilled with 

Sedimentary Deposits 
For farming purposes. Until farmers here 
have of late begun to secure government pat- 
ents for their land, miners who have adjoining 
claims have so disregarded their pos^assory 
titles, that they have materially injured some 
farms by tearing up the surface in search of 
gold. But as soon as farmers get legal posses- 
sion, they restore as much soil as possible and 
occupy all the sur^ce with grain and hay 
fields, orchards, vineyards, gardens, alfalfa and 
clover pastures, in preference to removing the 
soil, where they might, if they chose, still se- 
cure much of the precious metal. This thought 
brings me to the second fact, which is, that 
the farm above mentioned is really underlaid 
by gold deposits of considerable value known 
to exist there, but still undisturbed. Why is 
this? Why not now tear up this surface'and 
make it an unseemly waste, like so much in 
its neighborhood, in 

The Mad Search (or Gold 
To which every other consideration had to 
yield long after "the diys of "49," whose magio 
spell brought tens of thousands to these and 
ueighlioriug valleys, in spi e of all hardships 
and pnvations? As rich deposits are known 
to exist here as many which were unearthed in 
dtiys gone by. But the farmer owner now 
reasons in this way: To get the goW which 
lies buried there, I must destroy the value of 
the land. It gives up its wealth to me but 
once, and then is useKss. But year after year, 
if well culiivated for grain, and fruits and veg- 
etables, it yields me rich returns. The farm, 
well tilled and improved, is ever increasing in 
value. I prefer it in this form, as a permanent 
home for my family, to such a mine of gold as 
it oonld become for a time. 

Yo»r readers will see irom this example, how 
true it is, that iu many of our mountain dis- 
tricts, wgrioulture is, with its permanent influ- 
ences, bleadily 

Taking the Place of Mining, 
And really aiding, as a coworUer, in develop- 
ing the richer deposits of the precious metals. 



We see this illustrated in the splended 
orchards and vineyards cultivated in tbe charm- 
ing valley in which Coloma is situated. Here 
on the Weimer place, where the Weimer family 
and Mr. Marshall lived, at the time the latter 
first discovered gold, and now owned by E. M. 
Smith, a member of Sutter Mill Grange, I saw 
the 

First Six Peach Trees 
There were ever grown in this county. I have 
it on good authority that 1,100 peaches were 
sold from these trees in '55 at one dollar apiece. 
But my letter has grown so long with this in- 
teresting theme that I must reserve some other 
items for another letter. J. W. A. W. 

Eoseville, Placer county, July 12th, 1875. 

Grange Decisions. 

By the Mastees and Executive Committees 
or THE National Geangb. 

fVfe select from the "Patrons' Parliamentary Guide" 
(official), tlie following decisions, as those most likely 
to be of interest to Patrons generally. We publish 
them as revised and adopted at the 8th annual session, 
Feb.. 1875. Every Master should examine the "Guide" 
and the amendments and the additions thereto through- 
out. They can be obtained free on application to the 
Secretaries of State Granges.] 

[Continued from page 20, volume 10.] 

104. Officers of Subordinate Granges, except 
Masters and their wives, who are Matrons, are 
amenable to their respective Granges; officers 
of State Granges are amenable to the Master 
and Executive Committee of the State Grange, 
in the interval between the sessions of the 
State Grange, subject to appeal thereto. 

105. If a Master of a Subordinate Grange re- 
fuses to obey the by-laws of his Grange or his 
conduct is prejudicial to the good of the Order, 
the Grange may present the fact to the Master 
of the State Grange, who, after full investiga- 
tion, may suspend the offending Master until 
the meeting of the State Grange. 

106. In case the Master of a Grange is sus- 
pended the office does not become vacant, to 
be filled by an election, but the Overseer, by 
virtue of his office, acts as Master until final 
action by the State Grange. If the act of sus- 
pension be sustained or the Master be ex- 
pelled by the State Grange, the vacancy thus 
created must be filled by an election. 

107. When any officer (except the Master) 
fails or refuses to properly perform the duties 
of his office he may be suspended or removed, 
after a fair trial, by vote of th,e Grange. 

108. A Grange that refuses to provide itself 
with the necessary regalia is liable to loss of 
its charter for violating the law and usage of 
the Order. 

109. A Subordinate Grange can appeal from 
the State Grange to the National Grange. 

Explanation of Terms, Etc. 

110. "Interested in agricultural pursuits" 
and "engaged in agricultural pursuits," as 
used in the constitution and resolutions of the 
National Granite, mean that a person must be 
engaged in agriculture to a greater extent than 
in any other business, or in other words, his 
leading business must be agriculture. 

111. Agricultural laborers clearly come under 
our requirement, "engaged in agricultural pur- 
suits," and are eligible to membership. 

112. The word "political" in the Constitu- 
tion means partisan politics, and does not in- 
clude or refer to general questions of political 
economy. 

113. IVIembers of our Order have the same 
right to accept civil office as any other persons, 
but it is unlawful for Granges, as such, to take 
political action by making nominations. 

114. A member, cannot bs required to do any- 
thing in conflict with his religious convictions. 
The exemption in the obligation and the ritual 
upon this point only means that whenever a 
member approaches any duty properly required 
of him, and his religious convictions will not 
permit its performance, he can withdraw with 
honor; but so long as he holds a position in the 
Grange, he must perform the duties thereof, 
in accordance with the laws and usages of the 
Order. 

County Councils. 

119. The passwords of the Order are only 
to be used at meetings of the Grange, and, as 
County Councils are not reoognizfed by our 
constitution as Granges, it would be improper 
to use them at their meetings. 

120. County Councils are unknown to the 
Constitution of the National Grange. 

By the Court 0I Appeals. 
ThefolloAing decisions were made by the 
Court of App"nls, at its first session, held 
March 30th, 1875, viz.: 

(57) "Under Section 1, Article 17, of the By- 
Laws of the National Grange, tbe Master of a 
State Grange must first suspend an offending 
Grange, before the Master of the National 
Grange can revoke its charter." 

(58) "The Master of tbe State Grange must 
for.* ard to tbe Master of the National Grange 
notice of such Buspeubion, together with the 
evidence in the cai-e. No charter can be re- 
voked until such evidence shall bd furnished." 

(59) "Past Masters and the wives of Past 
Masters, are not members of the State Grange, 
and cinnot receive the fifth degree therein." 

(60) "A member of a Subordinate Grange 
may appeal from its decision, to the State 
Grange." 

(61) The State Grange may set aside the de- 
cision of a Subordinate Giange, and grant a 
new trial on account of irre^iulirities iu tbe 
trial. ThH case sijould tLeu be remanded to 
the Subordinate Grange lor a new trial." 

(62) "A State GraUj^e cannot order a new 
trial by a tribunal unknown to the Constitution 
or laws of the Order." ^ 



Com. 



In Memoriam. 

The Secretary of Kio Vista Grange sends us 
the following : 

Whereas, Our Divine Master in HR all wise dispen- 
sation has seen fit to call to a higher station above, our 
most worthy Pomona, our esteemed Sister, Mart J. 
Stewart, therefore be it 

Resolved, By the Rio Yista Grange, No. 159, P. of H., 
that in the death of Sister Stewart this Grange has 
lost one of its most worthy and efficient officers, a res- 
pected and beloved Sister, the community and upright, 
Christian woman, and her family a devoted wife, an 
affectionate mother, a cherished daughter and sister. 

Resolved, That we deeply mourn the departure of the 
deceased lady from our midst, both as a neighbor and 
a sister, and that we extend our heartfelt sympathies 
to Brother Stewart, the bereaved husband, in this his 
saddest hour of affliction. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread on the 
minutes of this Grange, and a copy sent to the family 
of our departed Sister, and to the Rural Press for 
publication. 

Miss J. J. Glenn, "1 
E. C. DOZIEE. J 

J. W. Cameron, ) 

Rio Vista, Cal., July 3d, 1875.' 

On July 5th, 1875, the Guenoc Grange 
passed the following resolutions: 

Whereas, Since our last meeting our Worthy Master, 
Thomas Poper, has been suddenly and unexpectedly 
removed by death from among us , and 

Whereas, Brother Soper has died while in the prime 
of his manhood and usefulness, we deem it proper to 
bear our testimony that he was a man of true and hon- 
orable purposes, of generous deed and frank disposi- 
tion, endowed with clear perceptions, faithful in all 
matters of trust, and diligent in his duties as Master of 
Guenoc Grange. Therefore, 

Resolved, That in this afflictive dispensation of Prov- 
idence we feel a special sympathy and sadness arising 
from our past relations with him as fellow laborers: 
and while as a Grange we feel deeply bereaved and 
mourn the loss of his counsels among us, and look 
with sorrow upon his vacant seat, we bow submiss- 
ively to the Divine decree. 

Resolved, That our kindest sympathy Is hereby ex- 
tended to the father, brother and sister of the deceased 
in their bereavement. 

Resolved, That we will drape our Grange room in 
mourning for thirty days, and will in a body follow the 
remains of our Brother to his last resting place. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered on the 
records of our Grange, sent for publication to our 
county Taper and the Edbal Press and a copy be for- 
warded to the family of the deceased. 

Wm. C. Geeenfield, 
Secretary, Guenoc Grange. 




California. 

ALAMEDA. 

A Poll Yield. — Livermore Enterprise, July 
10: Upon every hand the busy header and 
thresher can be seen in our valley. Much of 
the grain is turning out far better than was ex- 
pected before harvesting commenced. In the 
western portion of the valley the yield will be 
above a two-third crop, and in the direction of 
San Ramon a full return will be had. Our 
lookout is not so bad after all. 

New Cbop. — Independent, July 10: During 
the first four days of this week the farmers liv- 
ing in and around Harrisburg, brought 1,700 
bags of grain in to Edmondson's warehouse at 
Warm Springs. Nearly all of it was Chevalier 
barley. 
BUTTE. 

No Peaches. — Record, 10th inst: Gen. Bid- 
well informs us that the peach crop on his 
ranch is an entire failure. We learn that the 
same condition of things exists in nearly all the 
orchards in this neighborhood. 
INYO. 

Want of Pastubage foe Sheep. — Indepen- 
denil, 3d inst: Sheep men seem to be greatly 
troubled to find pasturage for their flocks, and 
while doing so are giving farmers a great deal 
of trouble. Over in Fresno and throughout 
that country farmers have had to organize 
themselves into an armed force to protect their 
crops. A somewhat similar state of affairs is 
said to exist in our county, particularly at 
Bishop creek, 
KERN. 

Ibeigation. — Californian, July 10: Mr. 
J. W. Gist gives us the views of the farmers on 
the Mne of the new canal now being constructed 
by the Stine irrigating company. The canal is 
finished within four miles of Kem lake. It is 
intended to take all the water from Old river 
and furnish the farmers along its banks with a 
never failing supply. Mr. Gist says there is a 
much better feeling among the farmers, and a 
sense of entire security for their crops has 
taken possession of the past uncerialnty. 
LOS AUaELBS. 

Austealian Wheat. — Herald, July 10: We 
were shown yesterday by Mr. J. B. Lanker- 
shim, of San Fernando, a splendid specimen 
of Australian wheat raised on the Van Nuys 
ranch, near San Fernando. It was raised in 
an exceptionally bad season, without irrigation, 
and will yifld a fair crop. Mr. Van Nuys, we 
understand, has about 1,000 acres of wheat li lie 
the sample shown us. With such men as 
Messrs. Lankershim and Van Nuys for h- r 
agriculturists. California will never complain 
of shoit crops. 

MARIN. ^ , o.,_ - 4^ 

A BtJiLDiNG Scheme. — Journal, 8th inst. : 
There i-i some talk of forming an association 
in S m Raf eel to set apart some desiiabfe tract 
of land for residences, improve and beautifv ii 
with flowers and trees '.ud shrubs, and build 
cottage houses, lo be held for sale or lease, ac- 
cording to the demand that may exist. 

MERCED. „ „, . 

The Haevkst. — Express, Ju'y 10: The har- 
vest this year, when compared with that of 
other and more propitious years, will be light. 



In traveling from Merced to San Franeieoo via 
rail, we noticed no grain, no, not even in the 
coast counties, which would favorably compare 
with that to be seen in this vicinity. We can 
account for this in no other way than that our 
lands, as a general rule, are better and more 
thoroughly cultivated than those of other sec- 
tions. Our farmers, however, have not as yet 
attained to perfectness in the cultivation of 
their lands, and perhaps will not until after a 
thorough system of irrigation has been inaugu- 
rated in this valley. 
MONTEREY. 

Good Ceops. — Democrat, 10 inst. : From all 
quarters, we hear that the crops of this valley 
will prove to be good. Money has been tight 
in business quarters, but the prospect now is 
that the purse strings will be relaxed. 

NAPA. 

The Fiest New Wheat. — Begister. 3nly 10: 
The first new wheat brought into Napa this 
season was received at the Vernon mills yester- 
day (July 6th) from Mr. E. W. Robinson, of the 
Trancas, just above town. It is large kernel 
and very clean, but a little pinched, from the 
effects, probably, of early hot weather. 

Thk inachinery for the fruit dryer is all in, 
and it will be started up for trial this week. 
PLACER. 

The Geape Ceop. — Argus, July 10: The grape 
crop in and around Auburn this year will be 
immense, far exceeding the crop of any former 
year. 

G. Geiffith, of the Penryn quarries, is pol- 
ishing and fixing up an urn from the granite 
taken out of his quarry, which will be placed 
upon exhibition at Philadelphia during the 
days of the Centennial next year. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Ceops Damaged. — Antioch Ledger, July 10: 
The high tides of this week have again proved 
disastrous to the lower end of Sherman Island. 
The levee is insufQcient on the Sacramento 
side and it would seem almost impossible that 
one can be constructed, at least in accordance 
with the present system of leveeing, that will 
protect the land from overflow. Farmers havs 
been most unfortunate in having their crops of 
hay and grain destroyed and many of them will 
be heavy losers. Fortunately this does not 
embrace that portion lying east of Mayberry 
slough. This slough extends nearly across the 
island, and as a natural embankment has been 
formed by deposits of sand on either side, the 
land has not flooded from this stream at the 
highest water. The half mile between the 
head of the slough and the Sacramento river 
would naturally admit the waters of the lower 
end of the island had not the settlers thought- 
fully thrown up a levee, which is all that keeps 
the water in check. 
SAN BENITO. 

Ceops. — Advayice, 10th inst. : Harvesting is 
being prosecuted with vigor in every part of the 
county. The straw is short and light, but the 
grain is generally plump and well developed. 
It is confidently asserted by the farmers that 
the gross yield will amount to fully two-thirds 
of tha crop of last year. 
SANTA CRUZ. 

New Wheat. — Watsonville Pajaronian, July 
8: Chas L. Thomas, of the Watsonville mills, 
informed us that on Monday, July 5th, he re- 
ceived two tons of new wheat, grown by Silas 
Twitchell, at San Juan, this arrival being 
three weeks earlier than the season of 1874. 
SAN JOAaXHN. 

The Aveeage Yield. — Stockton Independent, 
10th inst: Farmers with whom we converse 
inform us that the harvest is progressing favor- 
ably, and that the result will fully equal expec- 
tation. While a full crop will not be obtained 
in hardly any locality, yet we have heard of 
not less than half a crop in any portion of the 
county east of the San Joaquin river. Mr. A. 
R. Elliott, near Woodbridge, has completed 
the cutting and threshing of his crop of wheat, 
and the result shows an average yield of twen- 
ty-six bushels per acre. This is on Bunn™e>' 
fallowed ground. In the sam^ ^oignDorhood, 
the yield from around plowed but once is from 
12 to 15 bushels per acre. This may be taken 
as a fair average of the crop on the best lands 
in San Joaquin. 
SOLANO. 

"Fine Pkospeots.— Bio Vista Correspondence 
of Vallej Chronicle, 8th inst. : The harvest is 
ended in this section of the country, except on 
the islands. It is still in full blast there, and 
will continue to be for some time to come. 
Everybody is threshing now who can secure a 
machine. There are seven or eight sti-ara 
threshers in this immediate vicini y, besid s 
some horse-powera. There is a s ra>v buruins? 
engine at work on Mr. Mathei son's ranch; it is 
said to do good work and to meet all expecta- 
tions as to its power. They threshed 4,000 
sacks iu a week not long ago. The yield of 
grain in this locality is far above any expecta- 
tion. It IS said that this is the bent cr.jp in 
these hil s for six years. The ranch-rs are all 
exultant at a prospect of ouoe more being fr e 
Irom debt and able' to paddle their own canoe." 

SONOMA. 

Habvestino.— Petaluma^r-giMS, July 10: Har- 
vesting is going on in the vicinity of EeaMa- 
buig. There will be a good yiddof grain. 
Fruit is of unusually good quality but not so 
abundant as last year. 

The first new wbeat of the season arrived in 
town this morning. It came from the farm of 
Mr. Bowles, two miles from the city. It is of 
good quality and was purcbastd by McOane 
brothers at $1.65 per cwt. 



(Continued on Page 44.) 



38 



i^Atifii mwiij.m i^b^ss. 



[July 17, 1875- 




Farmer John. 

Home from his journey Farmer John 
Arrived this morning safe and sound. 

His black coat off, and bis old clotbes on. 
"Now I'm myself!" eoys Farmer John; 
And he thinks, "I'll look around." 

Up leaps the dog; "Get down, you pup! 

Are you bo glad you would eat me up?" 

The old cow lows at the gate to meet him; 
"Well, well, old Bay; 
Ha, ha, old Gray! 

Do you get good feed when I'm sway?" 

"You have not a rib!" says Farmer John; 

"The cattle are looking round and sleek. 
The colt is going to be a roan. 
And a beauty too; how he has grown! 
We'll wean the calf next week." 
Says Farmer John, "when I've been off. 
To call you again about the trough 
And watch you, and pet you. while you drink. 
Is a greater comfort than you can think I" 

And he pats old Bay, 

And he slaps old Gray; 
"Ah, this is the comfort of going away!" 

"For after all," says Farmer John, 

"The best of a journey is getting homo. 
I've seen great sights ; but would I give 
This spot, and the peaceful life I live, 

For all their Paris and Rome? 
These hills for the city's stifled air. 
And big hotels all bustle and glare. 
Land all houses, and roads all stones. 
That deafen your ears and batter your bones 

Would you, old Bay? 

Would you, old Gray? 
That's what one gets by going away!" 

"There, money is king," says Farmer John, 
"And fashion is queen; and it's mighty quee 

To see how sometimes, while the man. 

Raking and scraping all he can. 
The wile spends every year. 

Enough you would think for a score of wives. 

To keep them in luxury all their lives! 

The town is a perfect Babylon 

To a quiet chap," says Farmer John, 
"You see, old Bay, 
You see, old Gray, 
I'm wiser than when I went away." 

"I've found out this," says Farmer John, 

"That happiness is not bought and sold. 
And clutched in a life of waste and hurry. 
In nights of pleasure and days of worry; 

And wealth isn't all in gold. 
Mortgage and stocks and ten per cent., 
But in simple ways and swaet content, 
Few wants, pure hopes, and noble ends. 
Some laud to till, and a few good friends. 

Like you, old Bay, 

And you, old Gray, 
That's what I have learned by going away." 

And a happy man is Farmer John, 
Ob, a rich and happy man is he; 
He sees the peas and pumpkins growing. 
The corn in tassel, the buckwheat blowing, 

And fruit on vine and tree; 
And large, kind oxen look the thanks [flanks; 

As he rubs their foreheads and strokes their 
The doves light round him, and strut and coo. 
Says Farmer John, "I'll take you, too, 
And you, old Bay, 
And you, old Gray, 
Next time I travel so far away!" 

—J. T. Trouibridge. 



Our Saturday Night. 

Swinging on the Gate. 
Another week nearer home! 
Another blessed Saturday night added to the 
triumph of eternity as it has been snatched 
from time. 

The lover thinks he is one week nearer the 
day when she will be his, to love forever, while 
the sweetheart thanks God that one more week 
has gone from her life of hated unfullillmont! 
The sick sufiftrer who is expecting death, 
thanks God that another seven day veil has 
^'«^«' rflijjoved from before the door we all must 
enter once, ana ...nn/^Ats if another week will 
be all for earth or a part tui Vxiavr^n. 

To-night we walked home, for the cars were 
crowded. We were thinking of the labor we 
had done since the last went and this one 
came. There were so many letters written — 
BO many columns of editorial written— so many 
requests granted and so many refused — so 
many made glad and so many disappointed, 
just as it is in life each day, you know. And 
we were thinking and wondering how many 
thousands or hundreds of persons in the land 
would read this Saturday night what we had 
written and printed since last we closed the 
labors of the week, wiped our pen so clean, 
and placed it on the Uttle rack to rest against 
the morrow. 

As we walked along we saw leaning over a 
little iron gate in front ot a neat brick house, 
a pretty, chubby-faced t)oy, as if waiting for 
some one. Looking to a window, we saw a 
middle aged woman with a paper in her hand, 
as if reading. 

"Hallo, little captain! You are the boy who 
has red cheeks and bright eyes! What are you 
doing here in the cold'/" 

"I am looking for viy papa." 

"Where is he comiug from?" 

"Down town, sir, and he comes afoot," 

"What is your name?" 

"Bobby." 

"How old are you?" 

"Five years, so mamma says." 

"Where is your mamma?" 

"At the window! Don't you see her? I 
tan." 



"Oh, yes— that is her, sure enough!" 

"When does your father come?" 

"He always co»es rww! And I am waiting 
for him, and so is mamma." 

"Well, Bobby, you are a nice little boy. Do 
you love your papa?" 

"Yes, sir." 

"Well, he will come pretty soon. Maybe he 
is stopping to bay something to bring you." 

"I think he is — and he kisses me when he 
comes, and he'll kiss mamma, too, 'cause he al- 
ways does, and I kiss him, and mamma kisses 
him, too !" 

"Well, Bobby, hadn't you better run in 
where mamma is, and look out of the window 
till papa comes. It is cold here !" 

"No sir, — I don't want to ! He'll come, for 
he always comes now .'" 

Just then, down the little one sprang from 
the gate, pushing it open and then scampered 
down the sidewalk a few rods, to meet the one 
he had been waiting for, and one who he knew 
always came now. 

Perhaps some of you saw him. He was a 
well built man, clad in honest garb. His cap 
fitted close to his head— his coat was closely 
buttoned — he caught the little boy to his arms 
and kissed him — then let him down and walked 
along with a proud, firm, muscular step like a 
monarch among men. No wonder the little 
boy swung on the gate — no wonder the wife sat 
looking out the window for this coming. He 
held the hand of the little one who trotted 
along by his side. As they came to the gate, 
by the side of which we stood carelessly, the 
woman at the window arose and walked to the 
door, the man passed by— little Bobby looked 
at us with a smile and said: 

"I tola you he'd come !" 

They passed into the hoase, and we came to 
ours. 

That man is living to a purpose. He is a 
true man, of use in this world. Two hearts at 
least, besides his own were made glad by his 
coming. And he was good not to keep them 
waiting, as thousands and thousands of men, 
and women too, keep their loved ones waiting, 
when the heart is hungry for love, and the 
minutes drag like hours. He was a working- 
man — his hands and bis clothes told us so. 
The week went and came. Not late as if he 
hated to come home, but early, as if his heart 
was there. Little Bobby was proud of him. 
He knew his papa wt)uld come. And with a 
warm, earnest kiss. Little Bobby was happy. 
The father was happy, or his looks lied— and 
they did not. 

Now, we have been thinking till the hands on 
the watch face before us point to midnight. 
What a good world this would be if every home 
had a gate where swing and wait a little one, 
knowing that now papa would come with a kiss, 
a smile and a good hearts 

If at every home, by the window, were seated 
some loving woman and loving wife, waiting, 
not dreading the approach of her husband, 
knowing he would be there on time, quick, 
firm in his step, prompt in his manhood, and 
sober, like one who was a monarch of himself, 
and therefore over all. And all men might be 
80 — can be so if they will. And then what a 
glorious world in which to live ! 

And we have been thinking, and must write 
it before we quit work, of the thousands of 
little boys and girls who might swing for hours 
and hours on gates, of the woman who may 
watch at window for hours, wondering when 
will come — how loitl come — the one who is at 
heart real good, but ■^ho lacks the nerve to be 
the man he ought to be, can be, should be, and 
would be if he would only stop to think, and 
see if there was not a better way to happiness 
than he was in. And we have been thinking 
of the poor widows whose husbands can never 
more to them come, no matter how long they 
watch at windows — of the men whose wives ara 
gone, never to return — of the orphans who have 
no one to come home now and catch them to 
their arms and love them. And we have been 
wondering if any man who reads this will be 
brave enough to go to his home a little earlier 
each night, and try to be a real goed, earnest 
man, who will be proud of himself, of his man- 
hood; ol whom his home ones will be so proud 
as he is so deserving. We know some will, 
and some will think they will, but when comes 
the hour, they will forget as we all do; and in- 
stead of making glad the hearts of those who 
would be so glad to have them come home, 
perhaps not with presents, but like men , sober, 
kind, loving, will wait a little longer, till thus 
their life becomes a failure. 

God bless all who love "loved ones," and do 
not keep them waiting, and all those who suffer 
at heart from the absence of those they dearly 
love, and for whom they wait and watch, and 
watch and wait hours upon hours, till all of 
joy, of hope, of heart, of life, of love has gone, 
as has this Saturday night.— JV^. Y. Democrat. 

Matubitt in grace makes us willing to part 
with worldly goods. The green apple needs a 
sharp twist to separate it from the bough, but 
the ripe fruit parts readily from the wood. 
Maturity in grace makes it easier to part with 
life itself. The unripe pear is scarcely beaten 
down with much labor, while its mellow com- 
panion drops readily into the hand with the 
slightest shake. Best assured that love to the 
things of this Ufe and cleaving to this present 
state are *ure indications of immaturity in the 
divine lite.—Spurgeon. 

Yoc may talk all day long to a girl about this 
beautiful world and its many sources of happi- 
aess ; but if her new bonnet doesn't suit her y«nr 
labor will be in vain. 



Be Your Own Right Hand Man. 

People who have been bolstered up and lev- 
ered along all their lives are seldom good for 
anything in a crisis. When misfortunes come, 
they look around for somebody to cling or to 
lean upon. If the prop is not there, down they 
go. Once down, they are helpless as capsized 
turtles or unhorsed men in armor, and cannot 
find their feet again without assistance. Such 
silken fellows no more resemble self made* men 
who have fought their way to position, making 
difficulties their stepping stones, and deriving 
determination from defeat, than vines resemble 
oaks, or spattering rush lights the stars of 
heaven. Effort persisted iuto achievement trains 
a man to self-reliance, and when he has proved 
to the world that be can trust himself, the 
world will trust him. We say , therefore, that 
it is unwise to deprive young men of the ad- 
vantages which result from energetic action, 
by "boosting" them over obstacle.^ which they 
ought to be able to surmount. No one ever 
swam well who placed his whole confidence in 
a cork jacket, and if, when breasting the sea of 
life, we cannot buoy ourselves up, and try to 
force ourselves ahead by dint of our own ener- 
gies, we are not worth salvage, and it is of lit- 
tle consequence Whether wo "sink or swim, 
survive or perish." 

One of the best lessons a man can give to his 
son is this: " Work— strengthen your moral 
and mental faculties, as you would strengthen 
your muscles, by vigorous exertion. Learn to 
conquer circumstances, you are then indepen- 
dent of fortune." The men of athletic minds 
who have left their marks on the eras in which 
they lived were trained in a rough school. 
They did not mount their high position by the 
help of leverage; they leaped into chasras, 
grappled with the opposing rocks, avoided the 
avalanche, and when the goal was reached, felt 
that but for the toil that had strengthened them 
as they strove, it could never have been 
attained. 



The Woman's Wobld. — Although they may 
may not be willing to acknowledge it, the hap'- 
piness of the race depends to a great extent 
upon women. They regulate the domestic life, 
and upon it, more than upon the great events 
which fill the pages of history, depend indi- 
vidual peace and comfort. Probably few 
things have more to do with the happiness of 
a household than the presence or absence of 
that exquisite tact which rounds the sharp cor- 
ners, and softens the asperities of different 
characters, enabling people differing most 
widely to live together in peace, cheered by 
mutual good offices. The possession of this 
quality is the especial characteristic, and its 
exercise one of the most delightful prerogatives 
of womanhood. We may be willing to lose all, 
to die, if need be, for those we love, but if we 
do not, from day to day, abstain from the 
little unkind or thoughtless acts which inter- 
fere with thtir comfort, we shall utterly fail to 
make them happy, and their hearts will inevit- 
ably escape us. The heroic and magnificent 
acts of life are few. To many but one, to 
most none comes in a lifetime. Therefore in- 
fluence can only come through the right per- 
formance of the "trifles" which "make the sum 
of human things." 



A HoBSE TuBNs A Back Somkesaitlt. — A horse 
in Worcester, Mass., which evidently wished to 
obtain mention in the newspaper, cut up a sin- 
gular caper exactly in front of the GazHU: office 
the other morning. It is a handsome black 
horse, belonging to Tom Sloane, and attached 
to a light tillbury, was trotting smartly along 
at the time'mentioned, when his hind foot slip- 
ped on the pavement and he fell directly back- 
ward, turning a complete back somersault and 
falling flat upon his back, his legs sticking 
straight up in the air, and his head under the 
body of the vehicle. The whole was but the 
work of an instant, and how it was all accom- 
plished was a wonder even to those who saw 
it done. The vehicle was not injured, and 
only two or three straps of the harness were 
broken. 



Mother's Boy. 

Mother, cherish your boy. Respect him and 
encourage him to talk with you. Ask ques- 
tions about things that interest him. Caress 
and kiss him, and prove yourself the best 
friend by showing your love. How is your 
little boy to know that you love him, if you 
never fondle him? If you continually repel 
his advances? 

Many mothers cease to show their love as 
soon as a child is four or five years old. Little 
boys after this get fewer kisses, because fre- 
quently they soil their hands and faces in play, 
and come in noisy, warm and dirty, not just 
the sweet cheeks and lips we love to kiss, and 
instead of putting back the matted curls, and 
with a little cool water bathing the hot face, 
we say, go away with you, dirty boys, I don't 
want to look at you. How much better fold 
him to your heart, kiss him and send him 
away happy. I have not said, indulge your 
boy, but make him love you. 

You need not suffer him to correct yon, when 
older persons are talking. Teach him to be 
silent in company, unUss drawn out by your 
guests, but alone at home, make him your 
companion. If you hold his love till he is 
fifteen, he will always cherish you. Up to that 
age, many boys have little real love or respect 
for their mothers, and the fault lies nearer the 
mother than son. — American Patron. 



Middle Life. — The maid of sixteen, dis- 
appointed in her handsome boy lover, will 
grieve and pine till she is twenty, then deny 
that she ever cared for him. The man whose 
intellect has accumulated a fund of knowledge, 
since the pretty butterfly he once tried to cap- 
ture, has eluded his grasp, now smiles at his 
own folly, and kisses more fervently the beau- 
tifulwoman he calls wife. The many vain de- 
sires to attain to some unthought-of popularity, 
grow weaker as we approach the middle age 
of life. The thought of fame lessens, 
and if religious senitment is developed a 
desire to be good rather than great, becomes 
the motive of action. Self grows less import- 
ant after middle life. 



Qdeeb Bequest. — Among the papers of a 
Capuchin monk, who has just died, was found 
the following will: "I bequeath, first, to the 
Abbe Michaud my breviary, because he doea 
not know his own; second, to M. Jules Favre 
my frock, to hide his shame; third, to M. Gam- 
betta my cord, which will prove useful one 
day around his neck; fourth, to M. Thiers his 
own work, that he may read it over again; and 
fifth, to France my wallet, because she may 
shortly have occasion for one to collect alms." 

AoKicuLTDnAL COLLEGES. — There are thirty- 
eight agricultural colleges in this country, em- 
ploying altogether 389 professors and asvistants, 
and instructing 3,917 Btadents. 



Obigim of the House Flt. — The natural 
history of the fly is similar to that of the well- 
known history of the caterpillar and butterfly. 
Every fly lays about 150 eggs in decaying mat- 
ter, for instance in a dead animal or in fresh 
farm manure — they appear to prefer horse 
dung. It takes only twenty-four hours to hatch 
the eggs; little worms then appear, which live 
on the decaying animal or the decaying dung, 
which is equivalent, and devour it very rapidly; 
hence the saying that a few flies can dispatch a 
dead horse more rapidly than a Uon can. 
Those small worms or larvm pass through three 
stages — which means they change three times 
— in less than a week; then they become pupaj 
or chrysalis, remain so for another week, when 
perfect flies appear; and these after a few days 
lay in their turn some 150 eggs each, which in 
two weeks become flies again, and so on. It is 
no wonder, therefore, their numbers increase so 
rapidly, and that they abonnd where there is 
much decaying animal matter, as is always the 
case in stables and slaughter houses. 

CcTTiNo Flowebs. — Never cut flowers dnring 
intense sunshine, nor keep them exposed to 
the sun or wind. Do not collect them in large 
bundles, or tie them together, as this hastens 
their decay. Do not pull them, but cut them 
cleanly off the plant with a sharp knife — not 
with scissors. When taken in doors, place 
them in the shade, and reduce them to the re- 
quired length of stalk with a sharp knife, by 
which the tubes, through which they draw up 
water, is permitted to ascend freely; whereas, 
if the stems are bruised or lacerated, the pores 
are closed up. Use pure water to set them in, 
or pure white sand in a state of saturation, 
sticking the ends of the stalks into it, but not 
in a crowded manner. If in water alone, it 
ought to be changed daily; and a thin slice 
should be cut off tne ends of the stalks at every 
change of water. 

Attention to the Old. — A little thoughtful 
attention, how happy it makes the old! They 
have outlived most of the friends of their early 
youth. How lonely their hours. Often their 
partners in life have long filled silent graves; 
often their children they have followed to the 
tomb. They stand solitary, bending on their 
staff, waiting till the same call shall reach 
them. How often they must think of absent 
lamented faces ; of the love which cherished 
them, and the tears of sympathy which fell 
I with theirs, now all gone. Why should not the 
j young cling around and comfort them, cheer- 
ing their gloom with happy smiles? 

The Cxtbk Sugab Plantations. — Among the 
sugar plantations recently destroyed by the Cu- 
ban army, is the colossal estate La Carolina, 
the property of Mr. William Stewart of Phila- 
delphia. 'This property, which produced about 
S0,000 hogsheads of sugar annually, was one of 
the most celebated of the island, and was val- 
ued at $'2,000,000. American slaveholders in 
Cuba have been out of luck of late, for the de- 
struction of La Carolina followed quickly after 
that of the sugar estate of Messrs. Bishop, in 
Remedies, and that of Mr. Davis in Macagua. 

Some one calls attention to the fact that the 
awful sacrifice at Holyoke was not owing so 
much to unfaithful building as to the passion 
of the people worshipping there for flimsy 
shows, or a fatal tendency to put light, showy, 
imflammable materials within the reach of 
lighted candles for the purpose of effect. 

When once a concealment or a deceit has 
been practiced in matters where all should be 
fair and open as day, confidence can never be 
restored, any more than you can restore the 
white bloom to the grape or plum that you have 
pressed in your hand. 

Natctbal Law. — "If yon would be holy, in- 
struct your children, because all the good actions 
which they perform will be imputed to you." 
— Sacred writings 0/ the Persians. 

The Wobld deals good-naturedly with good- 
natured people, and I never knew a sulky mit- 
anthropist who quarreled with it, bat it waa he , 
and not it, who was in the wrong.— r/i<J«fc#ray. 



July 17. 1875.] 



39 



A Three Thousand Dollar Bed. 

Such, Bays Hall's Journal, was the price re- 
cently paid by a lady for a single bed. "Most 
extravagant," says one; "what are we comiDg 
to," says another. But it was the lady's own 
money that paid for it, and it was really a 
very fine bed. "Well, what if it was; it was 
certainly a piece of useless extravagance . " Let 
us look for a moment at tne particulars, before 
assenting to such a positive opinion. 

The bed is really a very substantial one, and 
is placed in a very good building; but besides 
being very costly and substantial there are cer- 
tain peculiarities about it, which may possibly 
excuse the extravagance of its cost, and entitle 
the lady purchaser to commendation instead of 
censure. 

The bed is one that will never wear out, and 
it is said that the same house has fifty-four 
other beds just like it ! These fifty-five beds 
are in St. Luke's hospital, on Fifth Avenue, N. 
y., and are for the benefit of those who are 
sick and poor and have no home, nor any 
friend who can give them a helping hand. 
Every $3,000 given to that institution is put 
to safe interest, and the income therefrom de- 
voted to the board, bed, washing, medical at^ 
tendance and everything else needful that the 
money can procure; for any human being, 
young or old, catholic or protestant, who can 
pay nothing. On recovery or death of the oc- 
cupant of this bed, it is ready for the next un- 
fortunate who may apply ; so it will be while 
the country stands. 

The bed will never wear out. Was it too 
costly ? Was it not a noble heart that saved 
and paid that $3,000 for that bed ? Bless the 
women, bless the men who thus deny them- 
selves to bless others ! others whom they never 
knew; but who bear the image of Him who 
was the friend of the poor and suffering and 
who gave His life that they might be saved. 

How Boys ABB Spoiled. — There are few boys 
who are taught modesty at home, made to o^ey 
their parents, taught to respect their elders, 
that would be guilty of what is charged by these 
ladies. Our boys in Antioch are allowed to 
perambulate the streets at late hours of the 
night; they learn to smoke, chew, play cards 
and gamble; they hear all manner of stale 
jokes, slang phrases, rough, vulgar language; 
they at times may be seen in saloons intently 
watching games of chance. These boys, like 
all other children, are great imitators. What 
wonder, then, that they rehearse what they 
have learned? What wonder they use such 
vile language? Home is the place to correct 
these evils, or, rather, the place to keep the 
boys, that they may not come in contact with 
that large class of floating population, to be 
found in every California town, whose words 
are not such as parents wish their children to 
imitate. There is lack of discipline some- 
where, society is too loose; better adopt the 
rigid training of the old Puritan school, and 
grow up good men and women, than to allow 
the children to be contaminated with all the 
vulgarity, obscenity and practices of bad men. 
— Antioch Ledger. 

Make the Little Folks Happt.— "All work 
and no play makes Jack a dull boy," is a very 
old saying, but very true. Too much restraint 
ruins as certainly as too much license. Oh, 
how frigid must be that heart that could turn 
unmoved from the bright faces and joyous 
shouts of mirth, fiom those happy glances, 
and wild stories of the little chatterboxes. One 
jolly good laugh is worth all the long, dismal 
faces ever beheld. If we cannot give relief to 
all who suffer, if we cheer but one little pilgrim, 
we do that much toward making life sweeter to 
the traveler on the road of time. The birth- 
days, Christmas, feast-days and other holidays 
give rest to mind and body, now it is so much 
work, and so little play, that our boys and girls 
are quite fast people. Let us think of some 
days that can be observed by all sects and 
classes; to name one. 



The Wokld's Peace and Wae.— Large stand- 
ing armies are a direct cause of war. Europe 
is now in a state of peace, but there are over 
three millions of men under arms— a standing 
menace to the lives, the property and the high- 
est interests of the entire people. Any three 
of the great powers of the world could by com- 
bination force all other nations to abandon 
war, and submit all matters of difference to 
peaceful arbitration. This will yet be done. 
An International Conference is to be held at The 
Hague, in September, which it is hoped will 
result in something tending to this result. It 
is probable, however, that the worla will have 
to become surfeited with blood first by one 
great conflict. 

The trouble between the Church of Kome 
and the Freemasons dates back- a hundred 
years, when the opponents of the Jesuits formed 
secret organizitions to curry out their plans 
against that body. In self-defence the Jesuits 
denounced all secret organizations, and now 
controlling the Church, still oppose all societies 
that are or may become their rivals. 

A New London lady was recently stupefied 
while riding in a New York horse car, by in- 
baling a new and dangerous drug — nitrate of 
anyl— and robbed of all her valuables. She 
was sitting between two men , and one of them 
passed a muffler over to the other, which con- 
tained the stupefying preparation. 




The Frog at Dinner. 

The long, free, blind tongue of the frog, cov- 
ered with papilte, and muciparious (muous) 
follicles, is the all important instrument for the 
procuration of food. 

It is attached by its apex to the inner surface 
of the under jaw, the base being loose and free 
in the back part of the mouth. A frog will 
never touch any save a living insect, and of 
this fact it requires such positive and conclu- 
sive evidence, that the latter often escapes be- 
fore the former is sufficiently stimulated to 
attempt its capture. 

When once a frog fixes his eye on a lively 
living insect, his whole appearance is suddenly 
changed. The passive sluggish animal of the 
minute before has now suddenly assumed ^the 
aspect of ferocity. 

It it be a fly some distance from the frog, on 
the carpet, the latter, his eyes full of malignity 
and craft, stretches out his limbs to their ut- 
most capacity and creeps towards the insect m 
the most stealthy, noiseless manner possible; 
as soon as he arrives within a certain distance 
of his victim , the tongue is thrown out so rap- 
idly that it escapes detection; but the fly has 
been struck, glued to the tongue by the mucus 
on the surface, and returns with it into the 
frog's mouth. 

The senses of hearing, sight and smell, are 
wonderfully acute in these animals. No one 
would believe that a fly alighting on the surface 
of a carpet would be accompanied by any ap- 
preciable sound, and, so far as our sensations 
are concerned, this is quite true; not so with 
the frog, however; the fly may alight at a dis- 
tant part of the room, and the frog's back be 
turned from that direction, yet he hears it in- 
stantly, turns round, and proceeds to effect its 
capture, in which he very rarely fails ! 

The mode by which a frog is enabled to seize 
its prey, is in this wise: stimulated by the 
sight of it, the tongue becomes injected with 
blood, through the influence of the imagination, 
until it is quite turgid or erect; at this instant 
it can be thrown out and used. The action is 
like letting the back of the hand fall quickly 
from the elbow-joint, without moving the wrist, 
and allowing it quickly to rebound. 

The process requires to be swift, for the 
breathing of the animal is suspended so 'long 
as the mouth is allowed to remain open. 

There is not in nature a more harmless or 
valuable animal than a frog, nor one whose 
presence in gardens should be so much en- 
couraged, for they consume only in.sects, 
spiders and slugs, and the quantity of these 
they destroy is incredible. — Ooadby's Physiol- 
ogy- 

A Little Girl's Exploit. 

Geo. Wells, a wealthy sitizen of Monona 
county, Iowa, lives next door to a very high 
windmill. Mr. Wells has a little eight year 
old daughter, whose curiosity the monster wind- 
mill excited. She wanted to get the nearest 
possible view of it, so she climbed and 
climbed, and never thought how far above the 
ground she was getting. That evening when 
her father came home from a journey to a 
neighboring towu his little pet did not corhe 
out to the gate to meet him as usual; at this he 
wondered. He feared something must be the 
matter with her, but not left long in doubt, for 
a musical voice which he well knew came to 
him from afar, and it seemed from on high. It 
was as if an angel had spoken and the father 
was almost afraid to look up lest he should see 
his darling daughter floating away from him on 
angelic wings. But he did look in the direc- 
tion of the sound, and, to his consternation be- 
held his little girl away up on the side of the 
windmill standing on a ladder just under the 
vanes, and evidently at some loss how to get 
down. The top of the ladier looked not much 
wider than the tines of a table fork, and a slip 
would have occasioned her a fall of one hun- 
dred feet to the ground. The huge vanes were 
revolving rapidly enough to make one dizzy, 
just above her tiny head. The father summoned 
all his presence of mind and treated the situation 
lightly. He shouted to the child "bravo," to 
give her confidence. A cheery little "hurrah" 
came down from above "The father then 
shouted. "Nellie haven't you got it about 
fixed?" "Oh yes, papa" came floatiog from 
the dizzy bight. "Well, then come down, 
dear." The child commenced the descent. It 
Whs a critical moment. A few rounds of the 
ladder would give her confidence. The father 
stood breathless as nearly under the child as 
he could get, thinking he might save her if she 
wer J to lose her grasp and footing. She made 
it in safety, aud acknowledged she was just a 
little bit scared away up there toward the 
heaven, and nobody to pull her in. Nellie's 
father and mother told her never to go so near 
the windmill again and especially not to make 
herself a little tomboy by climbing ladders. 



"The Innocence or Childhood. " — A lady 
took her little four-year-old down town on the 
horse cars, and the man who loves children 
took the little one on his knee. On the return 
trip, the seats were all taken. No gentleman 
moved. "Moder," said bright eyes, " ain't 
somebody wid nossing in their laps going to 
take me up?" There was a scramble for that 
precious one. 



Typhoid Fever— Cause and How to Avoid It 

It being conceded .by every sensible person 
that good health is paramount to all other 
human blessings, we take frequent occasion to 
transfer to our columns practical information 
tending to promote and preserve the blessing 
so essential to all. From the Herald 0/ 
Health, for April, we condense the following : 

The range of what are called preventable dis- 
eases is now known to be very wide, and all 
such diseases it should be the first duty of man 
to prevent. Much of this is not only prevent- 
able disease, but is disease that is called 
into existence only by the act or by the neglect 
of man; audit is not too much too say that 
there has never been a case of typhoid "fever 
that was not almost directly caused by the 
ignorance or by the criminal neglect of some 
person whose duty it should have been to pre- 
vent it. Such disease never comes without 
cause; and its cause is never anything else 
than organic poisoning, arising from organic 
decaying matter or from the spread of the in- 
fection directly from a patient suffering from 
the disease. 

Typhoid fever has many names, all of which 
are suggestive of its origin. It is called "drain 
fever," "sewer fever," "cesspool fever," "foul 
well fever," "nightsoil fever," etc.; and it is 
never caused except by the introduction into 
the system of the germ of the disease — which 
can originate only through the operation of 
neglected wastes, or by communication 
through the lungs or stomach by means of 
foul air or water, or from germs arising from 
the excreta of typhoid patients. So far as its 
contagion is concerned, ample ventilation of 
the sick room and the immediate removal or 
disinfection of the feces are ample preventives. 
It is not contagious, as smallpox is, but is 
spread by the action of germs which infect the 
locality, of the patient, and extend more or less 
widely according to the precautions used to 
confine it. There is not necessarily the least 
danger that the disease will attack even the 
constant attendant of the patient, if proper care 
is taken. With the householder himself rests 
the entire responsibility of the origin of every 
case breaking out in the household. This is a 
responsibility for which the community should 
hold him strictly accountable. 

The spread of typhoid is very generally occa- 
sioned by germs contained in the bowel dis- 
charge of fever patients; but the disease is con- 
stantly originating itself where no such cause 
exists, and every first attack is a plain indica- 
tion that either at home or in some house at 
which the patient has visited, one or two 
things has occurred: (1) There has been an ex- 
halation of poisonous organic gases from a 
kitchen yard or from a neglected cellar, or 
from some other sou,rce of bad air, which has 
entered the lungs and planted there the germs 
of the disease; or (2) either in the food or in 
the drink of the patient, these germs, origina- 
ting in the same organic putrescence, have 
found their way to the stomach. 

In either case the blood is attacked; the sub- 
ject may have been sufticiently robust and vig- 
orous, or sufficiently unsusceptible to infec- 
tion, to have avoided a serious or fatal illness; 
but in every instance the danger has been in- 
curred, and, when incurred, the danger must 
be the same as in taking any other form of 
slow poison. This in not theory, but simply a 
well established fact, demonstrated by long, 
careful and frequently repeated investigation. 

This being the case, it lies directly within the 
province of every farmer to remove, while it is 
yet time, any source of infection to which his 
house may be lia!ile. Vegetables in any con- 
siderable amount should not be kept in the 
house cellar, and at least once a week the floor 
of the cellar should be swept and every shred 
of waste vegetables removed. Even when this 
is done, the cellar should be ventilated by a 
window or other small opening toward the 
quarter least exposed to cold winds (»^il in 
summer on every side) ; the privy, if a privy is 
used, should be well away from «he house, and 
especially far from the well, unless its contents 
are received in a fight box and entirely absorbed 
by dry earth or ashes, and even then frequently 
removed; the chamber slops of the house 
should never, under any circumstance, be 
thrown into the privy vault, nor into a porous 
cesspool, from which they can leach into the 
ground and through the ground for a long dis- 
tance into the well, or into and around the 
foundation of the house. The same disposal 
of the liquid wastes of the kitchen is desirable, 
but not so absolutely important. It is, how- 
ever, important that this should be led by au 
impermeable drain to a point well away from 
the house and from the well; swill and all man- 
ner of nondescript refuse material, such as is 
sloughed off by every household in the ordin- 
lary course of its living, should be removed at 
east daily from the near vicinity of the dwell- 
ing, and the vessels in which it accumulates 
should be frequently cleansed and aired; ma- 
nure heaps should not be left to ferment and 
send off their exhalations at a point whence 
frequent winds waft them toward and into the 
dwelling, nor should the barnyard be allowed 
to drain (either over the surface or through a 
porous soil) toward the house or weU. 

If all these points are well attended to, and 
if the ordinary rules of cleanUnees be observed 
in the household, the members of the family 
may be oonsidored as safe against attacks ©f 
typhoid fever. 



Esyic Ec®fi0|i«Y,^ 



The Value of Eggs for Daily Food. 

Would it not be wise to substitute more eggs 
for meat in our daily diet? About one-third of 
the weight of an egg is solid nutriment. This 
is more than can be said of meat. There are 
no bones or tough pieces that have to be laid 
aside. A good egg is made up of ten parts 
shell, sixty parts white and thirty parts yolk. 
The white of an egg contains eighty-six per 
cent, water, the yolk fifty-two per cent. The 
average of an egg is about two ounces. Practi- 
cally an egg is animal food, aud yet there is 
none of the disagreeable work of the butcher 
necessary to obtain it. The vegetarians of 
England use eggs freely, and many of these 
men are eighty and ninety years old, and have 
been remarkably free from illness. Eggs are 
best when cooked four minutes. This takes 
away the animal taste that is offensive to some, 
but does not so harden the white or yelk as to 
make them hard to digest. An egg if cooked 
very hard is difficult of digestion, except by 
those with stout stomachs; such eggs should be 
eaten with bread and masticated very finely. 
An egg spread on toast is fit for a king, if 
kings deserve any better food than anybody 
else, which is doubtful. Pried eggs are less 
wholesome than boiled ones. An egg dropped 
into hot water is not only a clean and whole- 
some but a delicious morsel. Most people spoil 
the taste of their eggs by adding pepper and 
salt. A little sweet butter is the best dressing. 
Eggs contain much phosphorous, which is sup- 
posed to be useful to those who use their brains 
much. — Poultry Review. 

Akkanging Fqenitubb. — In arranging furni- 
ture about a room, bear in mind that it is not 
necessary to push every article primly out to 
the sides, so that sofas and chairs look as if 
they were glued to the wall. Pull them out; 
put a sofa across one corner; stand the big easy 
chair in the light, with a little table close by, 
handy for sewing or books; leave a chair or two 
in front of the sofa; and in general so dispose 
the articles that the room shall not appear as 
if its owners never entered it save on ceremo- 
nial occasions. Whether a room is pleasing 
and cozy or not does not depend upon the 
elegance or costliness of its fittings. The sim- 
plest f urnitmre, if tastefully arranged as regards 
color and position, often looks better than the 
handsomest products of the cabinet maker's 
skill. 

Cakving. — Fifty years ago the art of carving 
was regarded by the nlost polished society in 
England and in this country as the indispensa- 
ble accomplishment of every lady who had to 
preside at the head of her table. It was a re- 
flection upon her fitness for that post to say 
that she managed the carving knife with little 
skill, or was ignorant of the choice parts of each 
dish. Fashion has changed all that, and the 
office of carving is now assigned chiefly to gen- 
tlemen; but there is no reason why ladies 
should not know all the niceties of the art, 
and be able, when circumstances require to 
preside with ease and skill at the head of the 
table. A good carving knife, fork and steel 
renders this office a pleasure to the accom- 
plished carver. 

How TO Take Caee or Fubs. — Ladies, it has 
been remarked, as a general rule, imagine the 
care of putting away furs is all that is required; 
they think they can wear them when and where 
they please, provided they expend a few pence 
for camphor when they lay them aside. This 
idea should be corrected . More harm is done to 
furs by wearing them a week after the weather 
has become warm, than during a whole cold 
season. When they are put aside they should 
be brushed the right way with a soft brush, an 
old linen handkerchief folded smoothly over 
them, and a piece of gum camphor kept in the 
box all the time, to scare intruders in the shape 
of moths. 

Celekt Salad.— -^i^^p on» ~r'"^"i ^'.^ed 
head of cab^»H<» >^^i tl^ree bunches of celery 
very tine. Take one teacup of vinegar, a 
lump of butter the size of an egg, one tea- 
spoonful of mustard, one of cayenne pepper and 
two of sugar, and the yolks of two eggs. Mix 
well and beat, stirring constantly until it 
thickens. When cold, add two tablespoonfuls 
of rich sweet cream and pour over your salad. 

Tapioca Tarts.— Soak four tablespoonfuls 
of tapioca over night in water sufficient to 
cover. Add one pint of cold water and simmer 
gently until clear and thick, stirring ia two 
tablespoonfuls of white sugar mixed with one 
tablespoonful of lemon juice. If not sweet 
enough add more sugar. Lemon extract can 
beu8°ed instead of juice. Fill paste crusts, 
sprinkle crimson sugar over and bake. 

Orange Pie.— Grate the peel of one fresh 
orange; take the pulp aud juice of two largo 
oranges; add to them one cup of sugar and the 
beaten yolk of three eggs; mix one cup of milk 
with the whites of the eggs beaten to a stiff 
froth. Ba ke in puff paste. 

To Cleanse a Cbapb Shawl.— Wash it in 
warm suds made of, white soap dissolved, rub 
the spots gently so as not to injure the texture, 
rinse in blue water and twice in lukewarm 
water, and pin to dry, 

Geeman Battbp. Cake.— a Tomales corre- 
spondent enquires for a good receipt for Ger- 
man batter cake. Who can furnish it? 



40 



^j.§fFi§ mwmAS ipmissa. 



[July 17, 1875. 




FCBLISHKC BX 
*, T. DZWK1. W. B. EWEB. O. B. STBOKa. I. L. BOOKS 



Prihoifal Editob. 



.W. B. EWER, A. M 



OmcB, No. 221 BaDBOme street, Boutbeast corner of 
OalUomia atieet, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our Boiiirnno Pbebs, Patent Agency, Engraving and 
Printing eBtabllshment. 

SCBBOBirnoNs payable In advance— For one year, W; 
■Ix months, $2.25; three months, $1.26. Kemittances 
by regiatered letters or P. O. orders at our risk. 
Advebtibikq Rates.— 1 loeei. 1 month. 3montht. I year 

Perilne 25 M $2.00 $5.00 

One-halfinoh $1.00 $3.00 $7.60 24.00 

Onelnch 2.00 6.00 li.OO 40.00 

Large advertisements at lavorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or In particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 



Sample Copies. — Occasionally we send copies of this 
paper to persons who we believe would be benefited 
by BubscribiDg for it, or willing to asfcist us in extend- 
ing its circulation. We call the attention of such to 
our prospectUB and terms of subscription. 



r*o Qua<;l<: A-clvertlsemeiits Inserted 
tn tlxese coluiuns. 



SAN FRANCISCO 

Saturday, July 17, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OBNBE All EDITOKIALS.— An Improved Caul- 
dron; The Editorial Visit; A Fall Apple; San Fran- 
cisco and Tropical Fruits, 33. The Annual Grain 
Circular; Eradicating Alfalfa; The Mechanics' Insti- 
tute Exhibition; A Hint, 40. Are We Exempt? A 
"Thatched Cottage;" General News Items, 41. Pat- 
ents and Inventions, 44. 

IliUSTKATIONS. — The Fameuse Apple, 33. 
A Thatched Cottage; The Colorado Potato Beetle, 
41. 

OORKESPONPENCE.— From North Land; Lom- 
poc Temperance Colony; From New Castle; Rice 
Culture; Artesian Wells Wanted; From San Luis 
Obispo County, 34- "Trouble Amongst Calves;" 
From Santa Clara; Average Yield of Grain, 35. 

SHEEP AND WOOL.— Scab in Sheep; Eastern 
Wool MarkotB; Mountain Ranges for Sheep; House 
Your Sheep, 35. 

STOCK BREEDERS.— Points of Short-horn Cows 
and Heifers; Horned Cattle at the International Ex- 
hibition, 35. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Mission 
of the Grange; The Grange and Patriotism; From the 
Granges, 36. In El Dorado County; Grange Decis- 
ions; In Memorism, 37- 

HOME CIROLE.— Farmer John (Poetry) ; Our Sat- 
urday Night; Be Your Own Right Hand Man; The 
Woman's World; A Horse Turns a Back Somersault; 
Middle Life; Queer Bequest; Agricultural Colleges; 
Mother's Boy; Origin of the House Fly; Cutting 
Flowers; Attention to the Old; The Cuba Sugar 
Plantations; Natural Law, 38. A Three Thousand 
Dollar Bed; How Boys are Spoiled; Make the Little 
Folks H&ppy; The World's Peace and War, 39. 

YOTJNO FOLKS' COLUMN. — The Frog at 
Dinner; A Little Girl's Exploit; "The Innocence of 
Childhood," 39. 

OOOD HEALTH. -Typhoid Fever — Cause, and 
How to Avoid It. 39. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— The Value of Eggs for 
Daily Food; Arranging Furniture; Carving; How to 
take Care of Furs; Celery Salad; Tapioca Tarts; 
Orange Pie: To Cleanse a Crape Shawl; German Bat- 
ter Cakes 39 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Steel Pens-How 
Made; The First Planing Machine; A Use for Bed- 
bugs; Copper Alloy that wil Adhere to Glass; Eng- 
land Looking to America for Her Iron; Wire Fencing; 
A Profitless Speculation; Shoeing Vicious Horses, 
42. 

HORTICULTURE.— Dust in Fruit Culture; Our 
Native Flowers; The Tap-Root; Celery, 41. 

AORIOULTURAL NOTES from variooa conn- 
ties in California, Oregon and Washington Territory. 
37^4. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Rosewood; A Mineral Paste; 
Chiming Clock; Horizontal Grain Elevator; Curious 
Fact; A Living Raft, 35. Rules for the 8tat« Agri- 
cultural Society's Fair; Industrial Items, 44. 



The yuiu,x . ^^ a»4.rv._The harvest is 

apparently progressing in a satiBiatt^ry man- 
ner. The general yield is reported as being 
better than was anticipated at the commence- 
ment of harvesting, and the quality of the 
grain is declared to be of remarkable excel- 
lence. On this point, which is a very impor- 
tant one, there is scarcely any variance in the 
reports of the harvest's progress. We feel safe, 
therefore, in predicting that the California 
wheat crop of 1875 will be one of the finest 
ever pnt upon the markets of the world. This, 
besides being a legitimate source of pride to 
the State at large, should be turned to the 
pecuniary advantage of the producers, by en- 
hancipg the value of the crop, thereby offset- 
ting, in a measure, the deficit in amount. 



Lkt thk Wheex Re.st.— We have received 
two more communications on the wagon wheel 
problem, but believing that our readers have 
been swung around this circle to iheir fulUst 
capacity for endurance wo prefer to let the 
matter rest. 



On File.— "Soil Analyses," L. 8, B.; "Let- 
ter from Grangeville, " D. ; "Bernard & Fos'b 
Nursfriea/'G. W. M.; "From Western Kew 
York," J. R, J.j "Club Wheat," A. G. P.; 
•Enquiries about Alderney Cowa," A. H. h!; 
"School Keform," L. P. S. 



The Annual Grain Circular. 

While farmers and dealers are free to ac- 
knowledge their indebtedness to Friedlander's 
annual grain circular for facts and figures, 
forming a clear and reliable statement of Cali- 
fornia's grain and flour trade duriog the past 
year, the inferences drawn from it by the pro- 
ducers will probably differ somewhat from those 
which it intended to convey. The ooncur- 
rance of circumstances — commer'iial and agri- 
cultural — which caused the past year to be, as 
the circular says, " a disastrous one to the 
trade," were as far beyond the ken and the 
control of the shrewdest dealers as of the most 
uncommercial producers. Yet in searching for 
the . cause each is disposed to turn upon the 
other with the sweeping charge, "you did it," 
and in the publication before us the implication 
is quite prominent that the producers ought to 
have known better than not to sell when they 
were advised to. Parties who are so liberal in 
advice of this character, and who manlf{;st 
such extreme disgust when it is not followed, 
are probably in no wise disposed to ignore the 
simple rule that "it takes two to make a bar- 
gain;" but they have evidently failed to compre- 
hend one very essential point in this transaction' 
namely, that the choice of time when such bar- 
gains are to be made, is about as important a 
point and is as much a matter of individual right 
and consideration, as the price at which the 
exchange is to be made. When we offset the 
probability that this advice of the dealer 
as to the best time to sell, is governed by 
his own interests, against the disadvantages 
which the producer is under in forming a 
correct opinion on this p*int, are we not 
justified in declaring that it does not become 
one party to say when the other shall sell any 
more than the producer to advise the dealer as 
to the proper time for him to buy. 

This rebuke from shippers and dealers is in 
especial bad taste, and untimely, in connection 
with the review of last year's trade, for the 
disasters, as all the world knows, are justly at- 
tributable to their side of the house. The only 
mistake with which the farmers are chargeable is 
that of misplaced confidence; and this is just 
such a mistake as is liable to occur in the best 
regulated commercial families. But more disas- 
trous failures than that of Morgan's Sons have 
occurred during the year under review, the 
commercial obituary of the establishments being 
limited to a newspaper paragraph; but this has 
been paraded before the world as unmistakable 
evidence that the farmers are incapable of 
managing their own affairs. A notable point 
in this connection is the fact that the whining 
and complaining has been done principally out- 
side the farming community, and the manner 
in which the producers have born their reverses, 
and the energy and ability displayed in extricat- 
ing themselves from their difiioulties deserves 
the highest commendation instead of the re- 
proach received from certain quarters; and 
viewing the matter from a strictly commercial 
point of view, whose reputation will probably 
suffer most in the East and in Europe, that of 
the legitimate or the amateur shippers of Cali- 
fornia wheat? 

We are not disposed to assume the responsi- 
bility of advising farmers to hold on to their 
grain, for a definite or indefinite time; but we do 
not hesitate abont putting them on their guard 
against accepting the teaching which the com- 
mercial side of the house is disposed to derive 
from last year's experience, and sell at once, 
even at last year's prices. For as the circular, 
in estimating the wheat product of 1874, 
says: "September opened on Great Britain 
with a magnificent crop, while at the same 
time not only the wheat producing countries of 
the continent, but of the whole world, seemed to 
vie -with one another in production; and for 
once, the world at large appeared to have prO' 
duced more wW)at than was required." This, 
it is admitted by ail, was an exceptional year; 
and no one looks for a recurrence of this 
almost unprecedented abundance. It certainly 
has not repeated itself this season. California's 
surplus of wheat will probably fall one-third 
short of that of last year, and reports from the 
various quarters which last season "appeared 
to vie with one another in production, " indicate 
a falling ofl" equally as great. This condition 
of the world's wheat crop has undoubtedly 
received due consideration Irom the prospective 
purchasing party in the approaching wheat 
bargain, and the producers should not fail to 
give it the same consideration. 

There is reason to hope for a larger return 
for the barley crop of this Sf ason than ever be- 
fore realized for this product. We clip the fol- 
lowing from the circular: 

'"The barley crop of las,t season was s good one, both 
In yield and quality, and, as It turned out, a very 
profitable one to the farmers. Ab will be noticed by 
reference to our table of exports, we shipped this sea- 
son nearly three times as much as we ever did before 
In any one year, and the prospects are that the bueiucsa 
will be maintained on its present level, if It does not 
even go higher. A year ago we noticed In our circular 
the amount of barley going overland by raU, and ex- 
pressed a fear that the business was such an excep- 
tional one that it could not be maintained. In this we 
have been most agreeably disappointed. Instead of 
Iwing curtailed. Us dimensions have been expanded so 
widely ab to lead us to believe in its future perma- 
nency. The great increass in the brewing buslnesa in 
the United States hug ol late years «used a greatly en 
larged demand for barley, and as the malstera have 
become accustomed to our grain and learned how to 



handle it, they seem to place a high eatimate npon it. 
During the past year, in addition to what went by rail 
to Chicago, St. Louts, Cincinnati and neighboring 
cities, we shipped a number of cargoes to New York 
around the Horn. This business will probably be con- 
tinued during the coming fall, besides which we have 
reason to expect an increased demand from the Missls- 
slppi valley. Prices have ruled high all through the 
year, the demand for brewing descriptions enhancing 
the value of feed, and the crop has paid the farmers 
well. The scale of prices was too high for the South 
American markets, and oiu- shipments to the West 
coast were consequently suspended; but Australia and 
New .Zealand called for some moderate shipments, and 
paid good prices for them. With a line of steamers 
regularly established, we will be likely to hear from 
them again. The crop now being harvested is a good 
one, both in quantity and quality. Owing to the largely 
increased acreage, the entire crop will probably be 
as large as last year, although the yield per acre was, 
of course, shortened by the anomalous weather of the 
past spring. Very little new barley has yet come in. 
but the crop is now being rapidly threshed, and in 
another month the market will fairly open. Offers of 
$1,40 have been made for immediate delivery. Old 
barley stands at $1.15 for feed, and $1.55 for brewing, 
per 100 pounds." 

The circular also gives a favorable commer- 
cial showing for oats, though the present crop 
is reported as inferior to that of last year, when 
the exports of this product exceeded those of 
any season since 1867. The demand for our 
oats is evidently increasing, with a prospect of 
permanency; and, as the circular slates, " this 
is much to be desired; for of late years the 
market has been so limited that the crop has 
been suffered to decline to such a point that 
were it not for the free supplies received from 
Oregon, it is doubtful whether we could spare 
any for export at all. Oar soil and climate are 
well adapted for the cultivation of this grain, 
and it is a pity that other markets cannot be 
found for the surplus we could most readily 
produce." 

We close our somewhat lengthy review of the 
Annual Grain Circular by quoting that part of 
it which relates to California flour. 

"The exports of flour, as will be seen by reference to 
our tables, have fallen off during the past year over one 
hundred thousand barrels. This was not unexpected, 
as the extraordinary increase in the shipments of 1873-4 
over the former years was caused by the export to Eng- 
land, which was not a permanent demand, but was the 
result of the fact that parties who had ships here char- 
tered at high rates found a smaller loss In shipping 
flour than wheat. Thus, of the 675,000 barrels that 
were sent out of the State in 1873-4, no less than 450,000 
were sent te Great Britain. A year ago wo called atten- 
tion to this fact, and warned our miUers that the trade 
would not last, and the result has justified our predic- 
tion, only 193,000 barrels of flour having been forward- 
ed to Oreat Britain during the past twelve mouths. 
Still the fluur trade has been an active, if not remuner- 
ative one, all this year, and our line of exports, if 
shortened in the direction of Great Britain, has been 
extended in other directions. China and Japan tock 
60,000 barrels more than the previous year; Central 
America and the coast 7o,U00, against 57,000; Australia, 
8,000, against nothing, and so on through nearly the 
entire list. At the same time, our local trade has im- 
proved very much, and the increase in population is 
giving more and more importance daily thereto; and 
the prospect for a steady business duriug the coming 
twelve mouths is quite encouraging." 



Eradicating Alfalfa 

Among the requests for information in regard 
to alfalfa we are sometimes interrogated con- 
cerning the best means for eradicating it. 
Much of this anxiety, we apprehend, is traceable 
to a species of bugbear that has been going 
about the country seeking whom among the 
credulous farmers it may devour. We allude to 
the mistaken notion that when alfalfa be- 
comes once rooted in the soil it cannot be 
eradicated by any means. We are not ac- 
quainted with an individual case where any one 
has desired to rid a field of alfalfa after giving 
it a proper trial, but we occasionally hear from 
parties who wish to know how they can 
get rid of it, in case they should so desire. 

It does not become us, however, to indulge 
in any suppositions as to what our correspond- 
ents really desire, or to arbitrate between them 
and alfalfa; and we shall therefore answer the 
question of T. B., of Walla Walla, W. T., as it 
is given; which is as follows: "Will you please 
inform me if alfalfa can be eradicated from the 
soil, and if so by what means ?" 

In answer to the above we would say, em- 
phatically, it can be eradicated and by the fol- 
lowing simple means: Plow the field at a fair 
depth — four inches will do — and if the plow 
share makes a clean sweep— as it should — at 
this depth it will cut off the alfalfa roots below 
the crown, and this will kill them. 

This, however, is but a portion of the labor, 
for if these crowns are loft upon the field they 
will again take root, leaving the ground more 
under the dominion of alfalfa than before it 
was plowed. A thorough dragging is indispen- 
sable; and after separating the dirt from the 
roots us much as possible, by drag',^ing and cross 
dragging, rake the crowns off and burn them. 

'1 his will effect a thorough eradication and 
leave the land in good condition to receive an- 
other crop; while the remaining roots of alfalfa 
that have struck deep down into the soil, will 
be of lasting benefit to it by keeping it open 
and establii-hing a communication between the 
surface and the deep subsoil. 

About Hay Loadebs. — A correspondent asks 
if we can tell him whether the hay loader 
works well. We are not familiar with their 
working. They are a new thing on this coast, 
and we should be pleased to learn from parties 
who have usfd them whether they are a Bucces.< 
or not. They are sold on a guarantee to take 
them back if they do not give satibfaction. 

Chop prospects are reported excellent in 
Arkansas. 



The Mechanics' Institute Exhibiticn. 

It should be borne in mind by those interested 
that after July 20th the managers of the 
Mechanics' Institute will reserve no space in 
the pavilion for exhibiting at the approaching 
fair. Already more than three-fourths of the 
space has been applied for, and notwithstand- 
ing the increased area provided for exhibitors 
this year, it is more than probable that the de- 
mand for space will exceed the capacity of the 
pavilion. A few weeks since we made brief 
mention of a number of the more important 
exhibits for which space had been secured. 
Since then, we have to note several other 
novelties. A quartz mill, complete in all its 
appointments for feeding, crushing, and amal- 
gamating ore, will make plain to novice.-i the 
cunning method by which our inventive miners 
entice the precious metals from their associa- 
tion with baser minerals. 

The Board of Managers consists of the fol- 
lowing named gentlemen: A. 8. Hallidie, 
James C. Patrick, Henry L. Davis, D. E. Hayes, 
Asa K. AVells, P. B. Cornwall, Chas, Elliot, 
George Spaulding, H. S. Smith, W. P. Stout, 
Jeremiah Browning, J. H. Stoutenborough, B. 
B. Woodward and James Spit rs. 

President Hallidie baa appointed the follow- 
ing committees: 

Auditing Committee — Stout, Browning and 
Hayes. 

Committee on Building— Wells, Smith ahd 
Spiers. 

Committee on Circulars and Classification — 
Patrick, Spaulding and Stoutenborough. 

On Printing and Advertising — Spaulding, 
Stoutenborough and Stout, 

On Power and Machinery — Spiers, Smith and 
Elliot. 

On Rules, Regulations and Rewards — Brown- 
ing, Patrick and Davis. 

On Music and Decorations— Davis, Wood- 
ward aud Cornwall. 

On Privileges— Elliot, Spaulding and Wood- 
ward. 

On Location— Hayes, Browning and Spiers. 

On Police — Smith, Davis and Cornwall. 

On the Horticultural Garden— Woodward, 
Stoutenborough and Davis. 

All communications in regard to space and 
matters relating to the exhibition, should 
be addressed to the Secretary of the Board, 
Mr. J. H. Culver, No. 27 Post street. 



A Hint. 

It is with extreme pleasure that we have 
noticed of late an increasing tendency among 
our correspondents to dwell upon the beautiful, 
the homelike, and other enjoyable character- 
istics of the country. This advance from the 
^trictly useful to the finer points of farm life 
is very proper, and in strict keeping with the 
progress of the country in agriculture, as in 
everything else. And in describing the many 
beautiful places of I he country it is also proper, 
and no more than simple justice, to give a lib- 
eral amount of praise to those who have con- 
tributed most in energy, judgment and taste 
in developing these finer points. 

But in bestowing these compliments npon 
persons and places, careful discrimination is 
an essential requirement. Not altogether from 
a desire to avoid everything that may possibly 
create jealousy in the neighborhood— though 
this is a matter worthy the consideration of 
the complimenting correspondent — but to steer 
clear of the injustice involved in a partial 
notice. 

Readers, and especially those in the neigh- 
borhood spoken of, are on the alert to detect 
anything in those compliments that smacks of 
the advertising element; and if the writer, in 
speaking of the productions or beanty of a 
place is suspected of having been used as a 
medium to assist its sale, it is worse than a 
profitless matter all round and becomes a 
source of mortification to the paper publish- 
ing it. 

It is also a matter of questionable taste and 
propriety where guests seek to reward their 
hosts fsr personal hospitaUties by extravagant 
praise of their farms, their homes and mem- 
bers of their households, even, published in 
some available journal. 

The Geape Gbowkks' Association, — This 
society, heretofore known as the Wine Growers 
and Brandy Association, met at the CoFmqpo- 
litan Hotel, Kan Francisco, July ]3tb. The 
attendance was quite large, and a large amount 
of important business was trauRacted. We 
hope to be able to give a fuller report here- 
after. 

Good Cbops in Contba Costa Co. — We re- 
cently made a trip through Lafayette, Walnut 
creek, Danville and Limerick, in Contra Costa 
connty, and Castro valley and Hay ward's, Ala- 
meda county. At all these places the grain 
crops are good as compared with last year. 

The S<iciBBEL Nuisance in Contra Costa, 
Alameda and other conniies threatens a rapid 
increase. Something must be done to aid our 
farmers to rid the country of these pestB, or 
other interests in tbix State will feel the effects 
of the encroachment of the " rarmints" in new 
fields. 

The forces of Alfonso have lately been gain- 
ing some very decided advantages over the 
Carlists. 



July 17, 1875.] 



41 



Are We Exempt? 



I of the leaf; b, near the top, is a young Ii 
recently batched; b, b, near the bottom, 



The Colorado potato beetle has about fin- 
ished his march eastward, having already over- 
run a large portion of New York and some of 
the New England States. What reason have 
we beyond a blind faith in the infallibility of 
California, for supposing that this A.tilla of the 
potato field will not visit us ? During his 
eight years' campaign he has surmounted 
greater difficulties than a trip overland to this 
State presents. But wo do not suppose that 
the people of California hardly expect at the 
pres ent time to escape this visitation; for dur- 
ing the last two or three years, agricultural 
pests, one after another, have made their ap- 
pearance here, following their vocations and 
evincing no disposition to conform to the 
usages of the country. So that we find our 
most intelligent farmers, nurserymen and oth- 
ers agreeing in the conclusion expressed in 
these few words: "There's no use talking; 
we've got to have them all in their turn." 

But, after all, the potato bug is something of 
a bugbear; and those who are really best ac- 
quainted with the insect manifest the least 
terror at his approach. Their ravages are con- 
fined to one plant and their existence in the 
countries visited by them is limited to a period 
of a few years. A recent report states that it 
has commenced destroying the tomato and 
egg plants in Central New York; but from our 
knowledge of the eating habits of this insect, 
we cannot believe this to be true. We know 
that the stories about their burrowing in the 
earth and devouring the tubers are not to be 
believed. They will, it is true, go a short dis- 
tance into the earth about the roots of the vine, 
but it is for hiding and not to forage. Their 
natural retreat is under stones lying upon the 
surface and lumps of dirt. Like most agricul- 
tural pests, the potato beetle is a stickler for 
a reduction in the hours of labor, and remains 
in these hiding places until eight or nine 
o'clock in the morning, and it is in the early 
part of the forenoon that he should be at- 
tacked. 

In feeding, even upon this plant only, he has a 
certain raoge for his choice in regard to va- 
rieties. It will feed on any variety rather than 
go hungry, but if left to its choice will select 
those which have the weakest growth. The 
Early Bose, Chile and several varieties of Peach- 
blows are its noted preferences. Still it will, 
as we have stated, eat all kinds when hard 
pushed, and makes a clean sweep of the potato 
fields in localities visited by it. 

And in regard to their temporary occupancy 
of localities, we would state that they do not 
decamp; for they permanently occupy the 
country visited by them; and those who hope 
that they will go as they came are doomed to 
disappointment. The only hope of relief is in 
the parasitic insect enemies of this pest. It is 
a rule in nature that each species of plant and 
animal has its enemies, which keep it in check; 
and usually all conditions are so balanced that 
no species exceeds its proper limits. If, how- 
ever, man or any other disturbing agent comes 
in and destroys this balance, a species may 
increase unduly, to the great detriment of some 
others. But again the evil has its own remedy; 
for the over increase of any species is soon 
followed by a corresponding increase in the 
enemies of that species; so that after a while 
they may be said to " catch up" with it, when, 
of course, the balance will again be restored. 

Now, in the cas^of the potato beetle, its in- 
ert ase was soon, but not immediately, followed 
by an increase of its enemies. Already in 
Iowa, Illinois and Missouri these enemies, 
while they do not destroy it — and perhaps 
never will — have so reduced the number that 
now they are not very injurious. 

In entomology this insect is classed &r. a true 
beetle; belonging to tho groat suborder Coleop- 
tera, that is, the hard winged, or sheath winged 
insects. Under this sub-order it is a member 
of the family of leaf eaters — the Chrysomelida 
of the entomologists— and here, with the name 
of Colorado potato beetle, it maybe found. Tne 
specific name {Doryphoria decemlineata) is 
given it on account of the ten longitudinal 
black lines found upon its back, which alter- 
nate with orange or yellow stripes. In size 
it is about four-tenths of an inch long and 
about three-tenths wide and in general shape it 
much resembles the May beetle. 

Although the period of its notoriety embraces 
less than ten years, jt was long ago discovered 
by entomologists in Colorado and adjacent 
Kocky Mountain regions, where they subsisted 
on a wild relative of the potato. As long as 
the country remained in its natural state the 
insect was resiricted, both in its range and in 
numbers, in accordance with the poor quality 
and limited supply of its natural food. But as 
emigrants went thither, introducing the im- 
proved potato, they discarded their primitive 
diet, and took to eating the more palatable and 
nourishing food. A fearful increase of numbers 
followed; and aft. r spreading over their 
own country they commenced thtir flight east- 
ward, their course, as is generally supposed, 
bi'ing governed by the prevailing winds, and in 
1868 they crossed the Missouri liver, and three 
or four years later passed the Miesissippi. 
Their march has continued eastward; and now, 
as was before stated, they have pitched their 
tents in New York, Pennsylvania and States 
still farther eastward. 

The accompanying illustration of the Colo- 
rado pothto beei'tle shows all stages of insect 
life, a, a, on the right and left sides of the cut 
are eggs, which it deposits upon the lower Bide 



larva 
are 
larvse about full grown ; J5, is a pupa. In this 
case, when the larvae are full grown, they dig 
into the soil and there change to pupse, from 
which they in a fortnight emerge as perfect 
insects; d, d, e, is one of the wing covers 
(elytra) ; /, is the leg magnified. 

From the foregoing our readers will be ena- 
bled to recognize this dreaded visitor when 
they see him, and they will also be pretty well 
informed as to its history and habits. We will 
in due time instruct them in the art of 
war as applied to this invader, and having 
met him in the well fought potato fields of 
Wisconsin, during the two worst years of his 
campaign in that State, we are confident of 
being able to prepare our friends for the com- 
ing contest. We will also be able to con- 
tribute many items of interest incident upon the 
potato-bug war of that country. 

A "Thatched Cottage." 

The accompanying picture of a rural home is 
not a fancy sketch, as some might suppose, but 
a faithful representation, by our own artist, of 
a scene visited by him not long since. Nor 



@E\pcJLTlll\E. 



Dust in Fruit Culture. 

It is singular that along dusty roadsides 
there is generally an abundance of fruit, and 
this abundance is usually in proportion to the 
quantity of dust. Not only is the fruit abun- 
dant, but the leaves are generally remarkably 
hea'ithy; and we do not remember an instance 
of a blighted or seriously diseased tree, when 
they have been covered with roadside dust. 

This has been frequently noted in regard to 
old pear trees in gardens along roadsides; but 
this year^especially as to the cherry was very 
striking, especially low-headed pie cherries, 
which are more easily covered with dust than 
trees of larger size. In this vicinity this year 
we have had a particularly dusty time. There 
was no rain of any consequence for five weeks, 
and the roads, many of them at least, are not 
famous for a freedom from dust. The conse- 
quence was that many of the trees were for 
weeks of a dusty brown, instead of their usual 
living green. The trees did not seem to mind 
it in the least, and the prodigious crops of cher- 
ries that they bore was something wonderful. 




A THATCHED COTTAGE. 



did he go abroad— to Switzerland, for instance- 
to find his subject: it is a true American scene, 
located in New Jersey. 

The chimney, like those of the log house of 
the Northwest and the board cabin of Califor- 
nia, is outside the building ; and if the reader 
has ever lived in a log house — as many of our 
friends undoubtedly have— it will require no 
stretch of fancy on his part to imagine the 
broad, deep fireplace opening into this chim- 
ney, and its domestic surroundings. 



One friend gathered four hundred pounds from 
one tree, which he sold for ten cents per pound, 
yielding the handsome sum of forty dollars 
from one tree. This tree stands on his little 
grass-patch in front of the house, and thus 
served the double purpose of putting money 
into its owner's pockets, and of screening the 
house from much of the dust. 

We do not pretend to account for this curious 
fact, but rest with simply stating it. It is sup- 
posed that the plant breathes through its 




THE COLORADO 

We have known adepts at thatching from dif- 
ferent European countries, who have advan- 
tageously practiced their favorite art, even in 
localities where timber was abundant; and 
when the time comes, as come it surely will, 
when California immigration is largely made 
up of this patient, laborious, economizing class, 
we shall expect to see a good many thatched 
roofs in our sparsely timbered valleys. 



POTATO BE^TiLj; 

how it do o 



this when covered wi'h 
say. It may be that the 



rarity from some distant state or far off country, 
wiser and having more taste than ourselves. 
History is said to repeat itself. This is not 
only true of men, but also of flowers. Thus 
to-day it is found in older countries that some 
of the most beautiful garden flowers are the 
historic representatives of wild native flowers 
long since perished, and, indeed, forgotten as 
being indigenous in their origin. Instances of 
this kind are plenty. Thus the stock, the car- 
nation, the crimson pseony, the columbine, the 
poets' narcissus and others, now the ornaments 
of the English garden, are all alike but the rep- 
resentatives of their ancestors in a wild state in 
England, now found no longer wild.— FieW, 
Lawn and Garden. 



The Tap-Boot. — Boots and stems are always 
in a certain degree reciprocally proportionate 
to each other. The tap-root does not form a 
part of every plant; but when it does so, it is 
an essential part of that plant. Our nursery- 
men at the present day invariably cut off this 
tap-root, and generally the laterals or side 
shoots. It is not to be supposed that trees 
form tap-roots to their own prejudice. These 
roots descend into the earth for some special 
service. Tap-roots are undoubtedly essential 
to the healthy growth and durability of the 
tree. Professor Darby thinks that "if seed for 
stock were planted where the trees were to 
grow, and grafted or budded in their natural 
positions, we should have fruit orchards for a 
generation." We apprehend that this cut- 
ting off the tap-root and pruning 'the side 
limbs of our trees, when young, is a bad prac- 
tice. We should allow them to grow as nature 
indicates, thereby increasing the ratio of the 
surface for the descending sap, as compared 
with the ascending. If the tap-root were not 
essential for the life, health and thrift of the 
tree, such a root would never be produced. — 
Exchange. 



Lime m Drinking Water. — People who 
drink cistern or rain water suffer for vhe want 
of lime to renew the osseous system, and this 
leads to a breaking down of the constitution. 
To prolong the life of the individual, there is 
a limy deposit formed in the lungs, so that the 
breathing should be slower, as by consuming 
less oxygen the circulation of the system would 
be retarded, and the vital powers gradually 
wasted away, which ailment is called "con- 
sumption/^^ ___^ ^ 

The Centennial Exhibition will continue six 
months, commencing April 19, 1876, and clos- 
ing October 19. It is thought the average daily 
attendance will be 50,000. At this rate the 
aggregate attendance during the six months will 
be about 8,000,000. 

The first casting at the Virginia and Truckee 
railroad foundry, in Carson, Nevada, was made 
on the lOlh inst. Everything worked libe a 
ohanu. 



Celeey. — This is a marine plant, a knowl- 
edge of which fact is sufficient to cause garden- 
ers to use salt upon it, whether they knew it was 
beneficial or not. But to relieve their minds, 
we will inform them they can use it with great 
benefit and profit. Much of that celery which 
is found fluted, will be, by the use of salt, 
plump and smooth. Every time it is hilled, 
sprinkle in a little salt. — Veijetable Garden. 



leaves, 

dust it is not for us' ^^_ ^^ __^ ^^ 

minute insects which ot'o'J^ ^^ f jy^jt tree's gen 
erally don't like dust; ix^ieed people do say 
that it is to destroy ins>,,tg that chickens so 
love to cover themselves .jth ^^st. Again, 
some people have a notion tha-^^j, jj^jj ^^^_ 
eases come from minute fungi, y^^^^^ develop 
on the leaves and branches, and Si_^ cover the 
whole surface, destroying rtissues .. ^^ ^^ 
It may be that absolutely dry dust f»\^i -^n 
these minute juicy little plams, may sncft ,jj^ 
moisture out of them and leave them high b., 
dry. We do not prtteud to discuss any 01 
these propositions; at the same time it is curi- 
ous to note that these dust-covered fellows 
should always do so well.— Germontown Tele- 
tjraph. 

OcB Native Flowers. — We have already 
thBown out a suggestion that an effort should 
be made by our boriicultural socieiies to pte- 
1 serve a record of our native flora, so fast disap- 
pearing around us. In this direction we would 
wi^h to go a step further, and urge upon our 
flower growing and flower loving readers, to 
introduce the most beautiful of our prairie and 
woodland wild flowers into their gardens; for 
the wild flower of to-dsy, it may be taken for 
surety, will become ine garden or domestic 
flower soont r or later. If we do not now taku 
means to preserve it, thooe who come after ns 
will, in all probability, have to purchase it as a 



General News Items. 

A DESPERATE attempt was made to rob an 
Adams express messenger at Long Point, Illi- 
nois, on the Vandalia railway, on Thursday 
night of last week. The engine and car was 
cut loose and the engineer killed. The mes- 
senger barricaded the doors and kept the rob- 
bers at bay until help arrived. 

Advices from Elamath county report the 
Hoopa tribe of Indians in revolt. They have 
already murdered a carpenter employed at the 
Florence mine and demand that the miners 
shall leave. Gen. Schofield has ordered a de- 
tachment of soldiers to the scene. 

The Atlantic cotton mills, at Lawrence, Mass., 
which gave employment to 1,250 operators, 
shut down last week for eight weeks' suspen- 
sion, and may be a longer time, if the present 
stock of manufactured goods is not marketed. 

An attempt was made the night of the 4th 
inst., to blow up the store of Willard & Falk, 
in Plymouth, Amador county, with giant pow- 
der, but the villain who made the attempt 
failed, by not using quite enough powder. 

Specials from Paris report that the country 
between Villefranche and Macon has been laid 
waste by floods to the extent of forty kilometres. 
The wheat and vine crops in many places have 
been utterly destroyed. 

Malibtoa has been chosen as king of the 
Navigator islands, and Col. Steinberger who 
visited the islands as special commissioner of 
the United States, has been appointed Premier. 

The Cunard steamer Scxjthia, which sailed 
from Liverpool on the lOfh inst. for New York, 
came in contact with a whale off Boche's point, 
and lost a blade of her propellor. 

During the recent storm in the harbor of 
Valparaiso, Chile, 40 boys belonging to the 
training ship, between 20 and 30 sailors, and 
from 12 to 15 boatmen were drowned. 

An official telegram in the Paris Moniteur 
corrects exaggerations as to the number of peo- 
ple drowned in Toulouse, and states that bo far 
only 216 bodies have been found. 

The Vallf jo Independent has changed hands. 
It will bo independent in politics no longer, 
but will henceforth advocate Democratic prin- 
iples. 

jjg^JtlV^GEMEN celebrated the anniversary of the 
section's i'^® Boyne, the 12th inst., in various 
.„ ^, "'le Union and the Canadas. 
By tho reob. 
lives were lost iiprthquake in Colombia, 5,000 
of small cities in tbt»ta al' ne, and a number 

,, „ , „„, 'inity are in ruins. 

Mb. Hawley, local edu •» 

Star, who was stabbed by a'-f.the Los Angeles 

that «ity on the 6th inst., is leOPg hoodlum in 

A FIRE dpstroyed the hotel at VfUiB- 
Springs, Napa county, on the morniL^lphur 
7th iubt. '"« 

It is reported that a whale one hundred feei 
in length, wa»! killed between Monterey and 
Santa Cruz leoently. 

The English ridioals protest against allowing 
the Prince of Wales cash to pay the expense of 
his. proposed trip to.Iudia. 



42 



[July 17, 1875- 



UsEflJL lfJfO!\^i^TIO'<' 



Steel Pens— How Made.— Steel pens, which 
are chiefly manufuctured at Birmingham, Eng- 
land, made from the best steel, which is first 
rolled into narrow strips of the required width 
and thickness. These are then cleaned by the 
action of some dilute acid, and cut by means of 
a punch worked by a screw press into flat blank 
pieces of the required size. The name of the 
maker is then stamped on each pen, after 
which the blank is curved into a nib. or a cyl- 
inder if a barrel pen is required. Up to this 
stage the steel is worked in a soft state; the 
pens are now hardened by being heated and 
cooled suddenly by immersion in oil, after 
which they are tempered to the required degree 
of elasticity, polished by being placed with fine 
sand or some other polish material in a revolv- 
ing cask, and the nib ground to a fine point on 
a grindstone, or emery wheel. After this the 
slit is cut by a chisel worked by a screw press, 
and the pens made ready for sale by being col- 
ored and varnished. The manufacture is 
chieflly carried on by women, men being em- 
ployed only to repair the tools. It is estimated 
that 100,000,000 pens are manufactured an- 
nually at Birmingham. The principal de- 
mand for steel pens in the United States, and 
many countries of Europe, is supplied from 
this source . 

The First Planing Machine.— It is an inter- 
esting question as to where the first planing ma- 
chine was made ; according to the London Iron 
Trade Kxchamje it was built in the Holland street 
works of John Rennie the elder. " In March, 
1814, (and we copy from an original memoran- 
dum book of the late George Rennie,) the fol- 
lowing plan was iidopted for chipping the cast- 
iron sides of a new iHthe. The sides are placed 
close together, with their faces upward ; two 
planka of elm, one on each side, are bolted 
with their edges truly placed end upward ; upon 
the edges of the planks run four wheels on 
axles, which support a truck of oak. To the 
truck is fixed a slide-rest, to which is attached 
a cutting tool ; the truck is well loaded with 
weights, and pulled along the surface of the 
elm planks by means of a crab and chain. 
Thus the tool plan«s the iron lathe bed 
straight," This was, in fact, the first planing 
machine, crude and rude as it was, aud from it 
Whitworth, to whom the original apparatus 
was shown, subsequently made a self-acting 
machine. Wo all know how important a tool 
it has become in the manufacture of nearly 
every kind of machinery. 

A Use Fok Bedbugs.— A correspondent of 
the Scknlific Ammcan says : "If nice fat bed- 
bugs are placed in a saturated solution of ni- 
trate of potash in water, and exposed to the air 
for several days in an open vessel, there will be 
no apparent change in the bugs ; but there will 
be in the odor, for now it is as delicate and de- 
licious as before it was rank and disgusting. 
No doubt the odorous principle could be eas^ily 
separated, perhaps by digesting with alcohol 
or ether ; and if neatly bottled and labeled, it 
would yield a large profit to practical perfumers. 
The odor is unlike that of any other perfume I 
have ever smelt, and no one would suspect its 
low origin. This is one use for the ciHi«x ; there 
may be others." 

Coppeb Alloy that will Adhebe to Glass. 
The following alloy of copper will attach it- 
self firmly to surfaces of metal, glass or porce- 
lain : Twenty to thirty parts of finely blended 
copper (made by reduction of oxide of copper 
wilh hydrogen or precipitation from solution of 
its sulphate with zino) are made into a paste 
with oil of vitriol. To this seventy parts of 
mercury are added and well triturated. The 
acid is then washed out with boiling water and 
the compound allowed to cool. In ten or twelve 
hours, it becomes sufficiently hard to receive a 
brilliant polish and to scratch the surface of tin 
or gold. When heated it is plastic, but do3S 
not contrac t on cooling. 

England Looking to Amebica fob Hkk Ikon. 
— The profitable exportation of iron to England 
from one of the Southern States has already 
been announced. And now American iron ore 
advices from New York make the interesting 
announcement that an English company has 
recently secured lands in the Kanawha valley, 
in West Virginia, with a view to the ulilizaiion 
of the local iron ores. 

WiBE Fencing. — A wire fencing con-isting of 
two wires twisted together, aud armed ai inter- 
vals with sharp barlis or points, is attracting 
some attention. The barbs keep away cattle, 
and the twisting of the w.rea acts as a spring 
that compensates for the contraction and ^ 
pausiou that sometimes proves so di.-astro' ' 
the life of such fences. 

. „ i; T^s said that 

A Peofitle.s &PEcnLATioN.-^ge^ dedicated 
the grtat and cosily St. Loujfeta a year as-o as 
with such a flourish of tr-a failure. Itdon't 
a speculation, is pr^^-pay the interest on the 
earn enough to be>>feeoona issues of which to 
bonds, the firstcO, 000, 000,000 were negotiated 
the amouuAid ttiere is talk of a foreclosure. 

in Lond'- — 

jiNG Viciooa HoEsEs. — In Guernsey it 
^ars that etherize! vapor is used to tame 
vicious horses during the operation of shoeing, 
and with lavorable results. 

To CCT glass to any shape without a dia- 
mond, hold it quite level under water, and, 
with a pair of strong scissor.s, clip it away by 
small bite from the edges. 



DEWEY & CO. 
American & Foreign Patent Agents 

OFFICK, 224 SANSOME STREET, 8. F. 

PATENTS obtained promptly; Caveats filed 
expeditiously; Patent reissues taken out; 
Assignments made and recorded in legal 
form; Copies of Patents and AssignmeutE 
procured; Examinations of Patents made 
here and at Washington; Examinations made 
of Assignments recorded in Washington; 
Examinations ordered and reported by Tele- 
graph; Rejected cases taken up and Patents 
obtained; Interferences Prosecuted; Opinions 
rendered regarding the validity of Patents 
and Assignments ; every legitimate branch of 
Patent Agency Business promptly and 
thoroughly conducted. 

Our intimate knowledge of the various in- 
ventions of this coast, and long practice in 
patent business, enable us to abundantly 
satisfy our patrons; and our success and 
business are constantly increasing. 

The shrewdest and most experienced Inventors 
are found among our most steadfast friends 
and patrons, who fully appreciate our advan- 
tages in bringing valuable inventions to the 
notice of the pubUc through the columns of 
our widely circulated, first-class journals — 
thereby facilitating their introduction, sale 
and popularity. 

Foreign Patents. 

In addition to American Patents, we secures 
with the assistance of co-operative agents, 
claims in all foreign countries which grant 
Patents, including Great Britain, France, 
Belgium, Prussia, Austria, Victoria, Peru, 
Russia, Spain, British India, Saxony, British 
Columbia, Canada, Norway, Sweden, Mexico, 
Victoria, Brazil, Bavaria, Holland,- Den- 
mark, Italy, Portugal, Cuba, Roman States, 
Wurtemborg, New Zealand, New South 
Wales, Queensland, Tasmania, Brazil, New 
Grenada, Chile, Argentine Republic, AND 
EVERY COUNTRY IN THE WORLD 
where Patents are obtainable. 

No models are required in European coun- 
tries, but the drawings and specifications 
shouid be prepared with thoroughness, by 
able persons who are famihar with the re- 
quirements and changes of foreign patent 
laws — agents who are reliable and perma- 
nently established. 

Our schedule prices for obtaining foreign pat- 

" ents, in all cases, will always bo as low, and 
in some instances lower, than those of any 
other responsible agency. 

We <xm ai\d do get foreign patents for inventors 
in the Pacific States from two to six months 
(according to the location of the country 
sooNKB than any other agents. 

Home Counsel. 

Our long experience In obtaining patents for 
Inventors on this Coast has familiarized us 
with the character of most of the inventions 
already patented; hence we are frequently 
able to save our patrons the cost of a fruitless 
appUcation by pointing them to the same 
thing already covered by a patent. w« are 
always free to advise applicants of anj 
knowledge we have of previous applications 
which will interfere with their obtaining a 
patent. 

We invite the acquaintance of all parties con- 
nected with inventions and patent right busi- 
ness, believing that the mutual conference of 
legitimate business aud professional men is 
mutual gain. Parties in doubt in regard to 
their rights as assignees of patents, or pur 
chasers of patented articles, can often receive 
advice of importance to them from a short 
call at our oflice. 

Remittances of money, made by individual in- 
ventors to the Government, sometimes mi" 
carry, and it has repeatedly happened "^^^ 
applicants have not only lost their '^oney 
but their inventions also, from tbi" cause and 
consequent delay. We hold ov^^c'ves re- 
sponsible for all fees entrusted -^o^r agency. 

The principal portion of the p,-*ut business of 
this coast has been don" 5?« »s stiU being 
done, through our agen-a'- ^ ^e are famihar 
with, and have full -ecords, of all former 
cases, and can "i<"* directly judge of the 
value and patent>^»"ty of inventions discov- 
ered here than ^J otl^f agents. 

Situated so rem"* from the seat of government, 
delays are e~''^ more dangerous to the invent- 
ors of thp^ ^"'^^ '^o'"*' ihi\n to applicants in 
the Eas;''^'^ States. Valuable patents may be 
lost b extra time consumed in transmit 
tilY "P'^itications from Eastern agencies back 
., tnis coast for the sijinature of the inventor. 

ConfidentiaL 

We take great pains to preserve secrecy in all 
confidential matters, aud applicants for pat- 
ents can rest assured that their communi- 
cations aud business transactions will be held 
strictly confidential by us. Circulars free. 

Engravings. 

We have superior artists in oiu own office, and 
all faciUties for producing fine aud satisfac- 
tory illustrations of inventions and machinery, 
for newspaper, book, circular and other 
printed illustrations, and are always ready to 
assist patrons in bringing their valuable is- 
ooveries into practical and profitable use. 

DEWEY & CO., 

United States and Foreign Patent Agents, pub- 
lishers Mining and Scientific Press and the 
Paofie Rural Press, 224 Bansome St., S. F. 



SAFE INVESTMENT. 

The Pacific Coast Twelve Per Cent. 
Consols. 

NEW METHOD WITH ASSURED AD- 
VANTAGES. 



A rapidly growing iuterest is being taken in the 
Pacific Coast Twelve Per Cent Consols, in consequence 
of tlie many advantages offered in regard to invest- 
ment, interest and dividends. So mucli nncertaiuty 
exists in connection with nearly all mining and other 
speculative companies, there is something very assur- 
ing in an incorporation which not only guarantees 
twelve per cent, per year to all stockholders, but pro- 
vides lor the honest payment of dividends. The Twelve 
Per Cent. Consols were Incorporated on the 12th of 
February last, for the purpose of transacting a general 
business in buying and selling mining properties, city 
real estate, and agricultural and other lands, in the 
States and Territories of the Pacific Coast. Deter- 
mined to do only a strictly legitimate business, the 
Directors rejected the old method in vogue by mining 
companies generally, and adopted a new one which 
secures to all parties who become shareholders, equal 
advantages in the business transacted. By the provis- 
ions of the by-laws, 

A Sinlung- Fund 

Is to be made of one-half the proceeds of the total eap- 
tal stock, which shall be sold on the joint account of 
the original co-owners. The 6to(;k will be classified as 
follows: Sinking Fund, mining property, city real 
estate aud agricultural lands. Before auy stuck is 
issued in any class, the property will be appraised by 
the owners, and the stated value entered upon the 
bo iks of the Company. Shares for not more than fifty 
per cent, of the valuation will be issued in any of the 
classes, and the amount of shares offered for sale in 
any oue class, exclusive of the sales of stock in the 
Sinking Fund, will not bo allowed to exceed 60.000. 
if sold at less than the par value of a dollar per share. 

Guarantees of Safety. 

In regard to the Sinking Fund, which will constitute 
fifty per cent, of the par value of the stock, all moneys 
received as the proceeds of sales of stock on account ol 
the fund will be deposited with some solvent banking 
institution, which pays interest on deposits invested 
in interest bearing stocks, bouda and nthor securities, 
which cau bo realized on in tliirty days, and in no case 
will it bo lawful for the directors or trustees to Invest 
any moneys of the Sinking Fund in the purchase of 
stocks, bonds or other securities of any incorporation 
whatever, which shall have failed to pay interest or 
dividends for a period of six months preceding any 
proposed investment pertaining to the Sinking Fimd 
of the Company. 

Payment ot Interest. 

The by-laws further make positive provision for the 
payment of interest monlbly on all stock issued in 
sach class at the rate of twelve per cent, per annum, 
payable on the 5th day of each month. Another im- 
portant concession is that auy shareholder has the 
option to take stock in payment for interest at par 
value in any class that may be preferred. No assess- 
ment will be levied until the total stock of the Sinking 
Fund shall have been sold and paid out as provided by 
the by-laws. Indeed, so seoirc is the plan of the Com- 
P<~v that in case the whole capital stock of the Company 
8hom«.>)e sold immediately aud the Sinking Fund in- 
vested as rruvidcd, the proceeds would be sufficient to 
pay the interu.t for eight years and a half on the total 
capital stock. i'M-haps no <'ther company in the world 
has ever been able u present so brilliant a certainty. 

Dividends. 

Stockholders will not only be sure of their twelve 
per cent, per annum, but will share in all the surplus 
profits- The dividends will bo paid from the profits 
and sales of property, and only on shair^ of consols 
\\A have been issued for property valued and entered 
..n the books of the Company. As there ciui b,. ,c,, 
little question that the trausactious of the Company 
will be very extensive, aud that the profits will rapidly 
reach something handsome, the dividend prospect 
should serve as a strong inducement to stock pur- 
chasers, for perhaps in no other direction can they be 
positive of receiving one per cent, a month for money 
invested, and almost a certainty of large yearly divi- 
dends in addition. 

A f ui'ther provision can be made at any time by the 
Company by setting aside the percentage agreed upon 
of the B»les of the properties of the Coihpany. The 
main object of the directors is to incorporate a more 
legitimate and assured method of transacting business 
in mining and property than has hitherto obtained on 
this coast. They are therefore resolved to touch noth- 
ing but bona fide investments, and to make it a rule to 
have nothing to do with speculative values. Every 
possible care will be taken to protect the interests of 
shareholders; and in order that they may be constantly 
posted in the transactions of the Cumpany, a monthly 
statement of affairs will be prepared by the officers, 
and the books will be at all times open for inspection. 

Shares for the first series issued for mining i)roperty 
in Washoe, Storey aud Lyon counties, and on the Corn- 
stork lode in Nevada, and lor account ol Sinking Fund, 
will be ready for delivery to subscribers and purchasers 
to-morrow, at Ureeubaum k Co 's, 30K Montgomery 
street. The set selling rate will l>e one-twenty, and the 
buying rate one-nineteeu. The principal oflii-e of the 
Company is at .'iOfi Slontgomery strt-et. T. Phelps is the 
President, and W. 8. Keynoldsthe Secretary. 
my22eowbp 



EUBAI. EiOHANOES.- If any of our readers desire to 
subscribe for an agricultural paper published elsewhere 
than in the South, the best place to send their money 
is not New York, or Philadelphia, or Boston, but San 
Francisco. This should not be understood as under- 
valuing the many deserving publications which come 
from the former places, some of which may be read 
with profit anywhere, but as our estimate of the com- 
parative adaptation of the Eastern and the Pacific coast 
journals to our climate, crops and circumstances. In 
this respect the advantage Is so clearly on the side of 
the laiter that we wi>uld sooner pay the %i a year 
charg. d tor the Pacific Rural Press (weekly) for in- 
stance, than to obtain any three Eastern agricultojal 
lournals, were that pii8->iblc, for the same money. The 
PuiBs is most ably conducted, and i«- one of the beet 
papers on nur exchange list. Published by Dewey tt 
Co., San Francisco, at %i a yeu.— Sural Oartlinian, 
CharltHtn. 



SXRA^W BXJJRIVERS*. 

To the Public— 

I am the original inventor of a tube attachment to 
the furnaces of engines for the purpose of feeding 
straw to the furnace for fuel. My first patent was 
issued to me by the United States Patent Office, on the 
11th day of February, 1873. Subsequently, on the 20th 
of May, 1873, 1 obtained a second patent for improve- 
ments in said tubes. The first patent covered a tube 
having a revolving partition or door outside ol it, so 
that the straw could bo pushed in under the partition, 
and thu opening or passage in the tube kept closed, in 
order to prevent a draft of air from entering through 
the tube when the straw was being introduced. My 
second patent covers a tube provided with a valve or 
hinged door, which closes the passage through the 
tube. Finding that certain parties had commenced to 
infringe upon my rights by attempts to evade my pat- 
ented claims, I have recently, to wit. May 4th, 1875 
reissued my first patent, and being the first perEon who 
ever used a horizontal tube through which straw or 
fuel was fed to a furnace, was eiubled to cover broadly 
any horizontal tube or its equivalent which may be 
attached to the doors of boiler furnaces for the pur- 
pose of feeding fuel through, no difference whether th 
tube has a door, valve, partition or other device for 
closing the passage through it, or whether it is simply 
an open tube which is kept filled with straw. 

Messrs Treadwell & Co., comer of Market and Fre- 
mont streets, San Francisco, Cal., are my agents for 
the Pacific Coast. Any person who desires to attach a 
horizontal tube feeder to the furnace of a boiler or 
boilers, or is desirous of making and using them, can 
purchase the privilege to do so from my agents, and 
will receive a plate with date of patents marked on it, 
and which must be riveted upon each tube in use. All 
tube attachments for feeding furnaces not provided 
with this plate will be considered as iolringements, 
and will be dealt with accordingly. 

DAVID MOBEY, 

Watsonville, Santa Cruz County, Cal. 



I 



A. P^EW DIJSCOVEHY 

To Save Time and Labor. 

The Magical Effect of 

ENGWER'S PURE BORAX SOAP . 

Is wonderful. Washes without much rubbing. Every 
one knows the value of 

AMUOmA and BOBAX 

For Washing Purpoaee; 

This Borax Soap is principally composed of the com- 
bination of the two ingredients, so that it entirely does 
away with hard labor. A trial will convince any one 
of its superiorqualitles. Warranted to give satisfaction 
and not to Injure the finest fabric. Ask your Orocer 
for 

Engwer's Pure Borax Soap. 

IF HE DOES NOT HAVE IT, ASK HIM TO GET IT. 

GRANGER SOAP- 
Onoe Used , AlM-ays TJsecl. 

Manufactured by 

FALKINBTTBGH Sc CO., 

Oregon Street, near Front, San Francisco, Oa 




Mechamc^' Mills, ISisalon Street, 

Bet. First and Fremont, San Francisco. Orders from 
the country promptly attended to. All kinds of Stair 
Material furnished to order. Wood and Ivory Turn- 
ers. Billiard Balls and Ten Pins, Fancy Newels and 
Balusters. 25v8-8m-bp 




CWOLING, REFEESHING, AND 

INVIGORATING ARE THE 

EFFECTS OF 

ROWLANDS' KALYOOR 

On the fare and skin of all exposed 
to the scorching rays of the sun 
and heated particles of dust. It 
eradicates Freckles, Sunburns, 
Tan, and all Cutaneous Eruptions, 
and produces a beautiful and del- 
icate complexion. In cases of 
BtingB of insects it is ol the great- 
est value. Hold everywhere by 
all chemists, druggists, and patent 
medicine dealers. 

Ask for Rowlands' Ealydor, of 
20, Hatton Garden, London, and 
avoid imitations. 



r-i o o ic ! 

ALBERT E. BL'KBANK, Impor- 
ter and Breeder nf Fancy Fowls, 
Pigeons, Rabbits, etc. Also Eggs 
for batching from the finest of im- 
ported stock. Eggi and Fowls at 
reduced prices. jend for Price 
List. 

ALBERT U. BUKBANK, 
lv8-3m 43 k 4' Oal. Market 8. 



FABMKBii write for yonr paper. 



July 17, 1875.] 



43 



Br^EEDEt^s' Ol^ECTOI^Y- 



PDBCHASEI19 OF STOCK WILL FIND II< THIS DiRECTOBY 

THE Names of some op the most beliable Bbeedebs. 
OUE Rates.- Six lines or less Inserted in this directory at 
50 Ota a line per month, payable quarterly. 



CATTLE. 



R. ASHBURNER, Baden Station, San Mateo Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-horn cattle. Pvire Bred Bulls 
for Bale, from cows of choice milking strains. 



J. BREWSTER, Gal* Station, Sacramento Co., 
Cal., breeder of Short-Horn Cattle. 



J. D. OARR, Gabllan, Monterey Co., Cal., breeder 
of Trotting Horses, Short-Horn Cattle, Thoroughbred 
Spanish Marino Sheep and Swine. 



A. HAXLLAIRD, San Bafael, Marin Co., Cal., 
breeder of Jerseys. Calves for sale. 



PAGE BROTHERS, 304 Davis street, San Fran- 
cisco, (or Cotate Ranch, near Petaluma, Sonoma Co.) : 
Breeders of Short-Horns and their Grades. 



STANTON & POWERS, Sacramento, Cal. 
Breeders of Jersey Heifers and Bull Calves at low 
rates. Address L. O. Powers. Sacramento, Cal. 



SHEEP AND GOATS. 



H. F. BUCKIiEY, Hopeton, Oal. Thoroughbred 
also 3i and H Cotswold grade sheep. 



URS. ROBERT BLACOW, Centervllle, near 
Niles Station, Alameda Co., Oal. Pure-Blooded 
French Merino Sheep for sale. 



liANDRTTM <fc RODOERS, Wataonvllle, Santa 
Cruz Countf . Pure-Bred Angora Goats and Cotswold 
Sheep for sale. 

SEVERANCE & PEET, Niles, Alameda Co., 
Cal., breeders of Thoroughbred Spanish Merino 
Sheep. 

A. Q-. STONESIFER, Hill's Ferry, Stanislaus Co., 
Cal., breeder of Pure-Blooded French Merino Sheep. 



li. XJ. SHIPPEE, Stockton, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Spanish Merino Sheep, Durham Cattle 
and Essex Swine. 



POULTRY. 



OiSp. B. BAYIiEY, Cor. 16th and Castro sreets, 
Oakland, Cal. Imported Brahmas and other choice 
Fowls for sale. 

AliBERT E. BTJRBANK, 43 and 44 California 
Market, San Francisco, importer and breeder of 
Fancy Fowls, Pigeons, Babbits, etc. 

K. EYRE, Napa. Bronze Turkeys, Emden Geese, 
Choice Fowls, Pigeons, Babbits, Ferrets. 



WIZiIiIAK KNOWIiES, Brooklyn, Alamedo Co., 
Oal., has for sale Eggs for Hatching, carefully 
packed, from pure-brod Bronze Turkeys, at $7.50 per 
dozen; Brown Leghorns at $4.00 per dozen; Houdans, 
White Leghorns and Buff Cochins at $3.00 per dozen; 
two dozen for $5.00. Sent C. O. D. to any address. 

Mrs. L. J. WATKINS, Santa Clara. Premium 
Fowls. White Leghorn, S. S. Hamburg, Game Ban- 
tams, and Aylesbury Ducks. Also, Eggs. 21v8.3t 



Live Stock Notices. 



IWPOBJ^^oBBEEDEh"' 




SUI,TAJf 8ECONB. 

Angora or Cashmere Goats of pure blooJ and all grades 
for sale in lots to suit purchasers. Location, four miles 
from Railroad Station, connecting with all parts of the 
Stats. For particulars, address N. Gilmore, El Dorado, 
El Dorado County, Cal. 

Thoroughbred Spanish Merinos 

FOR, SA-ILiE. 



60 one and two-year old Thoroughbred Spanish 
Merino Bams, California bred, from Ewes Imported 
from Vermont, and sired by Severaace & Peet's Cele- 
brated Bam "Fremont," and by their Ram "Green 
Mountain," which took the first premiums at the Bay 
District and State Fairs. Last shearing— 35 H lbs- 
years' growth. 

Also, about 100 Ewe and Bam Lambs, all of "Green 
Mountain" Stock, bred this year. 

B. P. WATKINS, 
Santa Clara, Cal. 

12 Short-Horn Bulls, 

fat and sleek, thoroughbred, just from 
Kentucky, at SAXE'S Stables, 36 Bitch Street, between 
Folsom and Harrison, two blocks from Grand 
Hotel. Inquire at SAXE'S Stables, or Boom 32 Buss 
House. 3v9-3m 



FOR, «$A.J^£:. 

400 Pure Blood French Merino Rams, 

On the Oristimba Banob, six miles west of HUl's 
Ferry, Stanislaus County, Cal. All Bams delivered at 
the railroad, free o( charge. Terms easy and prices 
liberal. 

A. O. STON£S£FBR. 




Pure Blooded French Merino Rams 

For sale by MRS. ROBERT BLACOW, of Centervllle, 
Alameda County, Cal., near Niles Station, on the West- 
ern and Southern Pacific Railroad. 

These Sheep are guaranteed of pure descent, from the 
French Imperial Flock at Bambouillet, and are equal, 
if not superior, to any of this breed in size and quality 
of wool, and are proved to be the heaviest shearers in 
the world. 



GA-BILA-PT HERO 



SPANISH MERINO SHEEP. 



I havejust purchased of Mr. George Hammond, of 
Vermont, three car-loads of Spanish Merino Sheep, 
(335 head ,Ewegand Bucks) 
which, with others that I 
purchased last Fall, (also 
direct from Vermont) 
makes my band of Thor- 
oughbred Spanish Merinos 
about 650 head. 
1 am prepared to sell 
both Bucks and Ewes, of Pure Blooded Spanish Merinos 
— as good as can be had in the Msrorld — so says Mr. 
Hammond. Parties interested will please give me a 
call. I am ten miles from Salinas City, Gabilan P. 0., 
Monterey county. 

J. S. CARR. 

N. B.— I have also Good Graded Bucks for sale, and 
can dispose of some Good Graded Ewes. J. D. 0. 




Banking and Insurance. 



.A. D^ Is/:! O 3Sr I ^ ! 

For Washing: and Cleaninir Purposes. 



For Sale t>y all Grocers. 



Thia article is universnlly used in Europe, and, recenty 
introduced for general family ase in San Francisco and 
neighborhood, is already in great demand. It is now the 
intention of 1-ne manufacturers to introduce it all over the 
Pacific Oc ast, at prices which will bring it within the reach 
of every household. 

It is unequalled for cleanslnR Woolen Fabrics, Cutlery, 
Carpets or Crockery ; for Scrubbing Floors, Washing Paint, 
Removinfcf Grease Spots, Shampooing or Bathing. 

It renders water soft, and imparts a delighttui eense of 
coolness after washing. 

DIRECTIONS.— For Laundry, use twj to four table- 
spooonfuls to a washtuh of water. For bathing, use one 
tablespoonful in the bath tub. For removing grease spots, 
apply with a brush, undiluted, and wash with water aftpj~ 
wara. For stimulating the growth of plants, use » *ew 
drops in every pint of water used in watering. 

PRICE.-Per Pint Bottle, 25 cents; per quart -auart Bot- 
tle, 40 cents ; per Half Gallon, 75 cents. 

Also. SULPHATE OF AMMONIA fr. chemical pur- 
pose, fertilizintr, and the preparation '■''^rtificial manures. 
AMMONIAOAL PREPARATION. ^^ the prevention and 
removal of boiler scale. CRUD^ AMMONIA for general 
manafacturing, andPURKLT«lTORand AQtJA AMMO- 
NIA for chemical and pbar^acentical purposes. 

JB®- Manufactured by f^e 

SAN FRANCISCO GAS-LIOHT CO. 

eowbp , 



14 






The Candles sold under the above well known 
'brand" are made only of Pure Stearic Acid, twice 
hydraulic pressed, are not cheapened by adulteration 
with crude material, and upon burning, give a large 
and brilliant flame, without running. 13v9-2ambp 

The National Gold Medal 

WAS AWAKDED TO 

BRADLEY & RULOFSON 

FOR THE 

BEST PHOTOGRAPHS 

IN THE 

UNITED STATES, 

AND THE 

VIENNA MEDAL 
FOR THE BEST IN THE WORLD. 



eowbp 



No, 429 SIontKomery Street, 

Ban Francisco, Oal. 



Grangers' Bank of California. 

(Incorporated April 27th, 1871.) 
Offices, 415 California street, San Francisco. 

CAPITAL authorized, $5,000,000, in 50,000 shares of 
$100 each. Subscribed, $2,568,700. (Number of 
shareholders, 1,571) . Paid up, $481,200. 

DIRECTORS— J. V. Webster, President; Calvin J. 
CBES3ET, Vice-President; 0. S. Abbott, J. P. 
Obeisman, G. W. Colby, J. H. Hill, J. Lewel- 
LYN, Thos. McConnell, J. 0. Mehkyfeeld, a. F. 
Walcott, F. J. Woodward. 

OFFICERS— Managing Director, Calvin J. Cressey; 
Cashier, Alexandee Watson; Secretary, Fbank 
A. Cbessey. 

The bank was opened on the Ist of August, 1874, 
for the purpose of affording additional banking 
facilities to the producers of the State, and for 
the transaction of ordinary banking business. 

CURRENT ACCODNTS are opened and conducted in the 
usual way, and interest allowed on the minimum 
monthly balance at the rate of three per cent, per 
Bnnum. 

CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT are issued in sums of 
$50 and upwards, payable on 30 days' notice of 
withdrawal, bearing interest at lates varying 
with the current rate of discount. 

TEEM DEPOSITS are received in gold, silver or cur- 
rency, and interest allowed as follows, namely: 
Three months, six per cent, per annum; six 
months, seven per cent, per annum; one year, 
eight per cent, per annum. 

COLLECTIONS are made throughout the State on the 
most favorable terms. 

DISCOUNTS— The bank advances on real estate in the 
different counties, on merchandise and grain in 
warehouse, etc., with a fair margin, charging a 
uniform rate of one per cent, per month. Dis 
count days, Tuesday and Friday. 

ALEXANDER WATSON, Cashier. 



California Farmers Mutual 
Fire Insurance Association. 

Office, 6 Leidesdorff St., - Saa Francisco. 

Directors: 

A. Wolf, A. W. Thompson, I. 0. Steele, 

I. G. Gabsneb, J. C. Merryfield, J. D. Blanohab, 

G. P. Kellogo, Treas. 

Finance Committee: 
I. G. Gabdneb, J. 0. Mebbyfield, a. W. Thompson 

Trustees: 
J. M. Hamilton, Lake Co 
J.O. MEBBYFIELD,SolanO Co 
G. W. Colby, - - Butte Co 



H. B. JoLLET, . Merced Co 

A. Wolf, San Joaquin Co 

J. D. BLANCHAR, Pres't. 



I. C. Steele, Ban Mateo Co 
A. B. Nallet, Sonoma Co 
O . S. Abbott, S'ta Barb'a Co 
A. W. THOMPSON,Souoma Co 
E. W. Steele,S L Obispo Co 
W. H. BAXTER, Sec'y. 



This association is organized for the purpose of af- 
fording the farmers of this State the means of safely 
insuring against loss by Are, at actual cost of insurance, 
without being connected with city risks. a822.tf 



IMMIGRANT BUREAU. 

J. E3A.R!L, M^anajS'er. 

I. G. GARDNER. Assistant 

123 California Street, 



Second Floor, 



San Francisco, Cal. 



Dewey & Co. {b^Io^st} Patent Agt's. 



To the Immigrants Seeking Homes, 
Labor and Information. 

There is ample room in our State for all that are 
arriving to find homes, and there is plenty of work for 
willing hands to do. By the information we expect to 
give through this Bureau, we anticipate no difficulty in 
finding homes and employment for all who may como. 
This office will be furnish'id with maps of Government 
and other desirable lands for sale, with full informa- 
tion relative to location, soil, climate, etc. 

The simple object of the Bureau is to protect the 
interests of Immigrants, giving reliable information 
''here the new comer can find employment, and Annies 
tho"^^* iwt^A per/erf (t«c, free of charge; and since 
. r?'reau will be in correspondence with reliable or 
similaiBufgujjg throughout the State, it cannot fail to 
accompU,! the object intended. 

Mayor JAMES OTIS, 
I. FRIEDLANDER, 
C. J. CRESSEY, 
0. ADOLPHE LOW, 
JOHN MORTON. 
The Committeo havin, selected the appointed Agent 
of the Grangers' lmmig«,nt Committee and the late 
Business Agent of the Sta, q ,g ^^ j^^. ^ 
and Assistant, shows a friett,y disposition and desire 
to unite with us in our en<er^ig^,^. Grangers that we 
shouldnot Ignore; and as this .,,titmj„„ i*- J 

tamed by the people at large, wc ,^3^^,^ , ^ 

Grangers, and ask their co-opernC , R„nr,nrt and 

to take immediate action in selectiS, ""l^'^PP"^'' »"^ 
their Grange to receive orders for her™* •'*"2°tl,n 
same to this office, that we may till tlicur °" *®'''' , J^''° 
we may refer those seeking homes and sil ,»:„_„?: 
is desirable that we have full description of", "?• " 
sale and to rent. °"^ ""^ 

J. EABIi, Hanab 



Railroads. 




BUOOESSOB TO A. PrisiEB & Co., 

Cor. Second and Santa Clara Sts.San Jose. 

CAPITAL, - -- $100,000. 

WM. ERKSON P?.'?l"'*^?!3' 

H. E. UlLLS MANAiiB-R 

Directors;— Wm Eckson, L. F. Ohipman. Hornco Litile 
J P. Dudley, David I ampboll. James Singleton, Tliomas 
E. Snell. O.'T. M-ttlo, E. A. Kraley. 

Will do a Guneral Mercantile Business, also recuive De- 
posits, on which kuoh inierest will be allowed as may be 
agrei'd upon, and make Loans upon approved security. 



A. W. THOMPSON, 

Attorney at La "W , 

No. 6 Leldasdorff Str«et, 8- T. 



Chicago and Northwestern 
Railwjiy. 



JMiles ill Operation: 

Illinois Division 486.5 

Iowa " 432.8 

Wisconsin " 685.4 

Michigan " 168 7 

Minnesota " \ 291.8 

Dakota " ]'. zi.5 

Total Miles 2 ,003. 



IN CONNECTION WITH THE 

Central and Union Pacific Railroads, 

—THIS IS THE — 

PIONEER LINE 

Between the Pacific Coast and the 
EAST, 

And was the first to connect with the great 
Pacific roads, and form the 

OVERLAND ROUTE. 

THIS LINE IS THE 

Shortest I£ail Line 

— BETWEKN — 

OMAHA and CHICAGO. 

The track is of the 
BEST STEEL RA.IL, 

And is well ballasted, and as free from dust as 
a road can be made; the bridges are strong and 
durable, and all the appointments are first- 
class in every respect. 

The trains that run over this road are made 
up of elegant 

New Pullman Palace Drawing Room and 
Sleeping Coaches, 

Bxdll Expressly for this Line, 

Luxurious, well lighted and well ventilated 
Day Coaches, and pleasant lounging and smok- 
ing cars; all built by this company in their 
own shops. The cars are all equipped with the 

Miller Safety Platform. 

— AND — 

PATENT BUFFERS AND COUPLINGS, 
WESTINGHOUSE SAFETY AIR BRAKES, 

And every other appliance that has been de- 
vised for the safety of passenger trains. All 
trains are run by telegraph, and are so regular- 
ly on time that one can safely set his watch by 
their arrivals or departures. 

IN A. WOOD, THIS 

Oreat California Line 

Has the 
BEST AND SMOOTHEST TBACK, 

AND THE MOST 

Elegrant and Comfortable Equipment 

Of any road in the West, and has no competi- 
tor in the country. It is eminently the favorite 
route with Californians traveling East, and is 
icknowkdged by the traveling public to be the 
' nular line for 

^'^l'^'**. New York and all Eastern Cities. 

procured ut aV' '^ ^7 '^^'" favorite route can be 
lUiLBOAD, and a^c' s of the Centiul Pacific 
"> office of the 

^"«^*'^"*~'''°'^- WESTERN RAILWAY, 
131 MIoiitgo. 

vy Street. 

H. P. STANWOOD, Gen. Ag i ^^j.^,^^ 

M. HUOHITT, W. H. STENNo- 

General Sup't, Gen. Passenger Ag . 

Chicaoo. CHicAao. 

lOvfl-lam-ly 



44 



[July i7» 1875. 



Continued from Fag-e 37. 



A. J. GoBDON, whose ranch is six miles be- 
low town, ou Raasian river, left at our office this 
week some flue samples of Bay wheat from a 
field of twenty-five acres. Although badly 
lodged, he thinks it will average thirty to forty 
bushels to the acre. The wheat in big vicinity 
will be at least an average. Harvesticg is in 
fall operation. 
TRINITT. 

LooKiNo Wkll. — Journal, July 10: Grain 
fields are looking well in the valley, the rain of 
three weeks ago having saved some pieces of 
wheat which it was thought would have to be cut 
for hay. Considerable wheat has been sown this 
year on land which has lain idle for years. 
TT7LABE. 

BiLLBOAD Lands. — Visalia Delia, 8th inst.: 
From an inspection of the books of the railroad 
agent here, we find the following facts regard- 
ing the sale of railroad lands in this county 
from June 19th to July 3d: number of acres 
sold, 8,320; number of dollars received for the 
same, $12,438; highest price paid on any one 
lot of land, $8 per acre; lowest price, $2.50 per 
acre. 

Although the settling up of our county has 
necessitated the driving of a good portion of 
the stock out of our county, we see by the as- 
sessor's books that there are still -104,000 sheep 
within the limits of Tulare. At the lowest es- 
timate the wool from this number of sheep 
would amount to 3,000,000 pouuds. 

On Tuesday afternoon fire caught in the lamp 
room of the Lovejoy hotel, Tulare City, and in 
about forty minutes the whole business portion 
of the place was in ashes. The damage cannot 
be less than one hundred thousand dollars, and 
may possibly double that sum. The ingurance 
is between $30,000 and $40,000. 
VENTUKA. 

CoEN CBO-p.—Sic/nal, 3d inut.: The corn crop 
of Ventura county this year will exceed that of 
any previous one. The constant heavy dews 
keep it growing and in fine condition. There 
are man}' fields in the county which from pres- 
ent appearances will yeld more than one hun- 
dred bushels to the acre. 
YOLO. 

Finest Wheat Eveb Raised.— Jfaii, July 8: 
We have information from several of our farm- 
ers concerning the yield of wheat in several lo- 
calities, and they state that the best of it pro- 
duces about forty-five bushels (sixty pounds) 
per acre, and some as low as twelve. The lo- 
calities that produce the largest yie'ds generality 
produce the largest and finest grain. In fact 
we find it the universal belief that the wheat 
this year is the finest in quality on an average, 
that was ever raised in Yolo county. 



Oregon. 



Good Pbospects. — Bedrock Democrul, June 
30: We were out in Powder river valley some 
six miles on last Saturday. The croDs, grass, 
and everything else that springs from iTie ground 
looks well, and our farmers are happy from the 
fact that they expect good crops. The grass- 
hoppers and crickets have so far given them 
no trouble. 

The Flax Cbop.— 0/egonian, 10th inst: The 
a^ent of the Pioneer oil company states that 
there are over 14,000 acres of flax under con- 
tract this season to the company. There is flax 
in every county in the Willamette valley as far 
Bouth as Jackson county, which has been pur- 
chased by the company; also about 3,000 acres 
in Eastern Oregon and Washington Territory. 
Of the flax crop which will be raised this season, 
at least 175,000 bushels are under contract to 
the oil mills. 100,000 bushels of flax seed will 
be shipped this year, by the company, to the 
Pacific oil and lead works, San Francisco, for 
consumption in the manufacture of oils. The 
Pioneer oil company have the exclusive agency 
for purchasing seed for the former company ou 
this coast for the next three years. 

From a conversation with Mr. C. P. Burk- 
hart, the Gnnvier learns that he has seeded a 
small part of his farm to rye, (the Ohio White) 
and that it promises an abuudant jield, much 
greater than wheat. 

Washington Territory. 

Plknty of Wheat Left Oveb. — Walla Walla 
Union, 3d inst.: It was thought at the close of 
winter that so much wheat had been led out to 
stock there would not be enough left to supply 
the home demand and the many camps de- 
pendent on thi« valley for lh< ir flour uiitil the 
next crop could be rtady for cousi mpti m. Tue 
idea seimsto have prevailed ihatih^re was very 
little wheat left, until wiih^n a week or two 
past, when th." price whs rais d to fitty cen s 
per bunhel. But so tooa as this was doue, the 
idea of scarcity was coirec ed, aud it wa^ found 
that tbere was still a plenty of wheat left, f..j 
imm^diatt-ly th» teiims b<gin to brin^ •' ^'}>r 
dozens of loads, anl now we find that ,!!,„„ 

wa-iaconsid rable amount of wheat A!' ► _. 
.« .1. 1 p , , y tne stock 

if there was a lai^e amount fed out 

last^intr. .-The farmers 

Demand foe Habvest Ha^j.Jj (^^j^ ^ - 

are getiiug along pretty ,^te will pras/and 

in many cases. MosJ,, but they have not yet 

grain hay is alreadjrmotby. The wheat is not 

commenced op^-jt usually is, but they will 

quite so eaitting it in a short t me. The d.^- 

commf »iiarvesi hBBds exo.eds the supply and 

mbD*f the farmers comp aiu that it ig hlmo t 

aposBible for them to net their h.y harves td- 

rnd that they do not know what they will do 

when it cijmes to harvesting their grain— espe- 

lly as the crop is going to be io heavy. 



Rules for the State Agricultural So- 
ciety's Fair. 

BiTLE 1. Each member of the California State 
Agricultural Society will be furnished with a 
ticket, upon presentation of his certificate of 
membership, to transfer or loan which will 
subject him to expulsion from the Society and 
exclusion from any of its benefits in future. 

EuLE 2. Price of admission to the Stock 
Ground or Pavilion, fifty cents. Membership 
ticket^:, admitting a member and his wife and 
minor children at all the exhibitions at Stock 
Grounds and Hall, five dollars. Officiating 
clergymen, editors, and delegates from Agri- 
cultural Societies, will be presented with com- 
plimentary cards of admission, on application 
at the office of the Secretary. No horse will 
be allowed to be hitched to a tree or any fixture 
of the grounds. 

KuLE 3. Exhibitors must see to the delivery 
of iLeir articles upon the ground or at the Hall, 
to the Superintendent of the appropriate de- 
partment. 

KtJLE 4. All exhibitors who intend to com- 
pete for the premiums of the Society must be- 
come members of the same, and all must have 
their animals entered at the office of the Entry 
Clerk at the Park, by Saturday, the 18th of 
September, at 8 o'clock p. m., and articles 
for the Hall, at the office of the Entry 
Clerk in the Hall, so that they may 
be arranged in their respective departments 
and in readiness for examination by the Judges; 
and no premiums will be paid on any article at 
the Park or Hall, unless properly entered, and 
in the place assigned them for exhibition. 

KuLE 5. The Society will not be responsible 
for the omission to exhibit any article or animal 
not entered strictly in accordance with its 
rules. 

Rule 6. No article or animal entered for 
premiums can be removed or taken away be- 
fore the close of the exhibition, without special 
permission. No premiums will be paid on ar- 
ticles or animals removed in violation of this 
rule. 

Rule 7. All articles and animals entered 
for exhibition, must have cards with the num- 
bers as entered by the Entry Clerk; and exhibit- 
ors in all cases must obtain their cards pre- 
vious to placing their articles or animals on 
exhibition. Cards for animals must be placed 
in a conspicuous place on the stalls or pens, 
aud cards for other articles will be attached to 
them. 

Rule 8. Those who wish to offer articles or 
animals for sale during the Fair, must notify 
the Secretary[or Entry Clerk of the same at the 
time of entering, and have a card attached or 
posted on stall or pen, stating that they are for 
sale, with the owner's name. 

Rule 9. The Board of Directors will use 
every precaution in their power for the safe 
preservation of all articles and stock on exhi- 
bition, but will not be accountable for loss or 
damage. Exhibitors must give attention to 
their articles or animaU during the Fair, and 
at the close of the exhibition attend to theii re- 
moval. 

Rule 10. Judges will bo selected with re- 
ference solely to the highest order of fitness ; 
provided, always, that no person will be per- 
mitted to act as Judge in the same department 
where he is competitor. 

Rule 11. In no case can the Judges award 
special or discretionary premiums, but may 
recommend to the Board of Directors any arti- 
cles in their class which they may deem worthy 
of special notice, and for which a premium has 
not been ofifered. 

Rule 12. No stock of inferior quality will 
be at'mitted within the grounds. A committee 
will be appointed to rule out all below a medium 
grade. 

Rule 13. No person will be allowed to inter- 
fere with the Judges during their adjudications 
and any person who shall attempt to inter*""* 
with them, whether verbally or otherwise ^^i^H 
be excluded from competition. 

Rule 14. The Superintendents p' Depart- 
ments will receive the award boo'^ from the 
Secretary and deliver them to thepfoper Judges 
in their respective department'i '^'}^^ afford the 
Judges every facility for ev/»Jiination, point out 
the articles or anima'o tf f>e examined, attach 
prize cards to the articps, or flags to the suc- 
cessful animals, uud'"^ 'be direction of the 
Judges; and when tH awards are finished and 
entered in the bo '^^' ^''' receive them from 
the Jud.!es and •«■ tum them carefully to the 
Presid.-nt or p-.cetary. allowiug no person to 
hand e or ex"^"^® tUvxa. except specially au- 
tr.orized sc° "°' *^> ^P°^ '''e entry of awirds 
in them. '-°^*i ''y ''*'' Judges, and upon no 
other ^'"ority, cau ordtrs or checks or pre- 
nj,p^« be drawn. 

^VhE 15 The General Superintendent of 
.ne Sock Grounds »i 1 see that they are in 
p oper order for the reception aud exhibition 
01 the stock of all kinds, and for the comfort 
and convcuitfDca of exhibitors aud visitors- 
that proper mpplies of food for stock, aud' 
*ater for all purposes, are on the ground and 
conveuient of acce-s. Ho will dinct exhibitors 
on their hrrival and iifer their entry of their 
Hniuia!s, to proper stalls or departm-nts on the 
Grounds, and in lonu. ction with the Superin- 
tendents of Dtp irlments will see thit all classes 
of stock are readv f .r .xbibition or p«r «de at 
'he exHct time and in the particular manner as 
-pecifi»d lu the programme, and »ill exercise a 
g-neral f-np rvii-ioti over the grounds, preserv- 
lug Older Hiid deoorim. The General Super- 
in eudent of the Hall will see that the same is 
in proper order for the reception and exhibition 
of all artiolea to be exhibited therein, and for 



the comfort and convenience of exhibitors and 
visitors. He will have the nomination of his 
assistants, and will assign them to their partic- 
ular duties in the several departments. He 
will receive and direct the location, classifica- 
tion and arrangement of all articles entered for 
exhibition, and will exercise a general super- 
vision throughout the Hall, preserving order 
and decorum during the Fair, The General 
Superintendent and Superintendents of Depart 
ments, and their assistants, also the Marshal 
aud hi!« assistants, will also be vested with all 
the powers aud prerogatives with whicli the 
Constables are invested, so far as acts or of- 
fenses committed within, or with reference to, 
or in connection with the Exhibition are con- 
cerned, and they shall be responsible to the 
Board of Directors for the proper management 
of their departments. 

Rule 16. No animal can compete in more 
than one class, unless the exception is made in 
the schedule. 

Rule 17. Animals, when duly entered, will 
be furnished with hay for food and straw for 
bedding, free of charge; but all grain must be 
paid for by exhibitors, at market price, except 
grain for swine aud poultry. A depot for grain 
will be established on the Grounds. 

Rule 18. All mackines, implements or other 
products of mechanical arts must be exhibited 
by their respective makers, or inventors, or 
improvers, or their assignees, to or for whom 
only premiums for such articles will be awarded . 
Any fictitious entries will subject the partici- 
pants in the fraud to forfeiture of all pre- 
miums awarded, as well as exclusion from 
competition at any future exhibition of the So- 
ciety. 

Rule 19. The General Superintendents, 
Superintendents of Departments, and the 
Judges of stock or articles exhibited at the 
Park, will assemble at the office of the Board, 
at the Park, on Wednesday, the 15th of Sep- 
tember, at nine o'clock and thirty minutes a. 
M., precisely, where all will receive instruotions, 
and the President will deliver to the Judges 
their award books, and the Superintendents 
will conduct them to their respective depart- 
ments for the commencement of their work. 
The Superintendents and Judges of articles 
exhibited at the Hall will assemble at the same 
time at the office of the Secretary, at the Hall, 
for the same purpose. All vacancies iu the 
Board of Judges will then and there be filled, 
so that all will be expected to be present at that 
time. This is important, as upon a proper 
commencement depends the success of the ex- 
amination and awards, and upon these the gen- 
eral satisfaction of the exhibitors. 

Rule 20. Premiums are payable in cash, 
except where diplomas are specified. The diplo- 
mas will be delivered at the State Agricultural 
Rooms, in Sacramento, a'^ soon as they can be 
prepared or engraved, to the proper persons by 
the Secretary. Premiums will be paid by the 
Treasurer only on the order of the President 
and Secretary. These orders must be in- 
dorsed by the party to whom they are made 
payable. 

Rule 21. When a majority of Judges on any 
section are present, they shall constitute a 
qivorum and be authorized to award premiums; 
aud Vbe, first on the list of those present shall 
be Chairtaan. 

Rule 22. The Judges will give the reasons 
in writing for tnajr decisions, as far as practi- 
cable, embracing Uje valuable and desirable 
qualities of the article or animal to which a pre- 
mium is awarded. 

Rule 23. Should Judge^not be satisfied of 
the regularity of the entries in their respective 
classes, they will apply to the Entry Clerk for 
information; and should thera gtill be any 
doubt, »fter examination, or if any article or 
any a"imal is of such a character as not to be 
entiled to exhibition in competition, thoy will 
piclude from their award all such articles or 
animals. 

Rule 24. Discretionary premiums will be 
awarded by the Board of Directors, should ob 
jects of special interest not provided for in any 
of the classes be presented. 

Rule 25. All instruments, machines, uten- 
sils and apparatus intended to be used in the 
preparatiom, culture or seeding of the soil, in 
the harvesting, manufacture or transportation 
of produce, or in the various requirements of 
agriculture, or in promoting the c«mfort of ag- 
riculturists and their families, will be admitted 
to the exhibition, whether in competition or 
not. 

Rule 26. Sales may be mad« by exhibito's 
duniiij til*- F-iir, under »uth reguiai'ions as the 
Board of DirctMB may here ifier pre-ioribe;bui 
ihe articles shall not be removed without the 
i-pedal pe''ml^Bloa of the Pr sident. 

Rule 27. Tue exhibition in the cattle ring, 
or on the track, will take pi ice punctually at 
the t'our specified m the pr^ gramme. 

Rule 28. The Judges will report not only 
the animals and articles entitled to preminma. 
but also those n xt in merit in each class, to 
meet the c utiu>.enoy of any ligal oljectiou 
wuich may aiise to the awards, a^.d also that 
they may receive suitable esmmendation. 

RuLK 29 Judges nie particiilirly requested 
to hand their awards to tue President or Secre 
tary, as the case may be, as soon as their de- 
cisions are made, and write out their reports, 
giving the reaso-rof their awards, and hand to 
tbe Secretary before the close of the fair, that 
they may go into the Tlan^BC ions of the So- 
ciety. If li mer ti oe U ne ded in any particu- 
lar case, apply to the Secre;ary for copits of 
awards. 

RtJLE 30. Exhibitors of all animals must 
place the name of the animal, and the particu- 
lar breed to which the animal belongs, and also | 



their own name and address, in a conspicuous 
place on their respective stalls. 

Rule 31. No animal to be entered in the 
name of any other than the bono fide owner. 
Should any be entered otherwise, they will not 
be allowed to receive a premium, although 
awarded by the Judges. 

Rule 32. No person other than the Judges 
will be permitted to go into the ring where 
stock is exhibited, except the officers of the 
Society or Marshals. No stock will be per- 
mitted to enter the groonds unless under halter 
and in the care of a groom. 

RtTLE 33. Purity of blood, as established by 
pedigree, symmetry, size, early maturity and 
general characteristics of the several breeds of 
animals, to be considered; and the Judges will 
make proper allowance for age, feeding and 
other circumstances. 

Rule 34. There will be a grand parade of 
all the stock on exhibition, at ten o'clock each 
day, unless notice is given the day previous; 
and a failare of any stock to appear at that 
hour will exclude such stock from competition 
for premiums. All persons having stock on 
the ground, will see to it at that hour, as the 
rule will be strictly adhered to. 



gATENTS & 1nVENTI0N& 



A Weekly List of U. 8. Patents Is- 
saed to Paoiflo Coast Inventors. 

(Fbom Official Repobts fob thk MiNiMa akd Soueh. 

TiFio PBEsa, DEWEY k CO., Fcbuhhebs akd 

U. 8. AND FoBEiaN Patent Aoentb.] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Waahlng-ton, 
D. O., July 13th, 1876. 

Fob Week Endujo June 29th, 1875." 
Train Teleobaph. — Andrew Ryder, Oakland, 

Cal. 
Soda Bottle Cabbies.— Albert F. Enorp, S. 

F., Cal. 
Folding Table. — Enoch J. Marstens, Stock- 
ton, Cal. 
Windmill. — Joseph McGovern, Modesto, Cal. 

Tlie patents »re not ready for delivery by tte 

Patent Office imtll some 11 days after tliedate of issae. 
Note.— Copies of U. 8. aud Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewet & Oo., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
basinese tor Pacific oo&st loTentora transacted with 
perfect security and in tbe shortest possible time. 



Industrial Items. 

CoLTON is the name given to the new town 
projected around the depot of the Southern 
Pacific railroad, at a point on the Santa Ana 
river, about thres miles southwest of San Ber- 
nardino. The railway company is making 
preparations to commence the building of their 
depot at once. 

Abticles of incorporation of the Santa Kosa 
manufacturing company were filed in the office 
of the County Clerk last Saturday; object, to 
carry on the manufacture of woolen goods in 
Santa Rosa. 

Abticles of incorporation have been filed of 
a company organized to construct a railroad 
and telegraph line between lone, Amador 
county and Gait, on the line of the C. P. E. R. 

The Contra Costa Gazelle says that John and 
Patrick Tormey are contemplating the erection 
of a warehouse 50x100, for their own storage, 
on the bay shore of the Pinole ranch. 

In Placer county there are twenty-eight saw 
mills, twenty steam power and eieht water 
DO wer. These mills during the year 1875 sawed 
out about 25,000,000 feet of lumber. 

WoKK is progressing satisfactorily on the So- 
noma and Marin railroad. About seventy men 
are employed on the tunnel, and the eame 
number in grading along the marsh. 

The Los Angeles woolen mill has gone into 
the hands of a number of our leading capitalists, 
and will hereafter supply us with domestic 
goods of excellent quality. 

The Marysville Appeal of lact week says tha* 
the California Pacific railroad is rebuilt to Snt" 
ter station, and that cars were to be put on im- 
mediately. 

Music Teachers prefer Clarke's New Motbod for the 
Piano Forte, because it is the bett instructor; it has no 
equal. Price, $:<. S. 



LOCKE & MONTAGUE, 

IHPOETERS OF 

Stoves, Ranges, 

Tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Iron Pipe, 

House FamlsblnK Hardware, 

Plain Japanned, 

Planished and Stamped 

TITS WAHE, 

112 and 114 Battery Street. 

•AN FBANOiaOO. 



July 17, 1875.] 



S. p. 




KET AEPOIT- 



Weekly Market Review. 



DOMESTIC PROBUCE, ETC. 

San Feancisco, July 14, 1875. 

Ab the harrest progresses throughout the State the 
yield of grain appears to come up to the expectations 
of those who have been considered ov«r sanguine. A 
report from Alameda county represents the yield near 
Llvermore as being above a two-third crop. The Yolo 
Mail claims for some Wheat - In that section the honor 
of being "the finest ever raised." Judging by the re- 
ceipts of Wheat at this market our farmers generally 
are inclined to hold on to their crop. A careful review 
ol the foreign market would seem to favor this. The 
Mark Lane Express, of the 13th Inst., says: 

Crops have been advancing favorably. This pro- 
duced a more quiet feeling in London, where prices 
had begun to advance. There has been a further im- 
provement in the country, in many places the prices 
being one or two sliillings dearer for Wheat, and as the 
anticipation of a crop equal to last year is given up and 
stocks are decreasing, there is plenty of room for a 
further rise. In France the damage by the floods is 
very extensive, and the provinces show a rise in Wheat 
of one or two shillings. 

Dispatches from Liverpool this morning give the 
price of California Wheat in that market at 9s 6d@9s 
7d; Club, 9s 7d@98 lOd, an advance from last week. 
The Oregon papers state that but few contracts are 
made In that market for "delivery after harvest" — 
shippers and producers both appear Inclined to spec- 
ulate. 

For useful information In regard to the crops on this 
coast see our "Agricultural Notes." 

Bags— Prices unchanged. The market evinces in- 
creased activity In sales. 

Barley— Receipts since our last, 15,301 ctls. Market 
Is firm. "We quote Feed at $1.47)ii@1.50; Brewing at 
$1.5i5@1.60 for choice. 

Beans— Receipts since our last, 160 sks. We quote 
Pea at $2.87>i@3.12J4 ■^ ctl; Pink, $1.50 ^ ctl; small 
White, $3.12)ii®3.25 ^ ctl. Other varieties unchanged. 

Corn— Receipts since our last, 740 ctls. We quote 
White at $1.45; Yellow at $1.40 ?* 100 lbs. 

Dairy Produce— Butter remains dull at last week's 
quotations. We note a decline in Eastern Cheese, 
quoting it at 14®18c. ^ 16. Eggs still have an upward 
tendency. We quote Fresh California at 37}>5@40c; 
Oregon at 36@37J<ic per doz. 

Feed— Receipts of Hay since our last, 2,288 tons. The 
market Is a trifle weak. We quote $14@18 per ton as 
the range of the market. Bran is quoted at $19 per ton. 
Other classes of Feed unchanged. 

Flour— Receipts since our last, 19,141 qr sacks. 
Market steadj^'at last week's quotations. 

Fresh Mdtit- Marked firm, no change in prices. 

Fruits— Peaches are in good supply, though with 
the exception of some late arrivals of Crawfords, not of 
a very good quality. They range in price from 30c to 
$1.75 per basket. Some fine Bartlett Pears are in 
market. They are held at $2 per baeket. Other varie- 
ties from 75c to $1.25. Strawberries are in scant sup- 
ply at $10@12 per chest. Gooseberries are out of 
market; likewise California Lemons. Black Currants 
are coming in. They retail at 30c ¥* lb. Apricots are 
getting scarce at $1.26®1. 50 per box. Other varieties 
as per table. 

Game.- Venison is plentiful at 8@10c. Hares are 
quotable at $2@2.2,) per doz. 

Hides— Receipts since our last, 687. Prices un- 
changed. 

Onions — Receipts since our last, 594 sks. We note 
an advance, quoting them at $1.25 per ctl. 

Oats — Receipts since our last, 4,586 ctls. The 
market is weak, owinu to receipts of the new crop. Old 
are quotable ut $2.25@2.30; New at $2@2.15. 

Potatoes— Receipts since our last, 5,990 sks. The 
market is a trifle weak to-day. We quote Early Rose at 
$1.50; Sweet at $3.50. 

Provisions— Market firm, prices unchanged. 

Poultry— Live Turkeys are a trifle weaker. We 
quote them at 23@25c Tf» Ife. 

Seeds — We note an advance in the price of Mustard 
Seed, quoting White and Brown at 2®2!ic 'J* 16, with 
the probability that it will go higher, as it is reported 
from Trieste that the crop there will be very light. We 
believe that Mustard Seed has never been cultivaled as 
a crop in California, hut only gleaned from the growing 
Orain, where it was suU-sown, and disposed of at prices 
barely sufficient to pay for the trouble. If the demand 
in this market should continue, and the European 
crop be materially reduced, it will hereafter pay to 
raise Mustard Seed. Other varieties of Seeds remain 
unchanged. 

Tallovy— We note a further advance in Refined Tal- 
low, quoting it at 9@10c. 

Wheat— Receipts since our last, 93,505 ctls; 56,000 
ctls of this amount was received during the twenty-four 
hours ending at noon to-day. The market is very nrm 
at $1.70@1.75 for Shipping, and $1.75@1.80 for choice 
old Milling. 

Wool— Receipts since onr last, 687 sks, as against 
821 sks the preceding week. The market is dull and 
inactive. The better grades of Northern Wool remain 
firm at our last week's quotations. The poor grades of 
Southern Wools may be got in large lots a little off- as 
low, say, as 12c for Burry and Heavy Free. The fol- 
lowing telegram appeared in last evening's papers: 

New York, July 13th.— AtPhiladelphiaWoolis steady 
and demand moderate. The supply is increasing. 
Colorado Washed, 28®35c; Colorado Unwashed, 22c to 
26c: Extra and Merino Pulled, 40@45c; No. 1 Super, 
Pulled, 40®42c; Texas Fine and Medium, 28@35c; 
Texas Coarse, 24®25c; California Fine and Medium, 
28@35c; Calltorni.T Coarse, 22®26c. 

E. Grisar & Co. hiive issued their semi-annual Wool 
circular , from which we quote: The first arrivals of 
Spring Wool met with ready sale, and under competi- 
tion of Eastern buyers, prices gradually advanced 
about 10 per cant. The Interruption in overland com- 
munication, combined with an advance in premium on 
gold and in freights, caused an accumtilation of wools 
in April. Holders, however, conceded sufiiciently to 
Induce buyers to take hold freely, and at the present 
time stocks are small. The large stock of Fall Wool on 
hand at the opening of the year has been marketed, so 
that Wools in store are chiefly Spring; since the first of 
July considerable purchases haveb«en made, and the 
supply to-day is smaller than the statistics show. The 
opening rates were 20 cents for free Wools of ordinary 
staple. Prices gradually advanced to 22 cents, and 
then fell back to opening rates. Choice Wools opened 
at 24 cents, advanced to 26 cents, and for some extra 
lots 27 cents was obtained. These prices have been 
nearly maintained. Good Southern Wools at first 
brought 17 cents, but gradually declined under large 
receipts to IS cents, and on some inferior parcels to 
13 }i cents. Long stapled clips had a value of 2 cents 
above ordinary lots. The condition of the wools from 
the middle counties was excellent, but the staple was 
shor t, owing to extensive shearing in the Fall. The 
Northern Wools were above the average of former sea- 
sons in condition and length of staple . Large num- 
bers of sheep have been driven out of the State on Re- 
count of the dry season and consequent short feed, and 
for this reason the Increase In production has fallen 
Short ot the estimate made at the opening of the sea- 
(OB. Oregon Wools are coming forward aloWly, asthe 



shearing there la later than usual. Tkere Is no Im. 
provement to note in oondition or length of staple 

The receipts in this market since the 1st of Jaauary 
last have been as follows: 
, Bags. 

January 334 

February 359 

March 2,197 

April 32,847 

May 27,798 

June 10,313 

lbs. 

T3,848, weighing 22,892,880 
Shipped exclusive of above 7oU,0U0 

^°*?' 23,642,880 

On hand January Ist, about 6,468 000 

Oregon, 1,187 bags 315,000 

Foreign , 194 bags 77,500 

Grand Total 30,493,380 

The exports during the same time reached 26,:W0,874 

lbs. There was on hand July Ist about 2,350,000 lbs. 
For other auotations see our tables following: 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE. 



;cE. 



40 
Cat 35 



37^ 



BKA.MH. 

Bay 2%® 

Butter 3'4-S) 

fea. 27«'a 

Pink — @ 

Sm'l wh. ppr Ik.. 3'4'a 
BKUOU COKIV. 

PerB) 2>-2(S) 

COTTON. 
Cal. 1874,f ft.... la'^l; 
MAIKY rRUItl 

BUTTER. 

Oal. choice B) 27;^i< 

Firkin 27>i(i 

Oregon 20 g 

CHEESE. 

Oheese, Oal li^i 

Eastern 14 g 

EOGS. 

Cal. fresh .17 

Ducts' 32 

Eastern — 

Oregon 36 

FEED. 
Bran, per ton...,— ^^^19 On 

Corn Meal 34 OO (335 50 

Hay U 00 >318 OU 

Middlings '$30 00 

Oil cake meal . . . @35 Oil 

Straw, lf> bale...— 60 '«)- 65 
F1.UUR. 

Extra.. 5 25.a 5 62!^ 

Superfine 4 25a 4 50 

FJCE.SII MEAT 
Beef Ist quality lb. .5>^(^ 

Second do 4! ' ' 

Third do 3; 

Lamb 5 

Mutton 3 (^ 

Pork, undressed md' 

do^dresaed 10 

Veal i 

OKAIN, ETi 
Barley, leed. . . 1 47 

do brewing. I 55 
Bnokwheat... — 
Corn, White... 

do. Yellow.. 

Oats, 2 00 

Rye 1 27 

Wheat shippingl 70 

do milling.. 1 75 & 1 80 
ifitp». 
caiitornia, 1874.. 27>^a 
East'rn. '74.ch'ce 35 (S 
HONEY, ETC. 
Beeswax.per lb.. 26 (a> 
Honey in comb.. 20 la) 

do Strained 6 ^ 

HinES. 

Ilidca.dry 17 & 

do wet Baited 8 3 

JiVTS-JOUBlJiGi. 

Aam'd8h'rd.<ih'l. 8 (0 10 

do. soft sh'l... 20 (0 22j» 

Brazil do 14 (Si 15 

Oal. WalnuiB.... 9 @ 11 
Peanuts per lb.. 12X'<S 15 
Chile Walnuts., i) @ 10 

Filberts 17 (2 18 

Pecanuts 1.5 (S 17 

ONIONS. 

Red, per ctl — ©1 25 

Yellow du — ((ill 25 



1 WHOLESALE. 1 

Wedwrsdat m.. July 14, 1876. 

POTATOES. 

Early Rose — 'SI KO 

Sweet — (di3 50 

I"OCI.,TKTr dfe OAMR. 

Broilers, small.. 3 00 ■ati M 

do large 6 00 (217 .'iO 

Doves, per dozen IS fa)l 00 
Ducks, tame.dz. 5 00 @6 .50 
Geese, per pair 1 .IO ©2 00 
Hare, per doz.. .2 00 '812 25 

Hens, per dz 7 00 ©9 00 

Live Turkeys 

per lb 

do dressed 

Mallard Ducks.. — 
Prairie Chickens — 

Quail, per doz — 

Rabbits 1 25 

do tame doz . 2 00 
Snipe, Eng., doz — 
VeniBon, per lb.. 8 
Wild Gee3e,gray — 

do white — 

PKOVISIONS. 
16 @ 



32 '4 
37,'i 

2V-i 
22'j 
10 

18 



23 



Cal. Bacon, L'ght 

do Medium ... 

do Heavy 

Oal.SmokedBeef 
(Eastern do. 
HftSt'rn Should's 

Hams, Oal 

•.I0 Whittakers 

do Armour .... 

do Boyd's.... 

do Stewart's . 

Lard . . . 

SEED.S. 
Alfalfa, Chili.. . 9 

do Oallfornia. 19 

Uanary — 

Clover Red 17 

do White 55 

Ootton 6 

Flaxseed — 

Hemp 8 

ItalianRyeGrasB 30 

Perennia do 20 

Millet 10 

Mustard, white. 2 

do. Brown 2 (^ 

Rape 9 <a 

Kv. Blue GrasB. . ."iO (S 

do 'id quality.. 40 ^ 

do 3d euality.. 30 ^ 
Sweet V Grass.. 75 S 

Orchard do 30 S 

Red Top do... 25 @ 

Hungarian do " " 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 



50 a 80 



15 



Lawn do 

McsQuit do... _ 

Timothy 8 @ 

TALI^Olfr. 

Crude 6'^® 

Refined 9 fg) 

■*VOOt, ETC. 

SPRING— 

Good Shipping.. 16 @ 
Ohoioe Long.... 21 @ 

Burry 13 (a> 

Heavy free 14 (g) 



FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. 



(WHOLESALE.! 

Wednkbdat m., July U, 1875. 



FRUIT MAKKF/r. 

Tahiti Or. IS> M 30 00(ai35 00 

Lorita, do — — (^ 

Oal. do @ 

Limes, * M.... 10 00@12 50 

Cal.Lemons.f* M (a, 

Australian do . (m— — 

do Sicilv1«b'x.ll 00(3(14 00 
Bananas, ^B bncb 2 50,<S 4 00 
Ooooanuts.fdOOO.hO 00(?illlO M 
Pineapples, ^dz.6 00 nn 00 
Apples, ^ box... 75 (^175 
Cherries lb...... 10 @ 25 

Blackberries .... 6 §> 7 

Figs -. 3 @ 5 

Huckleberries... - fty — 
Stxawberries^ch. 10 00^12 00 

aooaeberries ~ @ — 

Raspberries — M 20 

Currants.»oh..3 00 Ji3 75 
Aoricots.^ box.l 25 tail 60 

Plums 3 @ 3 

Peaones, %(bx... 30 (al 75 

Pears, ^ bx 75 ig2 00 

Grapes !» to 5 @ 7 

MRIKD FKVIT. 

Apples. W % 9 (<il0 

Pears,* lb 9 m2ii 

Peaches,?. lb I2'i,®\- 

Apricots, %t lb U'4'0] 

Plums, » lb 6 im 

Pitted, ao « lb 15 @1 

do Extra, * ;b.. 15 @l 
Raisins, %t 3> 10 @\ 



Black Figs, ^ lb ••■ 5® 6 

White, do 8 @12'^ 

Prunes.... — (fli— 

do uer»ian.... 14 @ — 

Citron 32'i(a 35 

Zan*<* Currants. 10 @ — 

Dates 12,'4@ 

VEGETABI^ES. 

Asparagus 4.'^® 5 

Beets 1 (<a 1'4 

Oabbage, ^ 100 lbs.. 1 OOai 25 
Carrots, poi tou.... -(i^ls 00 

Cauhdower, doz 75@ — 

Celery, doz 40 aM 

Garlic. * lb 3 @ 4 

Green Peaa "^ @ 4}^ 

Green Corn T« doz. .10 ^30 
Smn'rSquash ^ box. 50iA75 
Marro'tat Sq'sn.tn — (a)— _ 
Artichokes.* doz.. 20 igj35 
Strlne Beans, fS* lb... IJ^g 2hi 

Lima Beans — 

Parsnips — 

Shell Beans — 

Peppers, green, B) . . — 

Okra, Qreen — 

Oucumbers, doz 5! 

Tomatoes, box — 

Ess Plant, lb 2 (S 3 

Rhubarb 2 @ 3 

Lettuce 8 a— 

Turnips, ton — 10 00 

Watermlns, each.. lOg 20 
Cantelopes, ^ doz.2 .'iO@3 00 



10,'i®ll 



U*i®12 

r5)4ai2% 



^'^^^ - 
12 @n^ 

11 (211^4 

10 ^liiM 
9 rail 




BAGS. 

Eng. Stand Wht. 
Neville i, Go's... 
Hand Sewed.... 10^^(311 

2il36 10>4@11 

24x36 ...-!'».- 

24x40 

Machine do 24x40. 

" 23x40. 

" 22x40. 

" 22x36. 

Flour Sacks >iB... 

■• Ha 6 ® 7 

" %B 4H@ 5 

HesBianfiO-lfl \2'A'ciU)i 

do 45-in 8>4S 9 

do 40-in .... W(& 9 
Wool SaokB,3)ia>s. 45 &W 

do 4 ■'. 

Stand. Gunnies... 

single fleam do. 

Bean Bags 

Barley Bags 21x36, 

do 23x40. 

do 24x40. 

Oat Bags, 24x40. .. . 

do 28x36.. . 

Delrick'B"E W." 

do "E 

CANNEU 4;i001>>i. 
ABSt'dPie FruitB 
in 2H lb cans. 2 75 19 3 00 
do Table do.. .3 .50 ® 4 25 
Jams <t Jellies 3 25 (§ 4 00 
Pickles hi gl.. — @ 8 60 
Sardines.qr boil 80 @ 1 90 

do hf boxes.S 20 @ 

COAI>— Jobbing. 
Australian.^ton 9 a 9 25 

Ooos Bay @10 00 

Bellinf^ham Bay. @ 8 50 

Seattle 9 25 @I0 00 

Oumberl'd, cks.. ®20 00 

do balk.. .16 00 @17 00 

Mt. Diablo 6 25 m 25 

Lehigh C*25 00 

Liverpool @ 9 00 

West Hartley .... — gl4 OC 

Scotch a 9 0(- 

Scranton 26 00 @27 00 

Vancouver's I»l..ll 00 
Charcoal, ^sk... 75 

Coke, *bbl — 

COFFEE. 
Sandwich Island — 
Central A meric'n — 
Costa Kica per Ut 20 

Quatamala 18 

Ja*a — 

Manilla 

Ground in cb — 

Chicory 

FISH. 
ao. Dry Cod, new 4!i(3 

cases 6 @ 

do boneless.... 8>^(^ 

Eastern Ood 7,'^'^ 

Salmonin bblB..9 00 ^9 50 

do ^ bblB4 50 (qj5 .50 

do 2)ilb cans — (5>2 80 

do 2!b cans..! ."iO (0)2 (jfl 

do lit cans..! 50 (ail 75 

UoOol. R. kb....S 00 (015 611 

Pick. Ood, bbl8.22 00 (ia — 

do ii biilsll 00 m — 

Bos . Sm'k'dHer'e40 @ ,50 

Mack'I.No.l.'^blsH (10 folll 00 

Extra — (il2 00 

" in kits 2 00 'aJ2 M 

Ex mess. .3 00 @3 .50 
" Ex mess.Hbs— 5)13 00 
Pio'd Herp'g, bx.. 3 00 (§ 3 50 
ifARDtVARK. 
Amoskeag handled Axes 
$lfi<lj!l7 : do iinhandlcd do $13 
(5Jl J— less 5ic in 5 case lots. 
Amcisi^oat; ii.atchets, Shin- 

Sling, Nol,lf7.'«; N" ■>. «»i 
o. 3, $8.2,5. Do do, Claw, 
No. l.*7.75; No. 2,8.,')0; No. 3, 
$9.25-less 10 per cent. 

Locks, Yale Lock Mf'g Co., 
discount 33/^ per cent, from 
list. 

Planes, Ohio Tool Co., dis- 
count 30 per cent, from list. 

Am. Tack Go's Out Tacks 
72^ per cent, discount and 5 
per cent, extra. Finisbing 
and Clout Nails 1}4 off list; 
3d fine Nails $7,110 per keg. 



WH0I.,K8ALE. 1 
WrniiESDAT It., July 14, 1876. 

Palm lb 

Linseed, raw.. . 90 

do boiled — 

China nut in os.. — 
Sperm, crude. .,. — 
do bleached.. 1 90 
Coast Whales... 47>i(o 
Polar, refined.. ' 

Lard 

Oleophine 



8>5(^ 10 



Ohio Butt Oo'b LMOSe Joint Japan, lacquered 



Butts 50 per cent, do Fast, 
35 per cent off list. 

Machine Bolts, 20@35 off. 

Square Nuts, 2(gl3c off list. 

Hexa^'on Nuts 2(<^3c oIT list. 

Wrought Iron Washers. 
2@3c off list. 

Lag Screws, 15 per cent off 
list. 

MISCEI.I.ANEOU8. 

Pulu @ 6'^ 

NAII.^. 

Assorted size. B). ®4 10 

OILH. 
Pacific Glue Co 
. Neat F't No. 1,1 OO (^ 90 

Pure — (M — 

Castor Oil, No, I.. — @1 40 

Baker'sAA — @1 45 

Oocoannt 55 @ 60 

Olive PlagnioL.S 00 @5 25 

do Possel 4 75 @5 00 



Devoe'B Bril't... 
Long laland — 

Rureka.... 

Oevoe's Petro'm 
Barrel kerosene 

Olive 

Downer Kerose'e 
Uas Lieht Oil... 

PAOfT.S. 
Pure White Lead lOM (ail>^ 




m 25 




— @2 25 



Whiting 

Putty 4 

Ohalk — 

PariB White.., 

Ochre 

Venetian Red 

Red Lead 

Litharge 

Eng. Vermillion 

Averill Chemical 

Paint, per gal. 

White &tints.2 00 ©2 40 

Green, Blue A 
Oh Yellow.. 3 00 (33 .50 

LightRed 3 I'O gi,3 to 

Metallic Boof.l 30 ^1 60 

RICE. 

China No. l,mb 6?^(§ 7 

do 2, do. 61^(0) 6M 

Japan 6 @ 7 

Siam Cleaned... 7 (m — 

Patna 6%f 7 

Hawaiian 8 [a 8^ 

Carolina 10 @ lOk 

SALT. 
Oal. Bay.per ton 10 00(313 00 

do Common.. 6 Oflf4lO 00 
Carman Island.. 13 0flfai4 00 
Liverpool fine.. .23 00,a25 00 

do coarseiO OOM 

SOAP. 

Oastile ?» lb 10 @ 13 

Common brands.. 5 (31 Hli 



Fancy 



@ 10 



do ..7 
8PICE.S. 

Cloves 50 

OasBia 26 

Citron 33 

Nutmeg 1 20 

Whole Pepper... 23 

Pimento — 

Qr'nd Allsp prdz 

do Oassia do .. 

do Cloves do.. 

do Mustard do 

do Ginger do.. 

do Pepper do.. 

io Mace do. . . 

SUOAR, 

Oal. Cube per lb.. 

Partz' Pro. Cube 

bblorlOOIb bxa 

do in W lb bxM.. 

do in 25 lb bxs. 
Circle A crushed 

Powdered 

Fine crushed. .. 

(iranulatea 

Jolden O — >&) l0)i 

lawaiian 9 (3) 10 

California Beet. 10?^i<8 "'■! 
Oal. Syrup in nls. — \9 67)^ 

do in hi bl3. ~ (0 70 

do mkegs.. — (^ lb 
Hawaiian Molas- 
ses 25 @ 30 

TEA. 

«l.»B.'\Antnn.lb 19 (g 2.5 

do Amoy... 2n Si ."iO 
do Formosa 40 & 80 
Imperial, Canton 26 @ 40 




Pingsuey 45 
61) 



do 

do Moyune,. 

Gunpo'der.Oant. 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune. 

Y'ng Hy., Canton 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, % chests, 

bulk 



80 
§1 00 

42X 

90 
§1 25 

40 

70 

65 



30 @ 



bxs,4'^and5 lbs 45 (c 

.Japan do,3 lb bxs 45 
do prnbx,4'^lb 35 
do '-5AI lb paper 30 
TOBACCO— JobliinB. 

Bright Navys " - - 

Dark do .... 

Paces Tin Foil.. 

Dw 1 I Twist 

Light Pressed... 

Hard do 

Conn. Wrap'r 

Penn. Wrapper.. 

Ohio do 

Virgi'aSmok'g.. 

Fine ct che'g,gr..8 50 

Fine cut chew- 
ing, buc'ts.^ lb.. 75 @ 

Banner fiae cut.. — @9 0( 

Cal .Smoking 37 @1 00 

TURPENTINE. 

Ea.stern 52)4''^.55 




LEATHER. 

rwHOLESALB.l 

Wednesday m., July 14, 1875. 

Olty Tanned Leather, ?» lb 26,g29 

Santa Cruz Leather, % B) 26iS29 

Country Leather, ^ lb 24@29 

Stockton Leather, V lb 25(0)29 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz »50 00(^ 540u 

Jodot.ll to 13 Kil.. per doz 68 OOfS 79 00 

Jodot 14 to 19 Kil., per doz 82 00@94 00 

Jodot, second choice. 11 to 16 Kil. %« doz .57 OOdjj 74 00 

Oornellian, 12 to 16 Ko 57 00(3) 67 OH 

Oornellian Females, 12 to 13 63 00® 67 00 

Cornellian Females, 14 to- 16 Kil 71 iX)(a 76 .511 

Simon Ullmo Females, 12 to 13, Kil 60 00(g 63 (,0 

Simon Ullmo Females, U to 15, Kil 70 00:o) 72 00 

Simon Ullmo Females, 16 to 17, Kil 73 (10475 00 

Simon, 16 K.il.,J4 doz 61 00(3) 83 m 

Simon, 20 Kil. 4* doz 65 00(g) 67 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. ^ doz 72 00(g) 74 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 9 Kil 36 00® 40 00 

Krenoh Kips, * S) 1 00(a 115 

California Kip, f doz 40 00(^1 6' I" 

ITrenoh Sheep, all oolora, % doz 8 00(a 15 00 

Eastern Calf lor Backs, •#( B) 100(3 126 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, V doz 9 00® 13 00 

Sheep Roana for Lin ing8,H doz 5 50(3 10 .Vi 

Oallfornia Rnssett Sheep Linings • 1 75«S 4 50 

Best Jodot Oal f Boot Legs, * pair 5 009 5 26 

Good French Oalf Boot Legs, # pair 4 00^ 4 75 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 W^ — 

Harness Leather, * B) ' 30® J7 

Fair Bridle Leather, Jt doz 48 OOta 72 - 

Skirting Leather, ^ lb 33& 37>4 

Welt Leather, » doz 30 OOia .50 00 

Bnfr Laathei, f* foot 17@ H 

Win Sid* L«kth«r, » to4l 170 



METALS. 

[wholesale. 1 
Wednesdav m., 

American Pig Iron, ^ ton 

Scotch Pig Iron, M LOU 

V'hitePig, 'Pton 

OrSRon Pig,^ ton ... 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, ^ lb 

Refined Har, good assortment, ^ lb 

Boiler, No I to 4 

Plate, No. ito9 

Sheet. No. iJ'o 14 
Sheet, No. 16 tow .... 
Sheet. No. 22 to 2k 

Sheet, No. 26 to 28.. ".;„... ■;,;.. ;.;;;; 

Horse Shoes, per keg. " ".!.!.! 

Nail Rod....t ',',',,,',', 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron 

Other Irons for Blaoksmithi, Miners, eto. 

OOPPEB.— 

Braziers' 

Cooper TIn'd 

CNiel's Pat .; 

Sheathing, » lb 

Sheathing, Yellow 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Ooinposition Nails 

Oomposition Bolts 

Steel.- English Cast, '6* lb 

Anderson A Woods' American Cast, 

Drill 

Flat Bar 

Plow Stoel 

TIN Plates.— 

10x14 I a Charcoal 

10x14 I X Charcoal 

Roofing Plate I O Charcoal 

Banca Tin 

Australian 

ZiNO By the Cask 

Zino, Suoet 7x3 ft. No 7 to 10 

do do 7x3 ft. No 11 to 14 

do do 8x4 ft, No 8 to 10 

do do 8x1ft,, No 11 to 10 

Nails Asaorted aizes 

ijoiOKsiLVEn. nerib 



July 14, 1875. 
38 00 (^ 39 00 
40 00 (<U 44 00 

§39 00 

@ 33 00 

- r,}i@ - - 

7 5U m 8 00 

— 10 




The ScrENTiKio Pbess.— This valualile journal entered 
upon the seventeenth year of its publication on the 4th 
of July. The steady advance in character, that every 
reader has noticed in the paper, renders it unnecessary 
to make any splurge of improvement, and the publish- 
ers simply content themselves with the annouucemeut 
that they will continue to make their paper as Interest- 
ing as possible. That It is interesting to a large class 
of readers, the wide ciacuUt ion and extensive influence 
of the PBEsa, IB Bufflclent e-viieace.— Plater Argus. 



S. F. RETAIL MARKET RATES. 



5)2 00 



$4 00 



POIU.TRY. 

Spring Chickens 

HenB T.s Ml no 

Eggs Cal 40 "a — 

do Eastern 30 @ 40 

do Ducks' — M 34 

do Farailones. — @ 3a 

Turkeys, ?S lb.. — g) 30 

Ducks, large, pr.l .50 @2 nO 

do small, pr..l 25 @1 .M 

Tame, do 1 ,w 

Teal •» pair 

Geese.wild, pair. — 

Tame, ^ pair. .3 00 

Snipe, 13 doz... — M — 

do English.. _ @ _ 

Quail, per dozen — g — 

Prairie Ch'k 8,pr — @ — 

Pigeons, per pr.. 50 id) 7,"; 

Wild, doz — «12 00 

Squabs, doz... 4 00 @4 .50 

Hares, each ... 25 (<3 50 

Rabbits, tame,ea .50 ^ Yfi 

Wild,do,*dz.l 50 §2 00 

Squirrels do 1 50 f<s2 00 

Beef, tend, 1^ lb. - (g 15 

Oorned, ^ lb.. 6 @ 8 

Smoked, ^ lb.. 10 @ 16 

PorterHouseSt'k — ® 20 

Sirloin do 12 (ffl 15 

Round do 8 @ io 

Pork, rib, etc.. lb — (3 15 

Chops, do, Ki B) 15 @ 20 

Veal, ^ lb 10 @ 1,5 

Outlet, do 16 @ 25 

Mutton-chops, B) 10 (a) 12 

LegMutton,l> B) 6 a lu 

Lamb, 3 lb lu a 15 

Venison 12 @ '25 

do dry 20 (gi 25 

Tongues, beef, . . 00 m 75 

do, do, smoked 75 (Si 00 
Tongues, pig, lb r2>^g) — 

Bacon, Oal., $ B> 18 @ 20 

Hams, Oal, ^B). 16 a 18 
Hams. Cross' so 12'-^ g) 15 

FRUITS, 

Apples, pr lb.... 5 M 

Pears, per lb 5 & 

Apricots, B> 8 @ 

Peaches, B> 8 a 

Plums 12 



Wednesday, m., July U, 1875. 

0-*^E. I Ohoioe D'ffleld.. 18 @ 22 
60 m 75 (FI.SH, MEAT.<», TE'TO 
15 aiOO iFlounder -#lb....-' @ 18 
-A ,3, _ I Salmon, "» B).... 5 ^ 8 
Smoked — .d) 10 






12 @ — 

- a 15 

• @ 10 

10 ca 12 

10 ^ i.'i 



Piokled.« ft.. 

do Spr'gp'kl'd 

Salmon bellies 
Rook Ood, « ft.. 
Cod Fish, dry, ft 

Jo fresh 

Parch, s water, ft 

Fresh water,ft 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Smelts, large^ft 

Small Smelts 

Herring, Sm'kd. 

do fresh 

Pilchards. !f( tt). ' 
Tomood, W lb.... 
.Terrapin, #( doz. 
Mackerel, p'k,ea 

Fresh, do ft 
Sea Bass, 1* ft..'' 

Halibut 

Sturgeon, ^ ft.. 
Oysters, « 100.. 

Ohesp. %» doz,. 

Olama ■» 100 

.Mussels do.... 

Turbot 

Crabs fi doz.... 

do Soft Shell 

Shrimps 

Sardines 

Anchovies — 

•Soles 25 

YoungTrout.bay — 
^oung Salmon.. — 
■iaimon Trout cal 00 

Skate, each 20 

Whitebait,* ft _ 
Orawflsh -^ B)... _ 
Green Turtle, .. — S "' 

do * ft .. ~ 



M& - 



«2^9 7 5 

5 a 6 

75 a - 

■ 60 a 76 

- @ .50 

- m 25 

, - Cq) 75 

I 00 ®1 2.5 

25 a 40 

10 



10 



25 



PIneApples.each 

Crab Apples 

Grapes 

Bananas, ^ doz. . 
Muskmelons .... 
Watermelons.. . 
Blackberries'. . .. 

do wild........ 

Oal. Walnuts, ft. 
Green Almonds. 
Cranber'es, Org., 
do Eastern 
Huckleberries.. 
Strawberries, lb 
Chili Stra'berries 
Raspberries, ft.. 
Gooseberries. .. 
Currants 

do Black ' 

Cherries, ^ T>.. . 

Nectarines 

Oranges,^ doz.. 

Quinces .., — 

Lemons • '5 

Limes, per -^oz .. 
Figs.ri'^ied Oal. . 

Fiss, fresh 

Figs, Smyrna, lb 
Asparagus, lb.. 
Artichokes, doz. 

do Jerusalem. . — 

Beets, ^ doz 15 

Potatoes, * ft . . . 2 
Potatoea.sweet.. 10 

Brooooli. eacli.- yo 

Oaulitlower, . . 10 
Green Peas "J* lb. 6 



VEeeTARt^RS. 

Cabbage, per hd.. 10 @ 25 

Oyster Plant.bn — ' " " 

Carrota, Ifl doz. , . — 

Oelery.lSdz 75 

, Oucumbers. if^doz IS 

50 ®1 00 Tomatoes,**., N 
— @ — String Beans.... a 
10 @ 12'^ Egg Plant, ft.... 

5 ®l 00 Cress, 1> doz Dun 20 

'5(1 Onions 3 

Turnips, ^ doz 

bunches . — 

Brussels Sprouts — 

20 Eschalots — 

12^i Dried H«rba,doz 

Garlic ^ ft 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, ^ doz.. 

Mint, 1* bunch. — 

Mushrooms, ^ ft ' 

Horse radish,?"" 20 ,_ 

Okra, driedJ* »> <0 @ 50 



25 



- ® l;f 
60 &' Jo 

-a)l 00 

& 25 

12'^@ 15 

8 ® 15 

25 (d) 35 



25 




do fre"'. » B> 

Pa„,,/Kin8. ^ ft. 6 

parsnips, doz 20 

Parsley 2» 

Piokl6s,frsh.^B) — 

Radishes, doz.. 20 

Sage — 

Summer Squash 5 

Marrowfat, do — 

Hubbard, do — 

LimaBeans.fr'sh — 

do fresh shelled 6 

Beans 5 

Mangoes, 1^ doz. 75 

Spinage, ^ bskt. 25 

Rhubarb 5 

areen Ohilies... 10 

Dry do — 

hiast Ohestuuts.. — 

Ital. Ohestnuts.— 



8 
12V( 



W " 



6 
12X 



LUMBER. 



GAIteO PSICK8 OF 
BBS WOOD. 



Rough, ^ M 

RouKtt refuse, ^ M 

Rough clear. ^ M 

Rough clear refuse. M.. 

Rustic, * M 

Ru.^tic. refuse, 13 M 

Surfaced, %* M 

Surfaced refuse,^ M... 

Floorinf!, ^ M 

Flooring, refuse, ^ M.. 
Beaded flooring, ^M... 
Beaded floor, refuye, M. 

Half-inch Siding, M 

Half-inch siding, ref, M, 
Half-inch, Surraoed,M. 
dalf-inch Surf, ret., M , 
Half inch Battens, M... 
Pickets, rough, ^ M.... 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 
Pickets, fancy, p'ntd... . 
Shingles, »M 



f 18 00 

. 14 00 

, 30 Oil 

, 20 00 

. 32.50 

. 24 00 

. 30 00 

. 20 00 

, 28 00 

, 20 00 

30 00 

25 00 

22 .50 

16 00 

25 00 

15 00 
22 .50 
13 00 

16 00 
25 00 

3 00 



PUGET SOUNll PINB 

— Ketall Price. 

Rough, ^ M 22 50 

Fencing, ^ M 22 50 

Flooring and Step, fl M »2 50 
flooring, narrow, ^ .M.. 35 00 
Flooring, 2d quahty, M. .25 00 

Laths, ^M 3 60 

Furring, "iS lineal ft 

B£» WOOD— RetalL 

Rough, ^t* M 22 50 

Rough refuse, ^ M 18 00 

Rough Pickets, ^ M 18 00 

Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pickets, |* M 30 00 

.Siding, f, M 25 00 

Surfaced and Long 

Beaded 37 50 

Flooring 35 00 

Dodo refuse, f( M 25 00 

Half-inch surlaoed,M.. 32 ,50 

Rustic, No. 1, Kt .M 10 00 

Battens, «tlineal foot... k 
3hingl6«lf> M 



RETAIL GROCERIES, ETC. 

Wednesday m., July 14, 



1875. 



Buttor.Oal.ch'ioe ,15 ig) 40 

do common ;^0 a 32^ 

Cheese, i;al., ft.. 18 (M 20 
Lard. Cal., ft.... 15 @ 20 
Flour, ex.fam, bl 5 ,50 @6 00 
Corn Meal, ft.... 2*4 .3)3 00 
Sugar, wn.orsh'd 12'^'a) 13 
do It. brown. ft 9 ((^ 11 
Coffee, green, ft.. 22 (q) 24 

O. O.Java - a 30 

Tea, aiieblk,,50, H.5,75 (o)l OO 
Toa,fln8tJap,.5.5,7,S90 (c^l OO 
Candles,Admaut'el5 to) 25 

Soap, Oal., ft 7 (M 111 

Rice, ft 8 @ 12*^ 

Yeaat Powderdz.l .50 &2 00 



Bowcn Bro. large 

can per doz 5 00 

Small, do 2 .50 

Oan'dOy9ter3,dz.2 00 

8 
15 

9 
11 



Svrap,b F.Gol'u 
Dried Apples. ... 
Dr'd Ger.Prunos 
Dr'd Figs, Cal... 
Dr'd Peaches.... 

do Peeled 

Oils. Kerosene .. 
Wines, Old Port 3 !*l 
do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 
do Cal.,dz.bot.3 00 
Whisky ,0.B, gal. 3 50 
Fr. Brandy 4 00 



30 



Gold, Legal Tenders, Exchange, Etc. 

[Corrected Weekly by CaARLES Sutro A Co.] 

San Francisco, July 14, 3 P. M. 

Leoal Tenders in S. F., 11 a. m., 865< toi'i'A- 

Gold in N. Y., 115 'J 

Gold Bars, 890. Silver Bars, 4 and 4!< per cent dis- 
count. 

ExciiANOE on N. Y., H per cent, premium for gold ; 00 
London bankers. 4H: Commercial, 49'4; Paris, five francs 
per dollar; Mexican dollars, one and two per cent, dis- 
count. 

London — Consols, 93 to 93'4; Bonds, 102,'^ 

QuiOKSiLvEB in S. F.. by the llask, per ft, 65o@70a 



'acific Mural ^ress, 

'-Rt-clasB 16-page Agricultural Home .Journal , fllleiJ 
"y" fresh, valuable and interesting reading. Every 
larL.,- ^jjj rurallst should take It. It is Im- 
meL.,[y popuidf. Bubsorlption, $4 a year. 

DE-W.-y ^ Qo., PubUsherB, 
No. 224Sansorne^^V^t_ ^^ FBAN0I80O. 

STinBOniBERS are rei^^.^a to examine the printed 
address on their P»f' ■"• /-aiiatakes occur at any time. 
p ease report them to thl" offl. „. , , «___' ,.» 
the extreme right) represent th.. Th« ;*,,»*/_^J,'^%^S! 
Bcriptlon IS paid to. Next to thes!" *^»» and Lonth 
18 represented. For instance, yo"' ft'ac^XnTe?^ 
paid to July 4th, 1876, It would be ?£^P*i?,°J' ,?,^ 
Jul 4 76; or 4J178^ or Jul 4.76. -oseoteO, viz. 



46 



[July 17, 1875 



Agricultural Articles. 



KIMBALL GAR, CARRIAGE 

— AND- 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT 

MAJNUFAOTUBING 00., 
Oor. Bryant and Fourth Sts., San Francisco 



The CALIFORNIA TUBTJLAB IRON AND WOOD 
FRAME HARROW— two, four and sli-horse Iron Har- 
rows, too, $70 and 175. Wood Frame Harrow, $10 less 
on each size than the Iron. 

The Harrow has an easy seat for the Driver. The 
middle section rests on three wheels with wings hinged 
on each side. 

By use of Levers the Driver in his seat can raise or 
lower the Harrow, resnilating at will the depth of the 
teeth in the soil, and in the same manner fold or raise 
the wings from tlie ifround so as to drive from the road 
to the field. s-iviuB the use of a wagon. 

Our OALIFOENIA SORAPER is also made for the 
ease of the Driver, enabling one person to ride, manage 
the team and do the work. 

Is adapted for leveling and preparing the Burface of 
the soil for irrigation. And for making roads, remov- 
ing dirt from ditches, cleaning barn yards, sheep corals, 

The IMPROVED EAGLE HAT PRESS— Best in use 
on this Coast. Cheap, Economical, Powerful, and easily 
repaired. 

Will press bales weighing from 260 to 325 pounds, 
using less rope than any other press. 

Three men with a good team of horses will bale from 
10 to 15 tons per day. 

Adapted for baling wool, hides, cotton, rags or moea. 
Price, $250. Weight of press, 2,500 poonds. Please 
send for circulars. 



0. OBSOO. I. O. lOWLIT, 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 

Tmporters and ManufVicturers 

—OF— 

CARRIAGES and WAGONS, 

No. 9 Merchant'b Kzchan^e, 
CALIFORNIA STREET SAN i'RANCISOO 

Keep constantly on hand top and open Buggies, top 
md open Bockaways, Jump-seat Buggfes, Track and 
Boad Sulkies, Bkeloton Wagons, Basket Phaetons of 
the very latest styles and Unest workmanship. 

We would call particalar attention to eur fine stock 
of light Road and Trotting Wagons, made to order by 
the following celebrated makers: 

Charles 8. Cofifrey, CamdHti. l«»w Jareo7i 

Ueiauia s Jackson, Rahway, New Jersey, 

Oregg & Bow, Wilmington, Delaware; 

And the first-class makers, which we are prepared to 
sell on the most reasonable terms. 

Also, a large assortment of single and double BAr- 
nesg , of the most celebrated makers : 

O. Graham, New York; J. B. Hill, Concord; Pittkin 
& Thomas, Philadelphia. 

Also, a full assortment of Dress and Light Blankets, 
Fur and Lap Robes, Whips, Halters, Surcingles, etc., at 
wholesale and retail. 

CREGO & BOWLEY, 
No. 9 Merchants' Exchange, California street, 

34'v6-3m San Francisco. 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




Took the Premium over all at the great Flowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
tn the world. Bend for circular to 

Uv2.5m MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

Stockton. Oal. 



THE GRANGER ENGINE. 



Farmers' and Threshers' attention is called to this 
splendid Engine. Especially adapted to burning straw, 
wood or coal. This is the only Engine in the market 
hat is designed to run Derrrick Forks by steam. The 
saving of fuel to run the Engine, and the men and 
horses dispensed with in running the Derrick Forks, 
will amouitt to the Price of the Engine In one season. 
Manufactured and sold by 

J. L. HEALD, Val^'JO 



LANE&BOl^fiY, 

John & Water St •' tiucinnati. 

Manufacture- °* ">c Best 

FARM ENGINE, 

Mount^U-loiuy*'*^ ^'"" "'*• *°^ '"' "" '""•- 
(rate<< 



VINE AND FRUIT GROWERS, 

TO BAIBE LABOE OSOPi 

TToxj MUST inftioArrs:. 

irrigate euccessfoUy, yoD must bare the power tbat 
does not give out when the wind fails. 

Laufkotter Bros. & Churchman's Horse-Power, 




IPATF.MTFJi Febbuart I3th, 1372.] 
Never fails to supply more water than four or five Wind- 
mills, even supposing \ on had all the wind you want. It is 
also suitable for running light machinery, such as Bailey 
Crackers. Com Shell ers, FanninK Wills, Grain Separators, 
or, for Sawing Wood. They arc never failing, cannet get 
out of order, easily workca, subetantial, and always give 
satisfaction wherever they have been uaert. One horse can 
easily work two t>-inch ptimps. with a continuous flow of 
water. Force Pumps, \f>m 3.00U to lO.nOfl gallons per hour. 

WINDMILLS ot all kinds manufactured to order. Wells 
Bored, Windmills and Horse-Powers set in any part of the 
State, and repairing of all kinds done. 

Manufactured and for sale by 



77-2m-3m 



LAUFKOTTER BBOS., 

Oor. J and lOth Sts.. Saoramento. 



Boomer's Patent Press. 

The Simplest and Moat 
Powerful Wine, 
Cider, Lard, Pa- 
per, Tobacco 
and Hide 
Press 

in TTse — Guarantee 

Fruit drying apparatus. 

■r<i- ■ Kuowlcs' Steam Pumps for 

irrigating. All kinds of new and second-hand machinery. 

A. L. FISH & CO., 

Nos. 9 and 11 First street, San Francisco. 




Nurserymen. 



PEPPER'S NURSERIES. 



(Established in 18C8.) 



PETALUMA, OAL. 



G-reen Houses and Tree Depot comer Wash- 



4 Green Housee. 



3,000 feet of Glass. 
Specialty. 



Fruit Trees i 



We offer for Bale at lowest market rates a ffeneral as 
sortment of Frnit and Shade trees, small Fruits, Vines 
etc. Everirreen trees and Shrubs in great variety. Green 
House. Oonserratory and BeddiuK Plants, Roses, etc. 

Eucalyptus in Tariety. Eucalyptus Globulus, per 1000 
for forest planting, at very low rates. Catalogue aud priee 
list famished on application. 



Addiess, 



19v8-tf 



W. H. PEPPER, 

Petaltuna, Senoma Oo., Oal. 



SUPERIOR FRUIT TREES 

TRUE TO Pf ABIE. 



A fine collection of Evergreen and Deciduous 
Trees. Australian Gum Trees in variety, by the 
hundred or thousand. Monterey Cypress in quan- 
tities and sizes to suit all. Orang'e and Lemon 
Trees at reduced prices. A general variety of Nursery 
stock. 

Also, Rhubarb tnf. Asparagus rooui. 

T. COBLEY, 
8T29-tf 316 Washington Street, S. F. 



CHAS, F. CRESWELL, 

SEED AND PLANT MERCHANT, 

Victoria, Tasmania,' and New Srdih Wales. 



The I^argest OoUeotor and Exporter of the 

Eucalyptus GloVulus (Tasmanian 

Bli« Gum). 



0. F. 0. havlm Branch Houses in the three Ohlef 
Colonies, and utanical collectors throughout Australia, 
can offer thp "est advantages to dealers in Australian 
Native See^> Plants and Ferns. 

EucaVP" Sid Acacia Seeds in endless variety and of 
the tr"^' excellent quality. 

BS most convenient branch for exporting to Europe 
.^d America is found by addressing t* ' 

C. F. CBESWELL, Seedsman, 

No. 37 Swanstou Street, 
UelbourDe, Victoria. 



FOR, ISA.U1C 

In the Riverside, New England and Santa Ana Col- 
onies, in the valley of the Santa Ana river, San Bernar- 
dino county, California, twenty thousand (20,000) acres 
of clean, rich, level, valley land, with an abundance of 
water for irrigation. There is no better land in the 
State for the orange and all other semi-tropical fruits, 
nnd no finer climate in the world. Inquire of W. T. 
SAVWARD, 420 Montgomery street, San Francisco; S. 
0. EVANS, Fort Wayne, Indiana: C. I. HUTCHINSON, 
314 California street, San Francisco; L. UPSON, General 
Agent, Riverside, San Bernardino county, Cal. 



Miscellaneous Notices. 



Rice's California Pioneer Straw 

Burning Engines Highly 

Endorsed. 

OoHOOBD, Cal., June 20th, 1876. 
H. W. BiCE:— 

Dear Sir.— The Engine and Boiler are doing well 

Tour business has not suffered by my purchase, and I 

think another year will create a larger demand for your 

Engines than you reckon upon. I have had all the 

skeptics examining it, and it took but very little time 

to win them over. Everybody is loud in its praise. It 

has power enough to drive two separators in headed 

grain. In haste, I remstn yours truly, 

CHARLES B. LOHSK. 

STRAW BURNING ENGINES. 



PAT. .TUNE 4th, 
1874. 



RE-IgSCXD MAT, 
1875. 



The re-issued patent is allowed, and as soon as it 
arrives, proper steps will be immediately taken to pros- 
ecute all parties who are now infringing upen it. 
Arrangements have been made to have a supply of 
these Engines (with all new improvements) constantly 
on hand, and they will be sent to agents in all parts of 
the State. Second, hand Wood Burners In good order, 
for sale very cheap. Address, 

H. W. BICE, 

Haywood, Alameda Co., Oal. 



T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

SEED AND PRODUCE 
Commission House, 

i>tpoBTEn.s or 

Seeds and Semi-Tropical Trees, 
Plants and Fruits, Etc 

600,000 Australian Blue Gum at $2.'; to J40 per M, In 
boxes; 2iM,000 Monterey Cypress at $25 to $40 per M 
In buAco; ikioo ft pnnsisument of Australian Blue Gum 
Seed, warranted 1874, per steamship City of UaVbmirne.. 
at 75 cents per oz., or $10 per Ih. 

Navil (or Seedless) Orange Trees, 1 
Lisbon Lemon Trees, I 

Pasnion Fruit-Bearing Vine and Seed, [-Australian, 
Norfolk Island Pine (Elcuria) Seed or 

Plants. J 

Orange Trees. — Wilson's Seedlings, Kona, Malta 

Blood and St. Mikel's. 

Chuchapela, Pemambnco and Sweet Acapulco; also 
Vegetable, Qrass, Field and Flower Seeds. Australian 
and Sicily Lemon Seed in barrels. Orange and Mexican 
Lime Seed in barrels. For sale by 

T. O'CONNOR & CO., 

426 Sansome street, near Clay, 8. F. 



Union Box Factory, 

GEO. W. SWAN & CO., 

1 16 and 116 3oear St., bet.Kission & Howard 
SA» FBANOISOO. 



Apple, Pear, Plum, Peach, Cherry , Qrape, 

Orange, Lime and Wine Cases. 
Tomato, Potato, Fig and Raisin Boxes. 
Strawberry, Raspberry and Blackberrv Chests 

and Drawers, and Baskets f or all kinui, of Berries. 
Peach and Picking Baskets, Bntter Chests and 

Bo^es, Cheese Boxes, Square and Round Egg Carriers. 
Prnms for Figs, Cherries, Raisins, and for 

other Dried Fruits. 
Free Packages — Boxes not to be returned — a 

good article, costing less than Sawed Boxes. 
Lard Caddies, Coffee and Fruit Caddies. 
Turkey and Chicken Coops, Bee-Hives, Etc. 

Packing Boxes for Dry-Gooods, Cigars, Can- 
dles, Candied Fruits, Honey, Maccaroni, Crackers, 
Sugar, Soap, Boots, Etc, 

In fact, every style of Boxes manufactured in 
the Union, and turned out in the Best Style at Favor 
able Prices. Orders from the country well attended to 



THE Ar,I>KIV 

FRUIT PRESERVING COMPANY, 

OF CALIFORNIA. 

OFFICE, 426 MONTaOUEKT ST., S, F. 

Our improved apparatus will do one-third more work 
than that erected last season, while our prices have 
been materially reduced. A portion of the ptirchase 
money may be paid in the products of the Alden fac- 
tories. Wo guarantee against Infringements. The 
Alden Is the oldest, the best and the cheapest process 
knewn for preserving fruits, vegetables, meats, etc. 

It would be unwise to purchase the new and untried 
-dryers before they have demonstrated their superiority 
by at least one year's regular work. Send for eur cir- 
culars. 



IRRIGATED LANDS. 

Sure Crops and Largre Tields— Water Oom3 

munioatlon with San Francisco and 

Cheap Freights. 

WILZ. SELL, -j£ 

Three (3) Tracts ot Land on Staten Island. The Jersey 
Tract, 4,000 acres, on San Joaquin River. The Brad- 
ford Tract, 2,230 acres, on San Joaquin River. Also, 
offer other Tule Lands in tracts to suit purchasers. 

VF These are the most desirable grazing and farm 
lands in the State. Partly cultivated, improved and 
easy ot access. 

L. C. UcAFEE, Real Estate Agent, 

411 M California street, Ttoom 4, 8. F. 



H. H. H. 

HORSE MEDICINE, 

r>. I>. T.— 1808, 

Is gaining a wide spread notoriety. Testimonials from 
all parts of the coast show it to be a companion in 
evf ry family. It quickly removes Wind Galls, Spavins, 
Callous Lumps, Sweeny, and all blemishes of the 
horse, while the family finds it indispensable for 
Sprains, Bruises, Aches, Pains, and wherever a good 
liniment is required. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Prop's, 

Stockton, Cal. 



J. M. NEVILLE. 



G. H. BRYANT 



NEVILLE & CO'S FACTORY 

113 Clay and 1 14 Commercial Bts., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

BA.GrS of All Kinds, 
TENTS, All Sizes and Descriptions. 
HOWE for Hydraulic TJ?e. 
CA.IWA.», All Numbers. 
TVTIIVE for Sewing, Etc. 

CHARLES CLAYTON & CO., 

Commission Merchants 

GRAIN, 

FLOUR 

and WOOL, 

N. E. COR. FRONT & CLAY STREETS 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
SAN FRANCISCO 

EMPLOYMENT OFFICE, 
CROSETT & CO., Prop'rs, 

la- 623 and 625 Clay Street, S. F. "Ct 

COUNTRY ORDERS for MEN almost invariably 
filled, afid with FIRST-CLASS HKLP. 

■7" German, French, American and Scandinavian 
help, a specialty. 

Farmers will secure men in any number desired, 
especially by giving a little timely notice. Hotels can 
always get the l>est of MALE or FEMALE HELP. VTe 
have the BEST OF FACILITIES FOR PROCURING 
DESIRABLE HELP. S«nd us your orders and we will 
endeavor to give you satisfaction In every particular at 
all times. 



■. B. BALSIOir. 
1876. 

HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Oommisaion 

House, 

ESTABLISHED 18«8. 

No. 424 Battery street, southeast comer of Washing 
ton, San Francisco. 

Onr busisess being exclusively Oeumlsslon, we baTS 

o interests that will conflict with those ot the producer. 

4v3S-ly 



CARD. 

EXCELSIOR FORCE PUMP 
greatly improved. Copper Lined 
Bbass Valves and Valve Seats 
every way eqnal to a BRASS 
PUMP. Prices reduced. Send 
for Circular. BRITTAN, HOL- 
BROOK & CO., Agents. 



Hooper's South End Grain Warehouse, 

Japan and Townsend Streets. 

Bas Frakcisoo. Joly. 1874. 

I bes to inform yen I have leaaed the above Urat-clasi 
Fire-Proof Brick Warehoose, now being erected by Geo. 
F. Hooper, K«i)., and will be ready to receive atoraf* on 
the 1st ot AQKiist. This warebooae offers saperior indnoe- 
mentB to parties desiring to store (train and Hour, aaiti* 
sitaated on the Water Front, and on the line of the O. P. 
R R and B. P. R. R. It is well ventilated, rat proof, and 
combiqea all the modern adrant«(es and imorovemeBta, 
*° ^oar» reepeotfully. JOUl* JENNINGS. 

Advances and inaarance effected at the lowest ratea. 
Storage taken at lowest cnrrenl ratea. 4T8-ft 



July 17, 1875-] 






tm^ 



m§ 



47 



AMES' CELEBRATED STRAW and WOOD BURNING ENGINES. 

Best and Most Complete Threshing Engines in the World. 

Every Straw Burner Guaranteed to Burn Straw without Choking up, and they will also Bum 

Either Wood or Coal, 

A Late Testimonial. 

Farmington, June 25, 1875. 
Messrs. Baker & Hamilion, San Francisco: 

Dear Sirs: — We have given the No. 4 Ames' Straw Burn- 
ing Engine, bought of your agents in Stockton, a severe 
and thorough trial, and we are perfectly satisfied with it in 
every respect. The Engine works like a 
charm, and steams easier than any threshing 
engine we ever saw. In 36 minutes we 
raised 40 pounds of steam, and then com- 
menced to thresh, and in eight minutes 
steam raised to 70 pounds pressure. It 
burns all the straw clean up, does not clog 
or choke up and make us stop and lose 
time in cleaning out the flue and tubes, as 
is the case in most of Straw 
Burners, We are well pleased 
with our purchase, and think any 
one would do well to select an 
Ames' Straw Burning Engine if 
they intend to purchase a thresh- 
ing engine. 

Yours respectfully, 

J J. CROSS. 
E. O. LONG. 

SOLD ONLY BY 

BAKER & HAMILTON, 

San Francisco and iSacramento. 




CALIFORNIA A^INE COOPERAGE 




AND MILL CO. 

30, 32, 34, 36. 38 & 40 
Spear Street, 

M.FULDA&SONS 
Proprietois. 

Manufacturers of 

WATER TANKS. SHIP 

TANKS, MINING 

WORK, 

WINE, BEER AND LTQUOR 

CASKS, TANKS, ETC. 

Cooperage aud Tanks, Steamed 

and Dried Before or After 

Mauufactui'6 at Reason ■ 

able Rates. 

^ Sawing, Planing', etc. 

r at Short Notice. eowbp 



J. Y. WILSON. 



WM. FAULL. 



W.L. MERRY 



WILSON, MERRY & 00., 

Provision Packers 

And Dealers in 

SALTED AND SMOKED MEATS, 

Lard, Etc. 

PROP'S BLACK POINTJPAOKINO HOUSE. 

We respectfully call the attention of Farmers an 
Stock Raisers to the fact that we are always pre- 
pared to purchase hogs, cattle and sheep at 
full market prices, for Cash, and shall be 
glad to answer promptly any in- 
quiries addressed to us on 
the condition of the 
Market. 

OfBce No. 223 Sacramento St., Near Frsnt, 
San Francisco. 



SUPPORT HOME INDUSTRY. 

WHEATEN STARCH, 

MARUPACTtTBED BT 

J. JOHNS'JCOIV, 

SAN JOSE, ----- CALIFORNIA. 

This starch Is made from the best of wheat, and is 
used by the laundries and hotels, who pronounce.it 
Superior In Strength and Fine Satin Gloss to any im- 
ported starch— one pound being equal to one and a 
half pounds of lEastem starch. 



Averill Chemical Paint, 

MANUTAOTUKED BY THE 

Oal. <Jli.ein.ical Paint Co. 



PURE WHITE, AND ANY SHADE OR COLOR. 

This Paint is prepared in liquid form, READY FOR 
APPLICATION— requiring no thinner or dryer, and will 
not spoil by standing any length of time. 

It is Cheaper, more durable, more Elastic, and pro- 
duces a more Beautiful Finish than the best of any 
other Paint. „ , „ , .„ 

It will not Fade, Chalk, CCrack, or Peel off, and will 
last twice as long as any other Paint. 

In ordering White, state whether for Outside or In- 
side use, as we manufacture an Inside White (Flat) for 
inside use, which will not turn yellow, and produces 
a finish superior to any other White known. 

Put up in H, M,l,2 and 5 gallon packages, and in 
Barrels. Sold by the Gallon. 

For further information send for Sample Card and 
Price List, or apply to the office. 

OFFICE and DEPOT: FACTORY: 

117 Pine Street, near Front. Cor. 4th h Townsend Sts, 



3v9-eow-bp-ly 



SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



Davis & Sutton, Commission Merchants, 

For California Fruits: also for the sale of Butter, Eggs 
Cheese, Hops Green and Dried Fruits, etc., ~i!> Warren 
•treet. New York. Refer to Anthony Halsey, Cftsliier, 
Tradesmen's National Bank.N. Y.; EUwangar 4 Barry, 
Rochestat, N. Y. ; O. W. Reed, Sacramento, Gal.; A 
Lnsk A OS., Pacifle Fruit Uarket, Ban Ft«ncleoo, Oal. 



BOOK BINDER. PAPER RULER 

AND BLANK BOOK MANUFACTURER. 

621 Clay Street, S. F. 

Blank Books Ruled, Printed, and Bound to Order. 



Pelton's Six-Fold Horse Power, 




Having made new arrangements with Mr. McKenzie, I am prepared to supply my powers to all persons 
favoring me with their orders. All powers hereafter manufactured can only be obtained of me or my agents. 

In future thfy will be made under my directions and specifications, and nothing but a prime quality of 
Machinery Iron will be used in their manufacture. 

I have greatly improved the application and bearing— my Levers— which will give them ample strength. 
All powers fully warranted. For further information. Send for Circulars and Price List to 



Uv9-lam 



S. PELTON, Patentee. 

San Jose, Cal. 



$25 



a day gnarantced using our Well 
Auaer &. DrIllB. $100 a month a, 
paid to good Agents. Auger book -, 
free. JUz Auger Co., 8t, Louis, Mo 



G«o. W. Chapin, Real Estate Aeen-t, 434 
Monteomery St., iSan Francisco, bujiB and sells Kanones 
n all Sarts of the State. City Real fisUte e«haL«ed for 
onntryPro per ty . Monet Lo»IlEt). Post Office tO«llW 



THE CALIFORNIA 

STANDARD BURLAP SACK COMPANY 

OF SAN FKA.NCISCO, 

Now offer for sale their GRAIN BAGS, 22x30 and 20x30, aowed by Machinery with the host of Flax Twine, 
warranted not to rip in filling, the stitch being the same as the Dundee hand-sowed Sack. The sewing has been 
examined by good judges, and pronounced superor to any other. 

SAMPLES SENT ON APPLICATION AT THE 



Factory, No. 36 Clay Street. 



A. 1. GOVE, Superintendent. 



For Sale in Guanttties to Suit bv 



I. FRIEDL ANDER, 
Cor. California and Battery Sts., •.-.-- SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 



48 



yuly 17, 1875 



NEW CROP OF 

BLUE GUM SEEO. 



GRA-SsS AND 

FLOWER A-TSiy 
VEGETABLE 

TREE AND 
E R U I T 



OF EVERT DESIRABLE VARIETY A.ND OF THE 
BEST QUALITY; OFFERED AT WHOLE- 
SALE OR RETAIL, BY 

GEO. F. SILVESTER, 

WEEDS^M^IV , 

No. 317 Washington Street, 
T8-tf SAN FRANCISCO 



University of California, 

BEBKEL.E7, near Oakland. 



00LLEOE3 OF AGRICULTURE, 

CHEMISTRY, MECHANICS, 

MINING, ENGINEEBING 

and LETTERS. 

Ex&mlnstionB for AdmiRSlon, AngUBt lltb and 12th, 
at 10 o'clock A. M. 

Tnitlon free. CirciUarg sent on request. 
bp-td 



SAN JOSB 

Instiiate and Business College. 

A day and boarding ^hool for both Rexpfl. 

The 27th session v, ill cou.nience Aug 2d 1875 

THE INSTITUTE, nnder ia„ superrision of Isaac 
Kinlj:y, has been carefully graae*. and » thorough 
academic course has been added. Studeuia completing 
the course will receive diplomas. 

THE BUSINESS COLLEGE, under the direction of 
Jas. VnjsoNHAi.KR, is complete in all its appointments, 
and in thoroughness and eiHciency ranks with the best 
buainess colleges in the State. Those from a distance 
have the privilege of boarding in the Institute build- 
Dgs. Letters relating to the Institute should bo 
addr«sa<Mi to 

ISAAC KINLEY, 

Superintendent San Jose Institute, 

San Jose, California. 
Letters relating to the Business College should be 
addressed to JAMES VINSONHALER, Principal of the 
Business College, San Jose, California. 



HoUoway's Sure Death 

—TO — 

GOPHERS, SQUIRRELS AND RATS. 



This preparation, compounded by a most skillful 
chemist, is the most efSclent poison for the externiina> 
tion of Gophers and Squirrels. It is cheaper than 
strychnine, and in using it, saves a great deal of time 
and unpleasant work. Price, 75 cents per pound. For 
Rale everywhere. 

ABRASES & CABROLL, 

■Wholesale DarooisTS, 

Sole Agentb. 



"WAIVXED TO LEASE, 

A FIRST-CLASS RANCH, 
Either Adapted to Stock or Dairy Purposes. 

Apply, with full particulars, to 

Messrs. DEWEY & CO., 

324 Sansome Street, S. F. 



Patent Extension Toothed Hay Rake. 



SEEDS. 
SEEDS. 



SEEDS. ^^ 




Made of the Best Material, Rons Lig'ht and is Easily Operated, 

Being so regulated by draft of horso as to nearly balance the rake, the operator steadying the lever and holding 
the teet,a to the ground as required. 

The Hay is Clean, tree firom Dirt and Cast, 

And is not wadded or rolled, as from the Wire Toothed Rake. 

The Teeth Rise and Fall Over Uneven Ground. 

Oatheiing hay where other Rakes leave tt behind, and are also doable pointed, can be used any length, ane 
turned point to point when dulled, or a tooth replaced without delay. Also manufacture Wire Bakes of thd 
same pattern. Parties can have their choice of wire or wood. 

BONNEY'S PATENT ADJUSTABLE GRAIN LIFTER, 

FOR HEADERS. 

All farmers who wish to save their grain without waste 
In cutting, shnuld e:5amine these. They can be run at any 
Inclination to the ground, as seen at /), in cut. Are light, 
strong and durable, and can be adjusted in fifteen minutes, 
or removed in five when not required, by drawing bolt In 
malleable shank, B. Set of 8 for 10-foot header (In pnt« 
ting on which bore with )i-iuch bit for lag screws), are 
the cheapest, and give the best satisfaction for any in use. 
Parties can save additional the cost of a set In one day's 
cutting, where grain is lodged or trinkles down. 

Also, HEADER APRONS, GRAIN BELTS and 
FARMING IMPLEMENTS, Generally. 




1874. GUIDE AND OATALOQUE 1875. 
FREE. 

To persons contemplating purchasing I will send 
my IlxusTBATKD, Dkscbipttvk eATALOoiTE and QtnDX 
to the VfOETABLE and Floweb Oasscn without 
ORAKOE. It contains the most extensive and valuabl* 
list of 




Flowering Bulbs, Roots and Plants, Seml- 
Tropical Trees, Ornamental Shrabs, Fruit 
and Shade Trees, etc., ever offered In this market. 
It tells how to successfully grow the Australian 
Blue Gum, the Monterey Cypress, Pine, 
etc., and the proper method of Cultivatinir To- 
bacco on this Coast. 

•^My stock of Seeds Is In part my own ralskig 
and in part direct importations from the best Euro- 
pean and Eastern growers, and Is unsurpassed In all 
respects by that offered by any other establishment. 

100,000 Australian Blue Guma and Mon- 
terey Cypress in boxes at from $30 to $fiO per 
1,000, raised at my own Nursery at Ban Rafael. 

R. J. TRUMBXTLL, 

Grower, Importer, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

Seeds, Bbmbs, Trees, etc. 
aOv8-6m.l6p 427 Sansome street. S. F. 



PRICE, $40 



AXauxafcaoinrCCl \>y O. B€>N]XEY, 



No. 221 Mission Street, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



Our A.gc'nts. 

OtTB Fbienbs can do much In aid of our paper and the 
canse of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

J. L. Thaep— San Francisco, 

B. W. Cbowell— California. 

A. C. Cqamfion— Tulare, Fresno and Inyo Connties. 

John Rosthon— California. 

A. 0. Knox, California. 

G. W. MrGBEw— Santa Clara county. 

Ohas. T. Bell— California, Oregon and W. T. 

D. J. James— Australian Colonies. 

James Keabmy— California. 

Wilson Spenoeb— California. 



Appreciated by the Household. 

San Beenardino, Cal., July 5th, 1875. 

Messes. Dewey k Co. :— Please change address of 
Col. H's. paper (the Rhbal Peegs) , from San Jacinto, 
Cal., to San Bernardino, Cal. He, and all of us, are 
admirers of the Rural. It is indispensable, and In my 
opinion, incomparable. You have our warmest wishes 
for success, and the gratitude of every member of our 
family for the benefits we derive from its perusal. 

Very respectfully, Mas. H. 



The Rt^EAL Pbess.- This excellent agricultural jour- 
nal hag entered upon Its tenth volume, with every 
mark of increasing prosperity, and with it. Increasing 
tisefulness. We are glad to note this, and although the 
Pbess and AgricuUurisl are rivals in a certain sense, we 
have no desire to succeed at the expense of our gener- 
ous rival. Wo are both working for the advancement 
of the same interests, and we have both achieved great 
success In that direction. We wish the Press renewed 
success.- fSac. Valley Agriculturist, July 4th. 



IMMIGRANT BUREAU, 

123 Calitobnia Street, 

San Francisco, Cal. , 

For the purpose of directing Immigrants, this Bureau 
desires information of all irrigating ditches In process 
of constmctlon. 

We can, with safety, send Immigrants to neighbor- 
hoods where land can be irrigated. 

Please ^tate definitely where such ditch Is taken out 
from the river or stream, and the land through which 
it passes or will pass, and, if possible, send also a 
description, by section, of the land proposed to be 
brought under the influence of the water. 

Such intormation, if given to the Bureau In detail, 
will be used in directing Immigrants to the lauds, and 
win tend to settle the country so designated. 

t^ If you have or can procure a map of the exact 
location of the ditch it will be of great service. 

NOTICE. 



FOR SALE— ONE PAIR WILD TURKEYS, 

One year old last May, just imported from tho state of 
Missouri, for breeding purposes. Price, $7S. 



Address, 



ICp 



H. H. STEVENSON, 

P. 0. Box 332, SAN JOSE. 



The Ecbal Pbess.— This sterling California agricul- 
tural paper enters upon its tenth volume with the first 
week in July. It Is an able advocate of the Interests of 
the Grange, and a thoroughly good farmers' paper, and 
well deserves the success it has attained. — [Siemi-Trop- 
leal Farmer. 



GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

IMPORTER AND BREEDER OF 

Jersey Cattle, 

Choice Poultry, Etc. 

OAKLAND 
Poultry Yarda, 

Oor. 16tb & Castro Streets, Oakland. 

Send stamp for circular, aontaiDing a full description of 
all the bent known aod most profitable fowls in the county. 

O. B. BAYLEY, 

/ P. O. Box e.W, San Francisco. 

N. B.— A ear-load of Jenej Cattle to arrive in June. 




SEEDS. 



PLANTS. 



OF EVERT VARIETY. 

Freeh and reliable, such as experience and care only 
can select. 

GRASS AND CLOVER SEEDS, KENTUCKY BLUE 
GRASS, HUNGARIAN, ORCHARD, ITALIAN RYE, 
RED TOP, TIMOTHY, ME8QUIT, SWEET VERNAL, 
CHOICE CALIFORNIA ALFALFA, WHITE CLOVER, 
RED CLOVER, Etc. 

Also, RAMIE, JUTE AND TOBACCO SEEDS; to- 
gether with a fine and complete collection of TREE 
SEEDS, AUSTRALUN BLUE GUM, SEQUOIA OIQAN- 
TEA, PINUS IN8IGNIS, Etc. 

For Sale, wholesale or retail, by 

B. F. WELLINGTON, 

(Snccessor to £. £. Moore). 
43S .Washington St., Ban Francisco. 33TT-ly 



Bronze Turkeys 

12 Gobblers from 8 

to 20 months old, 

22 to 40 lbs each, 

for sale now. 

Hens 14 to 

18 lbs. 




Emden Geese 

40 to 60 pounds 
per pair at ma- 
• turity. 

CAY USA DUCKS, 



Games. Brahmast Leghorns, Hondans. Ban- 
tams, etc. 
EiffB, fresh, pure, true to name; well- 
packed so as to hatch after arrival. 

For Illustrated Circular and Price-Llst, address 

U. EYRE, Napa, Cal. 
FERRETS. RABBITS. PIGEONS. 

Please itate where yon aaw this advertisement. 



TsncKEE, Cal., July 10, 1874. 
Messrs. Dewiet k Co. — Otnllemm: My patent is just 
received, and Is entirely satisfactory. Permit me to 
tender you my sincerest ibauks for the care and atten- 
tion, the promptness and interest you htve displayed 
in managing my affairs. Gratefully yours 

0. F. McOaluoah. 



Calistoga Real Estate Coinpany. 



Calistoga, with a population of abou 800 persons. 
Is a village watering place at the head of the valley of 
Napa, in California. It is four hours" travel north of 
San Francisco by steamboat and rail. 

Its shipping port Is Vallejo, on the bay of San 
Francisco, forty miles distant by rail. It lies at the 
hoad of the moat channing valley in the State. 

THE BEAUTIES OF NAPA. 

In traversing this thirty-seven miles of fertile dale, 
the eye never wearies. H one ascends the sides of the 
leafy mountains that bound the valley on either side, 
whether looking up the valley or down, and from 
whatever point of view, the scene is one of ravishing 
beauty. 

Moimtlng the summit of St. Helena, which towers 
over all, far to the east the snowy Nevadas bound the 
view; and to the west spreads the I'acific ocean, with 
Its winged ships and Its blue horizon. To the north 
are the vast forests of Mendocino, its stately trees, 
turned to shrubbery and Clear Lake lu its pride of 
expanse dwindled to a mill dam. 

THE WARM SPRINGS. 

Prom the beauties of Calistoga we turn to its other at- 
tractions. The estate covers 2,000 acres of fertile 
land. Its warm springs are crewded with Invalids, 
who flock to its healiug waters, and who return cured 
of their rheumatism, their dyspepsia, their torpid 
livers and their tender kidneys. The medicinal ele- 
ments of the hot sprlags are principally iron, magne 
■la and sulphur. Zn this climate, the season of water 
lug places Is prolonged. 

THE SURROUNDINGS. 

By oODrmltlng a map It will be apparent that OaliB* 



toga is destined to l)ccome a commercial town of Im- 
portance. It is the center to which converge Innu- 
merable highways leading to many of the richest cul- 
tivated valleys of California. 

INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES. 

A new industry is now being introduced at the head 
of the valley of Napa, which will gi\ e easy employ- 
ment to all the boys and girls, aud contingently It will 
support other new industries. It is but the beginning 
of many others. Three miles below Calistoga Is selec- 
ted as the site of a large factory for saving and canning 
fruits and vegetables that now go to waste, and encour- 
aging the production of more. In no part of Califor- 
nia can these healthful elements of human food becul- 
tivaU'd more cheaply or more abundantly. Consider, 
ing the flepth of its rich soil, its prolongetl season, and 
the extraordinary vegetable growth in this country, one 
acre may be considered equal to three wherever this In- 
dustry Is carried on in the Atlantic States. If irriga- 
tion be wanted, artesian waterflow may surely be found 
all along the valley, for It Ig backed by mountain 
ranges full of living waters. 

GOLD AND SILVER AND QUICKSILVER. 

Calistoga is the center also of a great mountain range 
rich in mines cf cinnabar and silver. Already Its ;fur. 
naces are producing mercury, and the product Is in- 
creasing yearly. A number of valuable mines are now 
being profitably developed In the region around the 
base of Mt. St. Helena, at Pine Flat, en the Great Gey- 
ser road, and near Sillies' Mill, on the Clear Lake road. 
All of these ue from ten to fifteen miles bejroud Calis- 



toga, to which point their products come, and from 
which their supplies are carried. The deposits of cin- 
nabar occur In well defined veins, and as they are now 
being scientifically developed they bid fair to rival in 
productiveness the celebrated mines of New Almaden. 

CALISTOGA REAL ESTATE CO. 

First grand auction sale will be held on the tract on 
Wednesday, August 4th, 1875, at 12 o'clock m. Those 
holders purchasing at the sale will be credited with 
the amount paid on their stock, and still share In the 
profits of tho company. 

The splendid property above described, containing 
2,082 acres, divided into town lots, suburban lots, 
country scats, hotel property and farm tracts, has been 
bought by the above named company, and Is now 
offered for sale to the public. 

The Capital Stock of the Company Is 

$1,000,000. 

Divided into 20,000 Shares of $50 Each. 

The sale of a certain number of shares has been 
authorized by the Board at the rate of 

Twenty-five Cents on the Dollar, Kaklng: 
12.50 Per Share. 
By an arrangement between the former owner and 
the present company, no portion of this land or the 
proceeds of lis sale. Is consumed by expenses or In even 
the smallest degree diverted from the use and benefit 
of the stockholder. 



Whoever buys Stock In the Company receirea his 
pro rata share of this property, with its Crops and 
Rents in tho meantime, without one cent of deduction 
for expenses of any kind, even Including Taxes. And 
this, t«o, no marttA' how valuable the propeny shall 
become. 

Unlike the homestead schemes which have hereto- 
fore attracted our people, this plan gives homes and 
Interests in and adjoining a town already bnllt; where 
trade and growth are already assured, and where dally 
Increase gives promise of greatly added values to all 
Its property. It is a division of this ripened heritage 
that Is now offered to the subscribers. 



TRUSTEES: 

E. Vr. BXTRR, 

President Savings and Loan Bocietf , 

C. HARTSON, 

President Bank of Maps, 

J. B. FRISBIE, 

I^resident Vallejo Commercial Bank. 

JULIUS WETZLAR, 

Pres. Capital Savings Bask, Baoramanto 

COLONEL J. P. JACKSON, 

San Francisco, 

WILLIAM H. MARTIN, 

OENERM. AGENT, 
Ko. J Webb Street, cor. Califonda, 8. F. 




Volume X.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 24, 1875. 



[Number 4. 



Chinese Immigration. 

The people of the Atlantic States very natur- 
ally consider the immigration of Chinamen 
to this country merely as a somewhat curious 
historical item; but in the estimation of Cali- 
fornians it is one of the most di fflcult problems 
of the age. It becomes vastly more aifJicuit of 
solution from the fact that it concerns us so 
much and the rest of the country so little. In 
dealing with it, it necessarily becomes a na- 
tional matter; though its real iaterest and im- 
portance are strictly local; and if this question 
were to be laid before Congress at its next ses- 
sion, or, we may add, at any future session, it 
may safely be said that only one man in about 
seventy — considering California's proportionate 
representation there — could be expected tovoe 
upon it intelligently and fairly. 

If it is claimed in this connection that a por- 
tion of the representation outside of California 
should be credited with having given this sub- 
ject careful and candid consideration, on the 
other hand it may as truly be said that as large 
a proportion of our own representatives will 
fail, either in capacity or integrity, when this 
complicated question is brought before them. 

The subject of Chinese immigration, involv- 
ing as in does the question of the character and 
capacity of the immigrants, their influence upon 
the industrial, the commercial, the social and 
religious interests of the country, is very imj 
perfectly understood, even by the people of 
San Francisco; and, although there may be no 
actual untruthfulness, and much that is really 
interesting, in what our journalists hftve pub- 
lished in their own local columns or have con- 
tributed to Eastern magazines, it deserves but 
little consideration from those who wish to 
form a correct estimate of the Chinese charac- 
ter. This class of writers have in this matter 
consistently stuck to th'eir legitimate vocation 
in supplying the news market with information 
most in demand. In this market tliere is noth- 
ing more strictly staple than information con- 
cerniug the i characteristics of races, nations, 
states, neighborhoods and individuals. The 
special demand is for types of character ; and 
the special error on the part of writers is their 
persistent attempt to reduce character to a 
typical form. 

Tourists and local character-painters have 
sketched the typical Yankee, the typical John 
Bull, the typical Irishman, etc., how incorrectly 
and unfairly we all know. In accordance with 
the prevaihng taste there is a manifest desire 
throughout America for all sorts of information 
concerning the typical Chinese, and people 
have somehow conceived the notion ^'hat this 
is a character particularly easy t6 typify. 

This is a great mistake; and if we were dis- 
posed to undertake the difficult task of typify- 
ing character, the Chinese race as represented 
in San" Francisco, is the last subject that 
we would wish to take in hand. As seen indi- 
vidually in public places, or while following 
their vocation, there is a sort of self constraint, 
which, we a dmit, indicates a marked uni- 
formity of character; but seeing them in groups, 
and especially in Chinatown, will convince the 
judicious observer that there is no people more 
remarkable for diversity and real incomprehen- 
sibility of character. In craniology, physiog- 
nomy, temperament, in all external indications 
of character, the observer who takes a stroll 
through the Chinese quarters of San Francisco 
will see more that gives assurance of individu- 
ality than in any place that we know of. And 
when our readers, at a distance from this scene 
of observation, are told that the "real China- 
man" is so and so, and that "all Chinamen" 
will do this and that, they may very properly 
set down the would be character painter as a 
mere copyist. 

Those who attempt to estimate the capacity 
of these people, either for good or for evil, are 
charlatans, and make a striking exhibit of their 
own incapacity; and those who declare that this 
race, because it ip the oldest on record, and has 
not approximated our standard of human pro- 
grers, is therefore, about to "run out," should 
put less faith in the "philosophy of history," 
and pay more deference to the instinctive teach- 
ings of such observations as they can make at 
any hour in Chinatown. 

So much for the arbitrary and incorrect clas- 
sification of this truly singular people ; what 
their future destiny in this country is to be, or 



how they are to efi'ect the destiny of other races 
here, no one but an inspired prophet should 
presume to declare. It requires no prophet, 
however, to foresee that this is to become one 
of the future tests of American statesmanship; 
and those politicians who in their desperate 
search after a "live issue" are disposed to take 
up "the Chinese question," are simply playing 
with powder. That the subject itself is a live 
one no one will deny; but it is quite premature 
to attempt to contract any political issues out 
of it. As yet it is scarcely known where, and 
to what extent, injuries and benefits ai'e derivefi 
from the Chinese immigration to California J* 



any time gone by, only an infinitesimal propor- 
tion of those desiring to come to these shores 
can be accommodated. The majority of these 
immigrants belong to the lowest classes, and 
their condition is little better than that of 
slaves. The steamor' Great Republic arrived 
yesterday, with 933 of these people. Two 
more steamers from China will arrive this 
month. 

"In addition to the arrivals by the Great Re- 
public, the steamer China has arrived within a 
fortnight with 976 Chinese; the ship Avonmore, 
438; ship Atlantic, 383; ship Her Royal High- 
ness, 20; and the bark William H. JBcsseJbrought 




THE LEAF CUTTER. 



Yet, notwithstanding the almost unfathoma- 
ble depth and complicated windings of this 
subject, or rather because it is deep and com- 
plicated, people should not fail fo inform tljem- 
selves of all available facts retaling to it;'and 
in order to give an adequate indea of the grad- 
ual increase and present dimensions of this 
stream of emigration from tbo Orient, ^we give 
the following from the BaWtin of July 16th: 

"The number of Chinese immigrants who 
have arrived during the past three years is 
largely in excess of the arrivals from the same 
source during any previous corresponding 
period, and, actJording to authentic advices, 
the number tlnat will arrive within the closiBg 
year will far exceed that of any year yet past. 
Every steamer and sail vessel sailing for this 
port from the Orient is now taxed to its utmost 
capacity by this class of immigrants, and, al- 
though the accommodations are greater than 



117. The following tabular statement shows 
the uiimbor of Chinese immigrants who have 
arrived during the past thirteen years: 

Year. Males. Female. Totals. 

18G2-6» 5,407 87 5,494 

I8(i3-6l ■. 6,182 .... 5,182 

18fi4-65 8,809 176 3,48i 

1865-66 1,495 1 1,496 

180G-«7 3,362 .... :j.3C2 

18CT-G8 6,607 43 6,650 

18C.8^69 11,124 951 12,075 

1869-70 13,023 1,085 14,108 

1870-71 6,068 339 6,407 

1871-72 6,422 146 6,668 

1872-73 18,629 839 19,368 

1873-74 12,941 132 13,073 

1874-76 16,433 374 15,807 

Totals 108,902 4,132 113,074 

Duriing the year 15G3-C4 and 1866-67 no 
Chinese females came to thi'» coast, and only 
one arrived during 1865-66. The greatest num- 
ber of Chin«s« arriving in any one j'ear ttincu 



1862-63 was 19,368 in 1872-73. Th^umber of 
Chinese who have departed during the same 
period is comparatively small, but cannot be 
definitely stated. The Chinese on their arrival 
here are carted to the Chinese quarters, where 
they are taken in charge by the six companies 
until they can be distributed in lots bete and 
there, as the opportunity for contract labor 
may permit." 

Leaf Cutters. 

The.se bees are smaller than our domestic 
kinds, are black, with red hairs on the throat, 
and a white down upon the head and abdomen. 
They build their nests in the ground. In the 
engraving, a portion of earth is removed, re- 
vealing a section of two nests. It will be seen 
that they commence by boring down, almost 
perpendicularly for some inches, to form an 
entrance, which is enlarged into a horizontal 
tube or gallery. The leaves of the rose bush are 
always used to form the nest. The most per- 
fect leaf is selected, and the insect, alighting 
upon it, cuts a piece with its mandibles, with 
which it flies to the nest. Ten or twelve pieces 
of different sizes and shapes are thus conveyed 
to the bottom of the excavation, where they are 
twis'ed together so that one piece folds within 
another, forming a kind of funnel-shaped cone. 
The pieces of leaves are fitted together as per- 
fectly as though done by an expert, and retain 
their position. The little architect then makes 
a cake of honey and pollen, places it inside, 
lays an egg, and then proceeds to wall up the 
nest. A circular piece is out out of a rose leaf 
again, which just fits the opening. This is 
pushed down till it closes the opening of the 
cone-shaped nest. A second and third leaf is 
added, and sometimes a fourth. In .this man- 
ner a series of cells is constructed in one exca- 
vation, sometimes amounting to eight or ten, 
and when all is completed, the hole is closed 
up so nicely that no trace of it is left. 

The different species of solitary and nest- 
making bees have their mandibles constructed 
to suit their habits; the carpenter bee to bore 
through wood, the mason bee to work in ce- 
ment and the leaf cutter to dig in the earth. 



Kennedy's Scotch Entektaikments. — On 
Monday of this week we had the pleasure of at- 
tending one of these entertainments, which 
Mr. Keufiedy very properly terms "Twa Hours 
At Hame." Having heard this celebrated 
Scotch vocalist several years ago when he was 
accompanied by one of his daughters only, we 
were prepared for a good, wholesome musical 
feast, and found in the "twa hours" spent at 
Pacific hall, on Monday evening, even more 
enjoyment than we had anticipated. The 
Kennedy troup now number six persons, the 
father, three sons and two daughters, and a 
more gifted and better drilled family of singers 
we have never heard. The music and poetry of 
Scotland are, of course, the leading attraction 
in these entertainments, and in rendering this 
they have no superiors; but interspersed with 
the martial, romantic and humorous music of 
"old Scotia," was a fair r epresentation of the 
music of other nationalities. The programmes 
are in every respect well chosen and faithfully 
executed. The Kennedy entertainments will 
bear criticism in every part, but in listening 
to "Bannockburn," "There's nae Luck aboot 
the House," "Ye Banks and Braes," and other 
songs, the listeners are quite apt to forget to 
criticise. 

Monday night, of last week, a band of sheep 
belonging to Mr. Ashurst. of this city, were 
running along the edge of a precipice back of 
Mission San Jose, when the leader, by some 
means, lost his footing and was hurled down 
the steep declivity. The rest of the flock fol- 
lowed to the number of 800, or, as estimated by 
others, 1,200 to 1,500 head. All that fell weca 
instantly killed. ________ 

Bed Bujtp ia moving in the matter of a 
woolen mill. A steam flouring mill of great 
oapicity is about completed, and a foundry to 
utilize the iron lately discovered in the neigh- 
boririn; county of Sljastft is talked of. 



50 



3pjL§i#i© 3e,wmAS ^mtEss. 



rjuly 24, 1875 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Utility and Methods of Soil Analyses. 

[B; L. S. BuBCBAKD, s graduate In the College of Agri- 
culture of the University of California.] 

It is the object of agriculture to supply to the 
world the crude materials of what we eat 
and wear; or, as more commonly known, agri- 
culture is the art which pertbius to the cultiva- 
tion of the soil, and to the rearing, feeding and 
management of live stock. There is no art 
more important than agriculture, nor none 
wbich presents so many subjects of scientific 
'inquiry and vital interest. And yet, but few 
subjects of similar moment, but what have re- 
ceived far more thorough and scientific re- 
search. I fancy this is because agricultural 
science is as yet in its infancy. Other sciences 
must first^e developed before this could make 
any satisfactory advancement. Chemistry to 
give methods of analyses, and geology to tell 
of soil formation. Botany and zoology must 
also make their contributions, while years of 
experience and practical testing of theories 
should add their corroboratory testimony. 

Agriculture takes rank among the highest 
sciences, but, singularly enough, is but lightly 
appreciated, even by the class of men who 
should give it the most attention. The farm- 
ers, as a class, are not sufficiently informed, 
and among most of the educated other sub- 
jects are given greater prominence, while agri- 
culture receives only a casual consideration. 
The decay of old empires, and the decline in 
national vigor of the people of those govern- 
ments, clearly indicate that the farmer must 
have regard to the manner in which he treats 
the soil from whence comes his bread; while 
the statesman should not be ignorant of one of 
the grandest elements of national prosperity, 
Tiz: soil fertility. 

The farmers of every age and country have 
first planted one crop after another, without 
any regard for the soil's treatment. And quite 
naturally enough, for they did not know what 
composed the soil or the plants growing upon 
it. They did not know how to care for their 
land, and consequently it soon began to ex- 
hibit signs of infertility. The difficulti»} they 
could not remedy, but other countries were 
fertile, and to them many of the people emi- 
grated. Men, however, cannot easily migrate, 
nor are such migrations conducive to national 
prosperity; hence, the leading men of the na- 
tion perceiving the evil began to give attention 
to the soil's cultivation. Among the Hebrews 
the land bad its periods of rest. Other and later 
generattons thought of adding something to 
the soil. But what should be added, and 
should the same fertilizer be added to all soils? 
China and Japan solved the problem quite sat- 
isfactorily for themselves. But they shut 
themselves up from the rest of mankind, and 
we Indo-Europeans remained in ignorance as 
the rolling centuries passed along. 

A host of fertilizers have been tried, and 
many of them found to improve the soil's fer- 
tility. But as the same fertilizer would not an- 
swer on different soils, it was with much reason 
presumed, that a chemical analysis of the soil, 
and of its vegetation, and of the substances to 
be added, would give all the required informa- 
tion for • 

Maintainlngfthe Soil's Productiveness. 
If we knew what to add to the soil, there 
seemed to be no question but that the soil 
which yielded one ibale of cotton to the acre, 
and which now yields but one-fourth of a bale, 
would yield, by this new and really marked ad- 
vance in agricultural knowledge, from two to 
three bales per acre. Our expectations were 
high, but our two to three bales of cotton were 
rarely realized. What was the diflaculty ? We 
certainly are in possession of an important fac- 
tor in crop culture. 

Not every analysis was correct, and no 
thought was taken as to whether the important 
soil constituents were in an available or un- 
available condition. A mechanical analysis 
mnat be made in addition to the chemical. The 
physical properties of the soil, whether open, 
light, porous, heavy, dark, deep or shallow; 
its dryness, warmth, division; whether in a 
rainy or rainless region; climate, high or low 
land; kinds of crops raised on the soils; how 
long under cultivation; drainage, etc, all these 
factors, and more, are to be taken into consid- 
eration. Hence a simple chemical analysis, 
while giving valuable information to the agri- 
culturist, is only one of many things which de- 
termine the value of the soil and its adaptation 
to particular crops. 

'This fact, however, is generally lost sight of; 
many giving undue promintnce to the soil's 
chemical analysis, while others, among the 
number. Prof. Johnson, considers it as com- 
paratively useless, and urge such objections as 
the following: 

Two soils may be of quite similar composi- 
tion, and yet be very unlike in fertility. The 
less productive one is so because of some phys- 
ical condition; as a want of underdrainage, 
lack of rain, depth of soil, etc. 

To correct the soil's physical defects often 
improves at once its chemical condition. A 



correct chemical analysis of the soil requires 
much time and is expensive; and, when made, 
one is not able to tell whether his soil is just 
fertile or just barren. Some soils, naturally 
sterile, by adding four hundred pounds of 
gnano manifest a wonderful productiveness. 
The analysis represents but a small part of the 
field, and does not indicate the soil's openness, 
heaviness, etc. Johnson suggests, instead of 
chemical analysis, experiments on difi'erent 
plots of land with those fertilizers most likely 
to cause the particular soil to become fertile. 

These are strong objections against the chem- 
ical analysis of soils, if such analynis were 
one's only source of information respecting the 
soil's composition, condition and value. But, 
when we know that chemical analysis is only one 
factor of our knowledge of the soil, and its in- 
telligent cultivation, the above objections ap- 
pear a little specious, and thus lose most of 
their force. Is it not rational to suppose that 
a soil rich in certain ingredients would be bet- 
ter adapted to a particular class of plants de- 
manding those particular ingredients, than it 
would be for any other class of plants ? To de- 
termine by experiment alone what a soil ij 
good for, is, to say the least, a lengthy, tedious, 
and costly process. In the case of "poison 
soils," which to oil appearances are fertile, and 
yet contain substances which are injurious to 
crops, experiment is almost folly. Take this 
example: Bae's island, Beaufort county, South 
Carolina, appeared to be good soil, but would 
not grow cotton. The planters did not know 
how to obviate the difficuhy. They had tried 
Prof. Johnson's blind experiments to their en- 
tire satisfaction. The soil was analyzed, and 
found to contain some proto-sulphate of iron, 
a substance which is poisonous to plants. The 
chemist gave the remedy also, viz. : underdrain- 
age, aeration and the addition of some lime. 

Comparative Chemical Analysis of Soils, 
Not only tells one what is the soil's composi- 
tion, but, also the ratio of its plant ingredients 
to those found in other soils. 

If a soil is found to be rich in the nutritive 
plant ingredients, viz. : K2 O, P2 O ■,, CaO, N and 
C, we know what crops would, in all probability, 
grow most successfully upon it; and if deficient 
in any one of these elements of plant foods, 
what particular fertilizer could be most advan- 
tageously applied. For example: in a soil con- 
taining a small proportion of lime and sul- 
phuric acid, leguminous pliints, as peas, beans, 
etc., are planted; this soil would soon give out, 
but, by the addition of an occasional coat of 
gypsuum, its fertility is maintained. Again, if 
in a soil which is poor in phosphates, cereals 
are planted, we know that it will soon become 
exhausted, and that our remedy is to add 
to the soil super-phosphates. 

These remedies are not infallible ones by 
any means, and the soil which is rich in E^ O, 
CaO, P2 05, N and C, may have these com- 
pounds in an unavailable form, but we nave much 
light throwu upon the soil's permanent value, 
and probable adaptation. A soil which is rich 
in this plant food will undoubtedly contain 
much, if not most of it, in an available form. 

Mechanical Analysis. 
By this and the observations and inquiries maile 
in connection with it, we obtain very much addi- 
tional knowledge of the soil's condition and 
value. A soil composed mostly of fine silicious 
silts, and a small percentage of clay, we know 
is very heavy, will clog to the plow, and cakes 
when drying. Coarse ingredients mike the 
soil more porous and light. We find that the 
clay in the soils is the richest in mineral ingre- 
dients, holds the most moisture, ammonia and 
other soluble salts, and its insoluble residue is 
comparatively small. A soil of coarse sand is 
infertile, subject to drouth, and will not allow 
plant food to accumulate. A soil of fine sand 
is a good one; especially, if derived from easily 
decomposed rocks. 

Thus, we find that a chemical and physical 
analysis of the soil lies at.the fonndatioq of a 
proper estimate of its capacity, adaption, and 
future value. Therefore, is it not highly ad- 
vantageous to the agriculturist to know what 
compo.ses his soil, and also its physical condi- 
tion ? The soil contains the ancestral remains 
of past ages, and is the great store house from 
which we draw most of life's supplies; conse- 
quently, a scientific inquiry into it* composi- 
tion and value is a matter of prime importance, 
not alone to the farmer but the statesman also. 
Such an inquiry tells us what is in the soil, in 
what condition, the physical structure of the 
soil, what crops are best to plant and what fer- 
tilizers to add. Let us now consider the meth- 
ods of conducting this inquiry: 

Before commencing the analysis, and at the 
place of gathering the soil, it is necessary to 
make note of a few important particulars: 
First, as to the locality, whether hillside or 
valley knd, how near to mountains, in a word 
something about the topography of that sec- 
tion. Second, underlying geological formation, 
as well as that from which the soil has been 
derived. Third, depth of surface soil, and the 
obvious physical characteristics of the soil. 
Fourth, local vegetation, natural and cultivated; 
how long under cultivation, and what crops 
grown; whether manured and what manures 
used; color of soil taken, average rainfall, and 
any other points of special importance pertain- 
ing to that pirticular locality. To the above 
information is added the farmer's experience 
in the cultivation of that particular soil. 

Subsoil is usually taken for analysis, because 
in surface soils the organic ingredients materi- 
ally interfere with the operations of the analysis, 
as well as with the interpretations of its results. 
"The investigation of subsoils is better calcu- 
lated to furnish reliable indications of the agri- 



ctiltural peculiarities of extended regions than 
are surface soils, which are more liable to local 
variations, and usually differ from the corres- 
ponding subsoils in about the same general 
points." The surface soil generally has the 
largest amount of immediately available plant 
ingredients, while the subsoil has the largest 
supplies for future use. This table further 
illustrates their difference chemically: 

TABLE OF SnBFACG AND SUBSOIL C0MPABI80N. 
s„ii. '°f,';V"t!''* KjO. NajO. OaO. MgO. Mn ^O^ 



SrfaoPBOil 87.6 

Subsoil .'..79.5 



Am 
.741 



.124 
.24« 



.244 
.2J8 



..515 
.831) 



Soils. Fe, O, Al, 0,P, O, 8 O. 



3 •^2 "^5' 



Vo'tilc Hy'scopic 
''i M'tter. Afoisturs. 



Surface soil.. 3.231 
Subsoil 9 1)31 



4.84 .10.5 .(128 
8.819 .092 trace 



3.073 
3.496 



S.I82 
9,221 



The soil taken for analysis should be, if pos- 
sible, from a virgin soil, otherwise carefully 
select the spot which shall correctly represent 
the average character of the soil, undisturbed 
by local accidents or cultivation, and make a 
vertical cut showing distinctly the depth of the 
surface and subsoil. Take about twenty pounds 
of it each, thoroughly mix, and of the mixture 
take a pound or two and dry at 100^ (C). 
Carefully reduce to a more finely divided state, 
in a porcelain mortar with a wooden pestle, 
and sift through a sieve whose meshes are 
.8 m. m. (.031) diameter. We now have the 
dry fine earth; from this point the two analyses 
branch. We shall first take up the mechanical 
or silt analysis: Take 15-20 grms. of the "air 
dried fine earth," and boil for twenty-four to 
thirty hours in distilled water. This is done to 
completely disintegrate the soil particles. The | 
second process is to separate the clay from the silt | 
and sand, as the presence of clay in the elutriator i 
would materially interfere with the proper separ- 
ation of the sediments. The amount of clay in ! 
the purest natural clays rarely reaches 75 per 
cent., 40-. 47 in the heaviest clay soils, and 
10-20 in ordinary loams. 

(To be Continued.) 

From Fresno Flats. 

Messbs. Editobs : — I have been a subscriber to 
your invaluable paper for.four years, and I have 
never seen an item in regard to this part of 
Fresno county. .Whether it- is from the fact 
that the outside world considers it worthless, or 
that its inhabitants have no time to spare to 
set it before the public, I know not. 

Is the California lumber company's flume of 
interest to nobody? Instead of being insig- 
nificent, it is one of the greatest enterprises of 
the county, second to nothing but railroads. 
They have at this time twenty-five miles built, 
and are progressing finely. It commences and 
will terminate in Fresno county. It taps as 
fine a belt- of timber as there is in Californi:i. 
Their mill is built on the headwaters of the 
Fresno river, and they are jutting thirty thous- 
and feet of good lumber every twelve hours. 
The several townships of land lying on the 
route of the flume, from the mill to the foot- 
hills, are now surveyed and opened for pre- 
emption and homesteads. The country is well 
adapted to the raising of all kinds of stock, 
particularly the Angora goats; it also posseses 
good spring water, where good garden privi- 
leges exist, the spring affording sufiiciant water 
to irrigate them. The country is healthy, and 
the climate adapted to the growth of any and 
all vegetables grown in California. I have a 
band of goats which I am crossing with the 
Angora, and they keep fat all winter, having 
lost but one last winter out of a band of 600 
head. We have a good wagon road from 
Berendo Station on the railroad to this place. 
Send some of your immigrants up here; send 
none unless they are sobet' and industrious. 

K. F. BURFOBD. 

Fresno Flat, July 12tK, 1875. 

Steam Boiler Explosion. 

Messbs. Editobs:^ Yesterday morning, be- 
tween seven and eight o'clock, the boiler of a 
steam threshing engine exploded, killing two 
men and seriously injuring three others. Two 
of them have since died and the other man, it 
is thought, will die. Three of the four men 
who died, wore employed as eacksewer, sack- 
packer and engineer. The engineer was blown 
sixty feet from the engine. _ "The explosion oc- 
curred on Frank Tappics' place, between Col- 
legeville and Atlanta, San Joaquin county. 
The engine belonged to Mr. Prernon. Cause 
of explosion is said to be by letting the water 
down too low and then pumping in cold water. 
Enoineeb Steaw Bubneb. 

Stockton, July 14th, 1875. 

• Call for our Sierra Correspondent. 

To Professoe J. G. Lemmon:— The thous- 
ands of readers of the Pacifio Bubal have 
patiently awaited your promised continuation 
of 'Scenes from the High Sierras,' and in behalf 
of the many who are entranced with eloquence 
of your pen, I most earnestly beg of you a 
resume of the grandeur of those scenes. Others 
have described those scenes, but not so encbant- 
ingly; others have portrayed with pen and 
pencil nature's sublimity, but it has remained 
for you, dear sir, like the master workman of 
creation, to excite beyond comparison. 

Very respectfully, W. A. T. Stbaxton. 

Petakima, Oal. 



"Yellow Jackets and Volunteer Grain." 

Messes. Editobs —I noticed in yo«r valu- 
able paper of Juno 26th in a communication 
from G. B. Crane, in speaking of "Yellow 
Jackets and Volunteer Grain," that there is 
room for a few remarks which I offer. 

Yellow jackets are very numerous and greedy 
in some parts of the State, and any one can 
see them in some parts alight on meat and in a 
minute they will cut out a piece the size of a 
pea with their strong forcep-like jaws and con- 
vey it to their nest, generally in the ground. 

Apples and grapes are also devoured by 
them. I have watched the honey bee, but can- 
not say they injure fruit; but tie a string through 
their comb and they can cut it out. To find the 
nest of the yellow jicket, insert a straw in his 
abdomen and assist him to take wing and fol- 
low. 

Volunteer Grain and Deep and Shallow Plowing. 

In 1871, thirty acres were plowed deep to in- 
sure a good crop in a field of forty acres, and 
ten acres were left to volunteer. The ground 
was a sandy loam. May 5th the moisture was 
nt the top of the ground on the volunteer, and 
three inches below the surface on the plowed 
part. July 20th, good crop on the volunteer, 
while that cultivated was not worth cutting. 

Now, my good farmers, what are we to learn 
from these facts? Plow shallow? Not a bit of it. 
We are to learn that a farmer must be a sensi- 
ble being. That something more is necessary 
to success than plowing your fields. In this 
instance the deep plowing rendered the gronnd 
too loose; so much so that there was no attrac- 
tion, and not a particle of moisture left in the 
ground to support the roots of the grain; in 
other words the ground leached. I, an un- 
thinking farmer, thought I could not afford an 
a;iricultural paper, and through my ignorance 
lost the crop. 

Had Mr. Crane rolled his deep plowed land, 
or, what would likely be better, herd sheep on 
it, packed it like the volunteer, and given 
it the full length of the growing season, he 
would have got better returns. 

K. H. Eeent. 

San Quentin, July 15th, 1875. 

From Mussel Slough. 

Messbs. Editobs: — Perhaps a word from this 
isolated section would be of interest to your 
many readers. Isolated as we are from rail- 
road and telegraph and almost all other com- 
munication, the citizens of the Mussel Slough 
feel that they should not be forgotten. Only 
about four years ago this was a vast sand plain, 
whose principal inhabitants were wild mus- 
tangs and Spanish cattle; and those pioneers 
who desired to settle here were informed that 
this was an unproductive country, and it would 
be impossible for an agricultural man to ever 
hope for a living on these plains. But, as in 
all other new countries, a tew of our sturdy 
husbandmen saw, or thought they saw, a fu- 
ture in this vast plain; and frontier like they 
pitched their tents, made up their minds, come 
what may, they would live or die on the rodeo 
ground . And that noble resolve has wrought 
many changes, and this locality is to-day verg- 
ing on the most productive country on the 
Pacific coast. 

Notwithstanding many of them came here 
penniless, with nothing to comfort them but a 
wife and ten or a dozen small children; 
with nothing for a shelter but the canopy of 
heaven; with nothing to encourage them but 
the boon of home, and inspired by the little 
word "hope'.' which surpasseth all understand- 
ing; one-half of the land held for railroad, 
and one-half of the remainder owned by stock- 
men and speculators, and with the other al- 
most innumerable inconveniences that pioneer 
life is heir to, these husbandmen (almost un- 
aided) commenced to block out this country, 
and the result is plain to be seen ; as you will 
probably conclude after reading this short 
synopsis. 

To-day we behold this vast plain almost cov- 
ered with the homes of honest settlers; who 
have emigrated to this spot for the purpose of 
laying up something for future generations. 
To-day we behold 150 miles of irrigating 
ditches, at a cost of hundreds of thousands of 
dollars; thousands of acres of wheat and barley, 
nine large school houses, with four more con- 
templated and plenty of children to attend 
them; with five large Oranges, a good supply of 
ministers, regularly organized Sunday schools, 
several stores, four half starved doctors, two 
notary pubHcs and one Justice of the Peace; 
with some little quarrelling, but no fighting; 
with almost a continuous harvest, and last, but 
not least, with several deadfalls where they deal 
out common disturbance to their fellow man. 

This is Mussel Slough, as it now appears to 
our view; and its productions are— well any- 
thing that a tropical climate will produce; and, 
like the world of chance that we read of, they 
sow and reap at the same time. Yon may 
start out with me to-day and we will find one 
neighbor planting corn, beans, pumpkins, 
potatoes, etc.; another sowing grain; another 
cutting hay; another heading grain and thresh- 
ing; another hauling off their grain and count- 
ing the proceeds, and wondering how much 
his late crop will add to his pile. 

And are the crops good? Yes, so far as we 



July 24, 1875.] 



51 



baye 1»een abl« to ascertain, they ar» good. 
Grain rnnnlDg from fifteen to forty bushels per 
acre; hay from one to three tons; corn and 
potatoes as promising as I ever saw. If you 
will indulge us a litte we will relate what we 
saw with our own eyes, and as seeing is believ- 
ing, of course we were compelled to believe 
this. We saw Early Kose potatoes that were 
raised on Mr. Harrington's ranch, one and 
one-half miles west of Grangeville, one of 
which weighed 4 lbs. 3 oz.; 12 of them weighed 
40 fts. and ofif of one-eighth of an acre they 
actually dug two tons of potatoes; Mr. 
Harrington is selling them at the reasonable 
price of $20 per ton. And further, we saw 
where the tops had become imbedded in the 
earth, and at every joint along the stem there 
was a potato from the size of a marble to the 
size of a hen's egg. Now, this may be a nat- 
ural occurrence to some of your readers, but it 
is something of a wonder to the inhabitants of 
Mussel Slough; particularly where they have 
only to look back four or five years to see this 
productive spot an almost uninhabited sand 
plain. And in conclusion we would add, there 
are homes for thousands of settlers (men of 
families are preferable), and we would be glad 
to see them coming. Land ranges from $5 to 
$30 per aore. Good soft water and plenty of 
fuel, and with many other advantages. More 
anon. D. 

Grangeville, July 13th, 1875. 

Fruit in Western New York. 

Messes, Editoes: — The past year has been 
so much of an exception to our usual seasons 
that it is worthy of notice. A good fruitful 
year, followed by no fall rains ripened our 
fruit buds and young trees so finely that we 
felt no uneasiness about them. A steady cold 
winter with but few extremes, yet steadily 
freezing, sent the frost deeper into the ground 
than was remembered by the " oldest inhabi- 
tant," and our deep inland lakes that have 
never been known to entirely freeze over be- 
fore, were covered with an icy blanket. W e 
had nt) thaw from the holidays till the last 
of March, when the ground thawed out and we 
began digging trees. Judge of our surprise to 
find nearly all our Dwarf pear trees killed 
at the roots— "as black as your hat." The 
tops were all in good order and the buds all 
burst as usual but withered up again soon 
after. 

A large proportion of the Dwarf pears under 
three yea-s old were killed throughout all the nur- 
sery region of western New York and dormant 
buds of one year old standard pears, as well 
as one year old apples and plums were also 
injured more or less. The injury was not at all 
confined ^to tender varieties, as the Flemish 
Beauty pear and Litofsky were as likely to be 
injured as the most tender ones. This has 
never occurred before in this fruit belt, and 
can only be accounted for by supposing the in- 
jury was simply a drying process that ab- 
sorbed all the sap from the roots of the trees. 
Those growing on damp, springy land, gener- 
ally the most likely to winter kill, escaped in- 
jury and the trees that were making the least 
growth in any blocks were injured least. 

Our spring opened .dry and cold. Peach trees 
promise a good crop; this not being the 
bearing year apples will only give an average 
crop. Cherries, plums, pears and quinces 
promise well. Grass and wheat. are very light, 
while all spring crops are looking well. Prices 
are low and business moderate, but a hopeful 
feeling prevails. Yours truly, 

J. E. Jones. 

Rochester, New York, July 3d, 1875. 



RO. 



Parasitic Vermin. 

One of the moat disgusting pests pertaining 
to poultry, are the lice virhich gather about the 
nests and perches, or swarm on the bodies of 
the fowls themselves. There are a half dozen 
species, some of some of which are compara- 
tively rare. We shall in time give an account 
of all of these, but at present only wish to 
speak of the two species that most prevail, and 
for the recognition of which by poultry keepers, 
no sicientific description is necessary. We 
mean the sort, small in size, called in various 
parts of the country, "hen spiders," "mites," 
or "jiggers," found in swarming millions, in 
cracks and crannies of the hennery. These 
sometimes attack and drive off the sitting hens. 
The other is much larger, and is found upon 
the bodies of fowls, particularly on their under- 
parts, and on the heads of the young chickens. 
To the latter they are often fatal, the constant 
irritation proving deadly to the young animal. 
It is easy, however, to get rid of either of these 
pests, and we give the following directions, all 
the methods recommended being of tried effi- 
cacy. 

As for those on the wood work of the house 
itself, a solution of potash is a neat and sure 
method, taking care that the whole be thor- 
oughly soaked with it. Or what is the same 
thing, use a strong lye of wood ashes, or after 
wetting the whole house thorougely, sprinkle 
it with fine wood ashes which will adhere where- 
eyer there is moisture, and form a thin film 
of lye. 

An equally effeclutl remedy is kerosene. 



which thoroughly applied, is vary destructive 
to vermin, but must be used freely, so as to 
penetrate all nooks and crevices. Another 
method is to use a weak solution of carbolic 
acid. Both carbolic acid and kerosene, how- 
ever, have the disadvantage of possessing a 
very bad smell. 

The best, on the whole, and by far the neat- 
est and pleasantest method, is to thoroughly 
whitewash the waUs, which not only destroys 
the vermin, but leaves the premises clean and 
sweet. Ashes, besides their obvious dirtiness, 
tend to decompose the droppings. Carbolic acid 
is sometimes combined with whitewash, in the 
proportion of three ounces to as many gallons 
of lime and water, and this makes a good arti- 
cle for the purpose. Whitewash, pure and 
simple, is, however, amply sufficient. Some- 
times we hear that it must be applied hot, but 
that is not necessary either. Of course, if to 
the caustic lime we add carbolic acid or other 
poisons, or heat, we multiply the agencies of 
destruction; but this is a waste of torees, so 
long as the creatures are once killed. There 
are those who say that whitewash will not do 
the business. The complainers do not half 
apply it, that is all. The strength of a chain 
is measured by the wealcest link. One spot 
not well splashed and plastered will shelter a 
colony big enough to people all the premises. 
Just provide a plenty of whitewash, and then 
"go in to win." Dip the brush till it drips, 
and let 'em have it. Look out for every angle, 
crack, and crevice, and strike the brush at 
these with a smart slap, so as to fill them com- 
pletely. 

For vermin on the fowls themselves, Persian 
insect ^powder (a vegetable substance), car- 
bolic acid, suds of carbolic soap, kerosene, and 
grease are used, and the dust-bath. The treat- 
ment is the same for young and old fowls, 
only there is this difference in the locality of 
the parasites; in the old hen they are found 
under the body; in the young chickens, on the 
head. 

The kerosene may be applied with the tip of 
a feather to the head of the young chick, and 
the underside of the old hen, the operator 
taking good care that it does not get into their 
eyes and mouths. The kerosene will kill the 
vermin, but if applied in too great quantities, 
will also kill the chickens ; and in all cases it 
inflames the skin. Grease is effectual, as it 
closes the holes upon the bodies of the vermin 
through which they breathe, just as warm- 
blooded animals breathe through their mouths. 
In this way they are suffocated. Any kind of 
oil or grease will do. Dust, in which fowls 
and some species of sparrows and other wild 
birds delight to wallow, suffocate in the same 
manner. The objection of oil or grease is that 
the birds are, for a long time after its applica- 
tion, in a very uncomfortable and untidy state. 
We cannot reccommend such an uncleanly 
remedy. Dry dust is much less offensive, and 
more easily removed, and fowls young and old, 
should have constant access to it. However, it 
is not always powerful and certain enough. 
The carbolic acid must be applied in very weak 
solution, one part to sixty of warm water. 
When this is cool the fowls may be dipped into 
it, until their feathers and skin are thoroughly 
wet. Then turn them upon clean dry straw in 
the sun. The soap is made oy dissolving three 
pounds of the ordinary bar in hot water, and 
then adding two to four ounces of carbolic acid, 
allowing the mixture to Cool. Powdered sul- 
phur is, on the whole the best thing we have 
ever tried for use in the nests of sitting and lay- 
ing hens. Whitewash the boxes first, and then 
dust the straw well with the sulphur, and you 
havp nests fit for laying hens to visit. As for 
Betting hens, dust them all over thouroughly 
with sulphur at night, when they are quiet 
upon the nests, and cover^he nests also with a 
good coat. Then the hen will not shake it off 
till morning at least. Do not be afraid to use 
plenty ; it is cheap stuff. Buy several pounds 
at a time. Put it not only all over the hen and 
under, but also around her in every part of the 
nest. When hens that are not employed in 
sitting or chickens become infested, through 
neglect the neatest, handiest, and surest, thing, 
as we have said, is the Persian insect powder, 
which is the active ingredient in the "dead 
shots," "exterminators," etc., used to 
kill fleas roaches, ants, and other pests. 
The vapor of resin seems to be in some way 
dastructive to parasites, so that it is a good 
plan to use fine chips of resinous wood instead 
of straw for nests. If a steam planing-mill is at 
hand, watch for a time when pitch-pine floor- 
ing or other pitchy stuff is being worked, and 
secure a quantity of the short broken shavings. 
They meed no preparation, as is the case with 
straw, for they are too short to become en- 
tangled in the hen's feet. 

On no account suffer your fowl-bouses or 
their occupants to become infested. The at- 
tractiveness of the pursuit is over in such a 
case ; you will become disgusted with the en- 
terprise, Sooner or later your premises will 
be invaded by parasites, unlass vigorous 
measures are taken to prevent it ; but a few 
hours judiciously employed in season, are all 
that are needed. — Poultry World. 



Memoey in Bieds. — A carrier pigeon which 
was captured in a balloon during the siege of 
Paris, and sent by Prince Frederick Charles to 
his mother, recently escaped from captivity 
and returned to the house of its former owner 
in the French capital. This is certainly a re- 
markable instance of the exercise of memory 
in the lower animals, to which it would appear 
difficult to find a parallel case. The bird must 
have kept its former haunts in recollection for 
nearly five years. 




Dairy Farming. 

A recent number of the Jefferson county 
(Wis.) l/ViJOM contains the following sensible 
remarks on the pursuit of dairy farming as a 
business: 

The great objection to dairying with moat 
farmers, is, that it is too confining. They say 
it obliges them to stick close to their business 
three hundred and sixty-five days in the year. 
They admit it is not hard work; that, in 
fact, it is largely relieveii from that overtasking 
hurry which characterizes grain growing, when 
at a certain season of the year a week's work 
is crowded into a single day. 

Now a man who looks at the question in the 
light of good buisness sense, instead ^of being 
an objection, such a fact would be its strongest 
recommendation. The grain growing farmers 
in Wisconsin, are not making any money. 
Indeed they are growing poorer in cash and 
land every year. One great reason for this is 
that wheat farming does not keep them em- 
ployed profitably the whole year. They and 
their teams eat up in the winter what they had 
earned in the summer, and with nothing to re- 
plenish the farm, they raise less and less each 
succeeding year. 

Now the tradesman and mechanic knows he 
cannot succeed unless he attends right to his 
business every working day in the year, and 
no farmer can make money that does not pur- 
sue such a system of farming, that he can put 
in his whole time winter and summer. Men 
in other kinds of business, in order to succeed, 
have to bend their undivided energies to their 
business every day in the year. Time is 
money. With them as with the farmer, their 
principal capital is labor, and they try to keep 
in active service all the while. 

The business of the farmer is reduced to the 
same law of success as any other. If he wants 
to get rich, he must pay the price for it. If he 
wants profit on his whole time, he must put in 
his whole time. He should study to invest his 
labor in the most profitable way. In a way 
that calls out skilled labor, for that is the kind 
of labor that is always the best paid. Let any 
unprejudiced man compare the farms and 
buildings of those farmers who for the last five 
years have pursued dairying, with those who 
have followed grain raising principally, and 
the difference between business and un-busi- 
ness like methods can be seen at a glance. We 
must be confined to our business if we would 
succeed in it, and we must select a business 
which will keep us at work all the time. — Live 
Stock Journal. 



Good Dairy Cows, and How to Get Them. 

Some claim that the best cow comes from the 
shorthorns, some that the Ayrshire or Holstein, 
or Jersey or Devonshire, make the best dairy 
stock. We do not believe that any particular 
breed or stock has the monopoly of making the 
best dairy cows, but that this quality comes from 
individuals and families, and may be found in 
in all breeds of cattle and in any cross •r mix- 
ture of breeds. That now and then as good a 
dairy cow is found among the common stock of 
the country as among the purest shorthorns, or 
Ayrshires or any other of the thoroughbreds. 
Good milking qualities, like any other desirable 
quality of an animal, may be greatly enhanced 
by culture, and are transmissible from one 
generation of animals to another. If, therefore, 
we were about to get together a good dairy com- 
posed of the best milkers we should not confine 
ourselves to any one breed, but should select 
the calves of the best milkers among all breeds. 
Having selected our original stock in this way, 
we would feed them upon the best milk-making 
varieties of food, treat them kindly and milk 
them regulary, and with great care, with a view 
to their improvement in this respect. ■ To se- 
cure the transmission of these qualities to their 
calves, we would select the bull, also, from the 
best milking stock, and be very careful to raise 
only such calves as gave appearance of having 
inherited the desired quaUty. It our dairymen 
would take these precautions in making up and 
perpetuating their dairies, they would in the 
course of a few years find the profits of their 
business greatly enhanced. The practice of 
raising heifer calves indiscriminately from good 
and poor milkers is one that dairymen should 
discontinue and the dairy interest should in 
some manner discourage. Of course as all 
dairy cows are intended in the end for the sham- 
bles, size and beef-making qualities are an ob- 
ject even in a dairy cow, but with the practical 
dairyman these should and will be a secondary 
consideration, as will be the particular breed of 
stock. If we were going into the stock business 
for the mere fancy of the thing, or for the pur- 
pose of making beef, we should be governed by 
entinely diflerent considerations and principles. 



A New Use fob Mat Bugs. — Dr. Chevreuse, 
of Switzerland, announces a new and curious 
utilization of the may bug or cockchafer. It 
consists in decapitating the living insect one 
hour after it has fed, when, on opening the 
stomach, several drops of a colored liquid are 
obtained, which varies with the nature of the 
plant fed upon. This substance has been used 
as a water color for painting with considerable 
success, Dr. Chevreuse having formed a scale 
of fourteen different tones or shades. It is a 
permanent pignlent, unalterable by air or light, 
and imparts this quality, it is stated, to other 
paints with wniot) it may be mised. 



Curious Effects Produced by ing. 

Figures produced on the human u^ay by 
lightning strokes are discussed by Dr. Tom- 
linson in Nature, with particular reference to 
the interesting account of the lightning strokes 
received by Mr. D. Pidgeon, son, and wife, given 
in a late number of the Press. Dr. Tomlinson 
characterizes the account as particularly 
valuable because it is unaccompanied by 
any theory. It was formerly supposed that 
ramified marks were the pictures of some near 
or distant tree, photographed upon the bodies 
of men or animals. Dr. Tomlinson cites a 
number of instances where these marks have 
been discovered, and in the accounts of which 
they are attributed to this sort of electrical 
photographing. He, however, describes ex- 
periments which were performed by him, an 
account of which was presented to the British 
Association at Manchester, 1861, which dem- 
onstrate that these tree-like figures are not the 
portraits of trees, but are simply the imprints 
of the "fiery hand" of the lightning itself. He 
has produced these figures upon ground glass 
by passing over them the contents of highly 
charged Leyden jars. The plates he employed 
were first put into a strong solution of soap 
and wiped dry with a duster. The plates should 
be about- four inches square, and should be 
held by the corner against the knob of a small 
charged jar, and with one knob of the dis- 
charging rod resting against the outer coating. 
The other should be brought up to the knob of 
the jar with the glass between. The spark will 
then pass over the surface of the glass, turn 
over its edge, and thus arrive at the knob of 
the rod. Nothing will be visible upon the plate 
until it is breathed upon, and then the difl'used 
breath settles in the form of a minute dew on 
those parts of the soapy film that have not 
been burned off by the electiicity, while on the 
lines that have been burned off or made chem- 
ically clean, the moisture condenses in watery 
lines, bringing out the trunk, branches, and 
minute spray of the dendritic figure in a very 
perfect manner. The discharge sometimes ex- 
hibits bifurcations and sometimes even trifur- 
cations. The main trunk is evidently a hollow 
tube, as in vitrified masses known as fulgurites, 
where lightning plows through a sandy soil. 
Should the plate b6 too thick, the main dis- 
charge may not pass, in which case the plate 
represents spray only. It is hence inferred 
that the spray precedes the discharge, and acts 
as a feeler for the line of least resistance. Dr. 
Tomlinson says it is an old observation among 
sailors that before a ship is struck, every one 
on board feels as if cobwebs were being drawn 
over his face. 



Combustion and Decat. — Decay of inflam- 
mable substances, when exposed to the action 
of atmospheric oxygen, is in fact a very slow 
cumbustion, which by Liebig has been called 
Eremacausis. Thus for example a piece of 
wood which, when burned, would produce a 
rise of temperature of 1,000 deg., for say one 
minute, will, when slowly decaying during say 
1,000 days, evolve the same 1,000 deg. of heat; 
but being diffused over the length of time of 
1,000 days will only evolve one deg. in twenty- 
four hours, or 1,440th of a deg per minute, a 
quantity of heat utterly inappreciable, as it is 
constantly lost in the surrounding atmosphere. 
Every housekeeper knows that decayed wood is 
next to worthless for fuel, and the reason is 
simply that the heat obtained when sound 
wood combines rapidly with oxygen was lost 
daring the slow cumbustion or decay. It is the 
same with coal when exposed to the access of 
the air. Under a shed it loses, according to 
the experiments of Varrenstrass, twenty-five 
per cent, of gas by oxidation and ten per cent 
of the heat giving power, while when exposed 
without the protection of any shed, so much of 
the gaseous constituents are oxidized as to 
cause the coal to lose one-third of its original 
weight and more than one-half of its heating 
power. 

Ieon Manupactuee. — The history of the 
growth of the iron manufacture in the United 
States within the last fifty years exhibits a re- 
markable progress. From a production of 
54,000 tons in 1810, it had became 165,000 tons 
in 1830, 347,000 tons in 1840, and 600,000 
tons in in 1850, as near as can be estimated. 
In 1860, it had reached 919,870; in 1870, 1,865,- 
000; and in 1872, 2,880,070 tons; while the 
diminished production of 1873, 2,695,434 tons, 
shows already the effect of the depression under 
which the iron interest of the country still 
suffers. Of the production of 1873, very nearly 
one-half was made in Pennsylvania, and not 
less than 1,249,673 tons with anthracite, while 
the total amount of charcoal-made pig iron was 
only 524,127 tofts, to which are to be added 
50,000 tons of malleable iron made by the 
direct process in blomaries. The importation 
of foreign iron and steel for 1872, was 795,655 
tons; for 1873, 371,164 tons; and for 1874, less 
than 200,000 tons. From the figures for 1872 
and 1873, we may conclude that the consump- 
in the United States was then equal to about 
3,500,000 tons of iron yearly.— Harper's Man 
azine lor June. ^____ 

Anotheb Ancient City to be Unoovebeu.- 
The ancient city of Coetobripa, in Portugal, 
submerged by the sea with all its inhabitants in 
the fifth century of our era, is to be dis- 
entombed. The sea has within some yearw 
receded, and left the buildings covered with 
sand, but free from its irruptions. The city 
was first Phoenician, then Oarthagenian, then 
Roman, and excavation is expected to reveal 
remains contemporary with Pido, 



52 



[July 24, 1875 




THE HEADQUARTERS of the Calitornla 
8Ut<j Orange are at No. 6 Liedesdorff street, in rear of 
the Grangers' Bank of California, No. 415 California 
street S&u Francisco. 



Orange Clubs for the Rtiral. 

The Secretary (or some other Patron) is invited to 
act as club agent for the Pacific Rural Press in every 
Grange. Circular and Ban pie copies sent free. Five 
or more names will constitute a club, at the rate of $3 
a year. No new subscriptions will be taken without 
payment in advance. We will pay the postage after 
January 1st, 1873. All club sabscriptions in Granges 
should end on the last day of the month. Old sub- 
scribers may join the club by paying the Secretary up 
to club dates. Every Patron farmer should read a 
reliable agricultural paper. We need the support of 
all on this coaft. Help the Secretary (or club agent) 
to make up a large list in your neighborhood. Uon't 
delay. 

Secretaries will be supplied with a printed list of 
gnscribers for this paper upon sending a list of their 
offices within the range of their Orange. Also with 
blank reports, etc., for clubs. 



Grang'e Directory.— A full list of officers of the 
State Grange, Deputies, names of Councils, Subordi- 
nate Granges, Masters and Secretaries will appear in 
this department on the last Saturday of this month. 

Makdal of Jurisprcdence and Co-operation of the 
P. OF H.— This valuable work of 200 pages, .by A. B. 
Smedley, Master of Iowa State Orange, should be read 
by every patron. Price, $1.2S. Now on hand at this 
office. 



National Grange Headquarters. 

The beadqnarters of the National Grange, 
which, ever since the establis-hment of the Or- 
der, in 1868, has been located at Washington, 
■will probably be removed to Louisville, Ky., in 
a short time. It has for gome time been con- 
ceded, that the District of Columbia is not the 
most proper place for its location, and at the 
last meeling of the National Grange, the Execu- 
tive Committee of that body was fully empow- 
ered to determine upon the new location. 

During the months of May and June this 
committee visited several localities to which 
their attention had been called, or which they 
supposed might be most convenient for such 

Eurpose. Among the localities vii-ited were St. 
ouis, Boonville, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago, Bloomington, Nashville and Louisville. 

The committee was to hold an official session 
at Washington duiing the first week of the 
present month-, at which time the selection was 
to have been made. It ia unoflScially reported 
that Louisville has been decided upon as the 
most eligible location, although St. Louis seems 
to have been the place to which attention was 
moet generally directed by persona outside of 
the committee. Whichever may have been de- 
cided upon, the action of the committee will be 
most cordially endorsed by the Order every- 
where. 

The Executive Committee wrs also empow- 
ered to fix the place for the next meeting of 
the National Grange; and it is probable that 
the city which is selected for the future head- 
quarters will also be chosen as the place for the 
next National meeting of the Order; the large 
expense attending a ttip to this coast is the 
reason assigned for not accepting the invitation 
to make San Francisco the next place of 
meeting. 

ThkGkanoebs' Union OF San JoaqdinVallet. 
— This association, at Stockton, is doing a live 
business. We visited the warehouse. No. 150 
Levee street, last Saturday, a day upon which 
wheat went up from $1.90 to $2.10, or there- 
abouts. Presidout Wolf had his hands full of 
business and turned us over to his active clerk, 
Mr. Ptche, who informed us that wheat was 
beginning to come in freely. The capacity 
of the warehouse is 5,000 tons. It is centrally 
located with 100 feet frontage on the Levee and 
150 feet on Commerce street. Wo noticed a 
variety of agiicnltural articles on storage. The 
association here does a general shipping, com- 
mission and storage business. At No. 204 El 
Dorado street, is its agricultural store, where a 
general assortment of agricultural machinery, 
impbmeuts, etc., are kept for sale, under the 
charge of S. S. Burge, Secretary. It is sufficient 
to say that, considering the season, the Grang- 
ers' Union has done a good business. The 
branch office of the California Farmars' Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company, W. L. Overhiser, 
agent, is at 150 Levee street, and is doing its 
full share of business. 



Income op the Obdeb. — The receipts of the 
Older of Patrons of Husbandry, for the last 
year, as stated by the Secretary of tha National 
Grange, were two hundred and sixteen thousand 
three hundred and eighty-one dollars. Sixty- 
nine thousand dollars are invested in Govern- 
ment bonds, and nineteen thousand dollars in 
cash are on deposit at the Financial Agency, 
in New York city. 

The Vantage Ground. — The Grange has now 
the vantage ground in point of numerical 
strength. Let it also strive to take and hold 
the vantage grotind in point of morality, and 
in devotion to the sacred rights of justice and 
order. Let all its acts be marked with wisdom 
and moderation, 



Notes of Grange Travel. 

Messes. Editobs : — My last letter closed with 
a reference to the "made lands" of the mining 
districts of El Dorado, as exemplified on the 
ranch of Francis Veerkamp and others. 

The well attended meeting at Coloma, pre- 
sided over by Bro. J. G. O'Brien, Worthy 
Master of Sutter Mill Grange, was agreeable 
in every way. A generous feast was spread in 
that attractive form in which our Sisters in the 
Granges certainly excel. Upon the table were 
some of the choicest wines made from the 

Justly Famous Vineyards 
On the hillsides of Coloma. It is no exaggera- 
tion to say that Europe cannot produce more 
deliciously flavored wines than were some of 
these. The finest of them are by no means 
what we call "heady." 

The gavels used in this Grange are made 
from the noted "twin pine," which stood near 
Capt. Sutter's old mill. Not a vestage of the 
mill or tree now remains, except small pieces 
preserved as relics. 

After the feast, the Worthy Master, on behalf 
of Sutter Mill Grange, with a few graceful and 
feeling words, presented the undersigned with 
one of these gavels, and it will, as you can well 
understand, ever be highly prized. The Mas- 
ters of El Dorado and Pilot Hill Granges, Bros. 
Carpenter and Bishop, were present, and also 
Past Masters Christie and Brown. After the 
presentation, Bro. Bishop entertained us for a 
half hour with hia inimitable ercitation of 
several humorous pieces, among others his 
Experience in the Milk Business. 

Like the two meetings at Placerville, this 
was an unusually happy gathering, and its 
pleasant memories will certainly linger with 
me through life. The evening was spent with 
Bro. Smith on tho Wiemer place, and in the 
cheerful home of Bro. Stearns in Coloma. 

Bro. Smith has one of the best private cabi- 
nets of curiositiea I have ever seen in Cali- 
fornia. 

Next morning, guided by the veteran and 
accommodating discoverer of gold, old John 
Marshall, a party of us visited the spot where 
twenty-eight years ago, next September, he 
picked up the first gold found here, the news 
of which sent such a thrill throughout Christen- 
dom, and the sum total of which now is the 
addiiion, from California alone, of $1,000,000,- 
000 to the gold wealth of the world, in little more 
than a quarter of a century. 

We then visited the celebrated wine cellar of 
Bobert Chalmers. He and his estimable wife 
are devoted members of Sutter Mill Grange. 
His 1500-gallon casks and 2000-gallon vats 
were a sight to see. The flavor of his wines 
cannot, in my bumble judgment, be too highly 
praised. Many of them are simply, and with- 
out exaggeration, exquisite. 

Messrs. Editor, assuredly, were snch wines as 
his and many other 

Fine Wines of California 
Really known in the older States, they could 
easily be made tosupplHBt the wines of the Old 
World. The miserable drugged stuff, or made 
wines, that form the bulk of the trade in the 
United States, would have no favor in compe- 
tition with these pure juices of our luscious 
grapes, could they once be well known by wine 
drinkers. 

Unquestionably, they are just as good as 
some of the finest wines of Europe, and it is 
well known that they acquire the good effects 
of age in half the time. 

I do not think I can be mistaken about their 
comparative excellence, for in 1860 I enjoyed 
the pleasure of testing some of the finest 
European wines on their native soil. 

I hold that it should be made a part of the 
mission of our State Business Agency and the 
various Grange Agencies of ^le East anel Souih 
to ship by the car load to various States such 
wines and the brandies distilled from them as 
are and can be produced in immense quantities 
by Robert Chalmers, of FA Dorado, J. R. 
Nickerson, of Placer, the West Brothers, of 
Stockton, and other Grange members in So- 
noma anei other counties. It is very possible 
with the proper attention to introduce and give 
character to these truly valuable wines abroad, 
and to realize for our brothers in the Grange a 
much more profitable price than the 

Pitiful Thirty Cents a Gallon 
Offered by the wholesale dealers of this State, 
for some of the best wines in the world. 

Just as is true of our great yield of wheat, 
barley, corn, wool, fruits, honey, and other 
products, so of our superb wines, our Grange 
business enterprises must eventually be so 
managed that the mass of the profits shall go 
to the producer and not to the speculator, who 
is ever ready to use the vast wealth, drained 
from our necessities, to crush and ruin tis if we 
are not prompt to do his bidding and to bow 
down to him as our lord and master. 

As regards the sale of our wines and brandies, 
when it is known that, for all time to come, 
mankind in general will continue to use more 
or less of them, is it not an act of humanity to 
substitute in the trade, as much aa possible, 
the purest of liquors instead of the wretched 
poison which blunts the taste, destroys the 
manhood, and eats out the vitals of so many of 
our fellow-beings ? 

But this is a digression. 
- Wednesday, July 7th, I retnrned with Bro. 
Carpenter to bis Grange at Bl Dorado, and we 



bad a good, full meeting. I had the privilege 
to install their ofificers aa, by a little mishap, 
that ceremony had not yet' been performed. 
They are now, and ever will be, I trust, a live, 
harmonious, zealous Grange. May all their 
members emulate each other in keeping their 
obligations, in understanding and exemplifying 
the noble purposes of our Order. 

My leisure time, while at Diamond Springs, 
was passed under the hospitable roofs of Bros. 
Carpenter and C. D. Brooke, both of whom 
have fine orchards and vineyards. 

Unfortunately nearly all the peach crop is 
destroyed throughout El Dorado county, and, 
indeed, along all our foothills. It is almost a 
total failure. 

Irrigation by waste water from the mining 
ditches is extensively used among the orchards, 
vineyards and gardens in these mountain re- 
gions. The water does not cost as much here 
as on the plains. 

On Bro. Brooke's fine place it costs him only 
$120 a year for the water used on 100 acres, or 
$1.20 per acre. He keeps a steady running 
stream. For us San Joaquin valley farmers, 
who have to pay $2 or $2.50 per 
acre for a little water, or perhaps 
don't get any "at all, at all," when 
a steady stream is flowing near us for our 
neighbors for five months, while our crops are 
drying up, and bringing on us financial mis- 
fortunes, in spite of all our efforts, is not the 
recital of such reasonable water privileges 
enough to make our moutha water ? 

Thursday, July 8th, Bro. and Sister Carpen- 
ter accompanied me to Pilot Hill, where during 
the evening we enjoyed the great pleasure of 
meeting, for the first time, with the oldest 
Grange in California, organized, you know, 
August 10th, 1870, nearly five years ago. 

Bro. A. A. Bailey, who, under a commission 
from Secretary Kelley, of the National Grange, 
organized our No. 1, is now living in Sonoma 
county, but his father, Bro. A. J. Bailey, is 
now the Secretary, and has a delightful home 
near the place of meeting. The location of this 
Grange ia down on the maps as Centerville, 
and is only at>out ten miles southeast of Au- 
burn, the nearest point on the C. P. R. R. 

We had a cordial welcome and a pleasant 
meeting. 

Pilot Hill Grange is in the midst of a fine 
farming region, where good crops of grain and 
hay are made every year. The location is on a 
high table-land, many miles in extent, and pre- 
sents the largest level surface to be seen in any 
one place in El Dorado county. That night I 
spent with Bro. P. D. Brown, Past Master, and 
early next morning took stage to Auburn, to 
visit New Castle, Roseville and Lincolq Granges 
in Placer county. 

An account of these visits must be reserved 
for a future letter. J. W. A. W. 

Nickerson's Ranch, Placer Co., July 19. 

Let Us Have Live Members. 

In adding to our numbers we want live 
members only — such as will add to the efflcriency 
as well as numbers of the Grange. It is not 
expected that every one will be a talking or 
even an especially efiicient member. But no 
one is worthy of a seat in a Grange unless he 
feels and takes a lively interest in its welfare, 
according to his talent and circumstances. All 
cannot be apostles in the great work of refor- 
mation in which we are engaged, but everyone 
can do something for the good of the Order. 

An exchange, speaking of "dead-beat" mem- 
bers of the Grange; people who join a Grange 
without knowing exactly why they join; and 
who, from lack of interest, merely trifle with 
the obligations to \^ich they have subscribed, 
pertinently says: 

"These will be of no use to the Order, but 
will be either a dead weight, or an actual dam- 
age. They must be pruned off or dug up, as 
we would cut off the dead branches of a tree, 
or as we would pluck up the noxious weeds 
that are destroying the health and growth of 
useful plants." 

The duties and obligations which a Patron 
undertakes are of a solemn character, and 
should be assumed with all seriousness, and 
with a knowledge of their strong bearing upon 
the interest of every individual and the welfare 
of the whole country. Trifling, in such cases, 
ia a criminal act. 

From the Granges. 

Another Grange Hall. 

Messbs. Editors:— The Florin Grange is not 
to be outdone by its sister Grange, the Elk 
Grove. It Is the intention of the former, as 
decided at their last meeting, to form a stock 
company, issuing 1,000 shares at $25 a share, 
and, as necessity requires, call in a sufficient 
sum to complete it. This, when completed, 
will make three halls in the county. 

The city press is ahead of time. The Sacra- 
mento Grange has not taken any active steps 
in that direction as yet, though all see the im- 
poitance of locating one at the capitol. The 
matter only needs to be agitated, and get all 
the members to see and feel alike, and it will 
be done. G. R. 

Sacramento. 

Keystone Grange, No. 244, P. of H. 

Editors Press. — I send you a word from the 
Keystone Grange. We are getting along nicely, 
and are building a hall. It is 24x40 feet, two 
stories high, the upper story for Grange hall. 
The lower story will be ready for use in about 
six weeks. E. Axtell, Master. 

Grangeville, Tulare county, July 19th, 1375. 



The Good Patron. 

To constitute an aocomplished Patron, one 
who can pursue the honorable occupation to 
Thich he belongs with honor, with profit and 
with pleasure to himself, and with advantage 
to his country, the following traits of character 
are almost indispensable : 

1. He must be a man of integrity, one who 
would scorn to defraud his land, his servants 
or neighbors, because by doing either he always 
injures his country. 

2. He must be a man of thought and reflec- 
tion ; for without these he can never know how 
to direct his industry, or understand in what 
economy consista ; and without well directed 
industry and a wise and prudent economy, no 
Patron can prosper. 

3. He must understand how to create and 
how to preserve the fertility of his land ; be- 
cause without increasing and preserving the 
fertility of his soil his labor will generally 
prove to be both unprofitable to himself and in- 
jurious to his country. 

4. He must know how to cultivate his land 
in that manner which will enable him to obtain 
the largest product it is capable of yielding 
with the least expense. 

5. He must understand the best modes of 
rearing stock and of improving their breed, and 
have ambition enough to reduce his knowledge 
to practice ; otherwise it can be of no value 
either to himself or to hia country. 

6. He must well understand the distioction 
between true and false economy, and rigidly 
practice the former and avoid the latter ; other- 
wise his labor will only be thrown away. 

7. He must be too wise to be vain and self- 
conceited ; otherwise he will be above improv- 
ing in his profession ; and, besides, vanity and 
self-conceit are disgusting and odious to others, 
and the most certain anS infallible proofs of a 
weak intellect and of a corrupt heart. 

8. He must be patriotic, as this will induce 
him to seek to promote the public good, in 
which his own interest ia involved, and he must 
have too much honorable independence of soul 
to be capable of degrading himself into a slavish 
partisan ; otherwise he will infallibly become 
the dupe of artful and intriguing demagbgue?, 
or of corrupt political aspirants, who will be 
sure to use him for the accomplishment of their 
own base purposes, to the great injury of him- 
self and of his country — Patron's Helper. 

Mutual Confidence. 

" The solid corner stone of our Order mnst be 
mutual trust, mutual sympathy and mutual 
helpfulness. We must know each other better 
and trust each other more." 

The above is an extract from an address by 
Ohas. E. Barney, delivered before the Farmers' 
Association of Illinois, in January last, on the 
" True Aims and Objects of the Order." It has 
the ring of the true metal. It contains the 
pith and essence of the whole thing. It breathes 
a doctrine exactly opposite to sordid selfishness 
and distrust. This coldhearted selfishness bad 
well nigh wrought our ruin. The Grange or- 
ganization in its true aims and purposes, is 
well calculated to correct the evil, restore and 
build up confidence in each other, without 
which the whole thing is a failure. Without a 
mutual trust there can be no sucessful co-oper- 
ation. To be sure we must be guided by sound 
business principles. No amount of coufidene^ 
should cause us to dispense with this, because 
it is just as indispensable as the other. The 
two things must therefore be taken together — 
they are both fundamental. The great trouble 
is, that selfishness is so constantly asserting 
itself in some form or other, that confidence 
becomes wary and does not take hold or fully 
yield its assent. Selfishness is afraid that 
somebody will gain something that they are not 
entitled to, or that it cannot enjoy to as full an 
extent as any other, all that may be gained, 
whether by merit or otherwise entitled or not. 
This renders the selfish person unhappy, mo- 
rose and sullen, and ready to find fault with 
everybody and everything. Such men are 
usually ambitious. They want notoriety, fame, 
position, self-aggrandizement and leadership ; 
and they are impatient and restive when any 
obstacle is thrown in the way of their ambition . 
—T. R. Allen, Master Missouri Slate Orange^ 



FiBE Will Bcbn.— No property is safe from 
the ravages of the fire fiend. Steam and all 
other fire extinguishers will sometimes fail 
when the flames start out. Especially is this 
the case in the country, where appliances for 
arresting the progress of a fire are scarce and 
inefficient. There is only one safeguard from 
individual loss, and that is insurance in some 
sound, reliable and well conducted insurance 
company. There is one in California, just 
suited to meet the wants of our farmers— one 
that does not take City risks, and which can 
consequently issue its policies at a low rate. 
Mr. Blanc-hard, at the Grange head quarters, 
No. 6 Leidesdorff street, will tell you all about it. 

Obanoebs and Sovebeions op Indubtby. — 
Three Granges and a Council of Sovereigns of 
Industry in Western Massachusetts have united 
together in organizing a co-operative associa. 
tion, for the purpose of establishing a grocery 
and provi^ion store at Holyoke, in that State. 

The plan of inviting farmers who are not 
Patrons to attend installations, and to partici- 
pate in discusaions at harvest feaats, has been 
very generally adopted throughout the Weet, 
and apparently with great Bueceas. 



July 24, 1875.] 



53 



Beware of DiaoBOANizEBS. — It is not to be 
wondered at that selfish men and political 
tiioksters should look upon our Order as a most 
desirable field in which to ply their occupa- 
tions, and reap therefrom abundant harvests of 
private gain, at the expense of the reputation of 
the Grange. What order or what association 
have they not invaded for such nefarious pur- 
poses? But as a general thing they are known, 
and watched, and their influence is thus reduced 
to a minimum value. That sterling old worker 
in our Order, Brother T. E. Allen, Master of 
the Missouri State Grange, finds many of this 
class within his own jurisdiction. As a general 
thing they are wily and wary, and are careful 
to avoid the commission of any act which would 
subject them to our rules of discipline. Brother 
Allen urges all true Patrons to beware of such 
malcoiitents and disorganixers. These fel- 



lows, he says, have only a smattering, ^favorable co-operation in the Congress of the tJnited 
knowledge of the principles, objects and pur- '"-'— --^ -■ ' '■-- "-'---^--1- ^ ■-- 

poses of the Order, and failing in their designs 
to use it for their own ends, yet true to their 
morbid instincts, they attempt the work of de- 
struction by scribbling for such newspapers as 
will admit them to their columns, and by using 
their influence among traders to bring into dis- 
repute our various business agencies, and 
among politicians to indirectly throw the in- 
fluence of the Order in favor of those very 
movements and schemes against which our 
whole strength should be cast. 



Gbange Stobes. — "These farmers will get 
itheir 'oot in it, when they undertake to run 
stores, and interfere with other people's busi- 
ness, etc:" The above is a common every-day 
remark. One that is constantly grating in no 
pleasant tones in our ears. In reply, we have 
much to say: If the farmers find that they 
cannot profitably run co-operative stores, they 
will in all probability quit the business. If 
they find they are not "qualified to attend to 
store keeping, either wanting time or proper 
drilling in the business, it will not be infringing 
if they embark their capital in some other 
enterprise. If they discover that it is difficult 
to hire judicious and reliable talent to manage 
these "outside" matters, it is likely they will 
cease to play the part of merchants. If they 
find on tte other hand, that it pays, they will 
continue storekeeping until they get tired of it. 
Yet, in all these, it bothers the American Patron 
"to see how they are in any manner interfering 
with other people's business. 



The Grangers. 

The following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted by the General Council of the P. of H., 
of Eastern Oregon, Eastern Washington and 
Idaho Territory, which assembled at Walla 
Walla on the 7th inst, and adjourned after four 
days' session: 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of the representatives 
of the Subordinate Granges of Eastern Oregon, Eastern 
Washington and Idaho Territory in General Council 
assembled, that the building of locks around the Cas- 
cades and the Dalles of the Columbia river by the Gen- 
eral Government is the ooly feasible means for open- 
ing up the settlement and profitable cultivation of the 
vast and beautiful tracts of productive agricultural 
country lying between the Cascades and the Rocky 
Mountains; and the Order is particularly requested to 
use all honorable means consistent with the organiza- 
tion of the Patrons of Husbandry to procure the proper 
fegislatlon; and the President and Secretary are re- 
quested to furnish the Representative and Senators 
from Oregon and the Delegate from Washington Terri- 
tory with a copy of this resolution, and request their 



States; and also request the Subordinate Granges t9 
ask their members elect to the legislatures to memorial- 
ize Congress on the same matter. Also, that the State 
Grange (soon to assemble), petition Congress on the 
same subject and request the Master thereof to bring 
the subject before the next National Grange and request 
that body to petition Congress to make an apportion- 
ment for the work. 



How A Fabmeb May Peospee — The Gbange 
Idea. — The first step necessary is to get out of 
debt; the next is to keep out. If you owe no- 
body, the money in your pocket, the crops on 
your farms, and the farm itself, are all yours. 
Then you may buy at the lowest cash prices, 
and if you have anything to sell you can get 
your price or keep it. If you can't gat cost for 
what you raise, you have a perfect right to let 
it rot, provided you are out of debt; but if you 
owe your merchant, or anybody else, you have 
DO business to withhold or allow to waste what 
should pay the debt. One of the greatest bless- 
ings of the Grange movement is that it teaches 
the big value of cash compared with credit. 
If a farmer once realizes the difi'erence, he is a 
big idiot if he don't struggle manfully to get up 
to a «ash basis. 



In Memoriam. 

Healdsburg Grange, at a recent meeting, 
passed the following resolutions: 

Whereas, The band of death has taken from us our 
worthy Chaplain, Brother W. H. Toombs, 

Resolved, That in the sudden death of Brother Toombs, 
we have lost a good and faithful member, the commu- 
nity a good citizen, and his family a kind father and 
affectionate husband. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with the be- 
reaved wile, children and other relatives and friends of 
our deceased brother. 

Resolved, That as a token of respect to the memory of 
our departed brother, the charter of our Grange and 
the Chaplain's chair be draped in mourning for thirty 
days. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be pre- 
sented to his bereaved family, and for publication to 
the Russian River Flag and Hdrai. Press. 

COABLES ALEXAKDEB, ) 

A. C. Bledsoe, } Com. 

W. N. Gladden, ) 



Thbbe is a good deal of sentimetit in the 
writings of the average Patron, but it will .be 
Seen from a glance at the correspondence con- 
tained in papers devoted to the Order, that an 
effort is being made by the writers to get upon 
a higher plane. There is an honest, earnest 
effort among the Order to educate themselves, to 
make themselves fit for the business of the rush- 
ing, jo8tling,busy world, to learn the ways of life 
that hitherto they have known so little of. This 
is as it should be, and such efforts are among 
the most efficient means for keeping up the 
interest and value of the Grange. 

Question foe Discussion, — Among the ques- 
tions proposed for Grange discussion in Arkan- 
sas, is the following: "Is it profitable to buy 
large quantities of land and pay taxes upon it, 
when we can cultivate but a part of it? Would 
it not be better to buy only as much as we can 
farm well and then cultivate it so as to have no 
need of new clearings, but find our fields grow- 
ing better every year?" 



session with them to the very last, and he may 
be able to save a portion of his crop. 
LOS ANGEIiES. 

Pbomisino Cobn Cbop.— Wilmington .£»iter- 
prise: Mr. J. H. Riddle, who has the farm of 
Mr. Eames, near Cierritos station, has 100 
acres of corn that he is confident will average 
100 bushels per acre. He also has equally as 
good a prospect for Irish potatoes. But it 
must be borne in mind that Mr. Kiddle is an 
experienced corn raiser from Kentucky, and 
that he has applied the same thoroughness of 
cultivation that was indispensable in his native 
State. And he will be richly rewarded for his 
additional labor. 
MENDOCINO. 

Blackbeeeies. — Democrat, July 17: Black- 
berries are now being cultivated to a slight ex- 
tent hereabouts, and command 25 cents a quart, 
a good and paying price. If parties here who 
have ground suitable would give their attention 
to growing this berry, taking care to set out 
choice kinds of vines, they could not fail to be 
remunerated. 

Boeing foe Watee. — Messrs. McGarvey, 
Donohue, Wurtenburg, and a few others, are 
about to experiment in opening an artesian 
well on or near the grounds on which the 
brewery is located. It is to be hoped the ex- 
pevment may prove a success, for a supply of 
water in that way would be immensely benefi- 
cial to our town. 

Meeting of Hop Growhes, — Dispatch, July 
'17: The J)rincipal hop growers of the county 
held a meeting on Saturday last in the Masonic 
hall for the purpose of making arrangements 
for the gathering of the hop crop, which will 
probably double any former crop in the county. 
They are to be picked by weight. 

MONTEREY. 

Ceops in the Pajabo. — Democrat, July 17: 
From parties coming from the Pajaro, attend- 
ing the present term of the county court, we 
hear that the June rain did much less damage 
to the crops in that quarter than was appre- 
hended at the time. Now, they say, there will 
be harvested an average crop of grain, the sum- 
mer crops looking as well as usual at this 
season. 




Pomona Gbanges. — A Grange authority says: 
There is a general misunderstanding in regard 
to the object of Pomona Granges. Besides 
giving the chosen worthy members an oppor- 
tunity of receiving the filth degree, i* is in- 
tended that these Granges shall be made a 
more efficient body than the County Councils 
have proved to be, to do the business of the 
Order for the county in which they are located. 
If the membership is not chosen more for their 
ability to do that business, than any other ob- 
ject, this new adjunct had better be abandoned. 
The Order cannot afford to have mere side 
shows, as they evidently would be, if they are 
intended only for the purpose of coufeiring an 
additional degree. Go slow, therefore, in the 
admiesiou of members. 



A National Gbange Obgan. — The State 
Grange of West Virginia, at its last meeting, 
expressed a desire that the National Grange 
should establish and publish a Grange dailv for 
••Head Qaarters." The Bulletin, ot the State 
Grange Executive Commilte, of Wisconsin, a 
few Weeks later, acknowledges the reoeiitioii of 
a pro.specius of an "illustrated monthly mag i- 
zine, to be the orgm of the National, and as 
far as possible of all the State Granges." The 
publication was to be issued by the "Grange 
Publivhing Co." The company also proposes 
to furnisn Patrons with books, magazines, 
peiiodicals and p ctures at wholesale pries: 
aUo, blanks, jewels, seeds, etc. Tne HuUelin 
does not endorse the (^roposit on. 

Some merchants make ugly faces when 
Patrons speak of dispensing with middlemen, 
and yet tuey would not hesitate a moment to 
discharge a salesman, a bookkeeper, or a por- 
ter, if they found their business could be man- 
aged without them. 

One of the advantages which the members of 
the Grange are gaining (or themselves, l)y no 
means incoustderublu, is the knowledge of par- 
liamentary law which they acquire. They will 
nee it, by and by, in broader fields. 



CONTRA COSTA. 

The Wheat Ceop. — Antioeh Ledger, July 17: 
The harvest season is now nearly past. As a 
whole. Contra Costa county will make a good 
showing. In the western portion the crops 
have been reported as better than usual, while 
in this end of the county there has been an 
average crop. All the summer fallowed land 
has yielded liberally. Large quantities of 
grain are daily being landed on the Granger 
wharf. 
INYO. 

The Peospeot. — Independent, July 17 : Judg- 
ing from a view of the crops, taken while pass- 
ing several ranches about the Post and to the 
northward the other day, we think that the pros- 
pects are, on the whole, very promising. Bar- 
ky is ripening rapidly and wheat in the favored 
spots will be ready for harvesting in a few days, 
and from what little information we could 
gather and from our own experience as a jolly 
Granger, we believe there will be a little above 
an average yield. Threshing machine men are 
prepaiing for operaiion and will be in the field 
next week. Corn has this year been lather back- 
ward and should this f ectiou be visited with 
early Autumn frosts, there will be a light crop. 
However, there are some splendid field.-iof com; 
one in particular on D. B. Curtis' farm — the 
Butte ranch — reminded us of the green fields 
in Illinois. This, of course, was planted e^rly 
and has received proper attention. Probably 
ab'ut one-fourth of the corn planted in the 
valley will comp ire fivorably with it. The 
Usual quan ity ot hny is beiny cut, and the fine 
weather has »fforded ample time to cure and 
put it up in good shape. 
KERN. 

Fighting the Babbits. — Courier, July 17: 
The rabbit pest in this county is getting to be 
as great a nuisance as the grasshoppers at the 
East. We learn that Dr. Stockton put in six- 
teen acres of sweet potatoes, on his place, near 
the lake, this treason, and six acres having al 
ready b en ciiptured by the r.ibt its. Poison 
and powdi r havu been used unsparingly, and a 
prodigious uujaber have been gathered in, but 
without making any aporeciable difference in 
their numbers. The do«^or will dispute pos- 



NAPA. 

The Gbape Ceop. — St. Helena Star, July 15: 
From all points the news reaches us that the 
grape crop will be large, notwithstanding the 
predictions of the frost prophets; and this is 
not all. Mr. Starr and others say the grape 
crop will ripen four to six weeks earlier than 
last year. Eipe grapes were picked from the 
vineyard of Mr. L. Lazarus last Sunday. Mr. 
J. H Post calculates, from present indications, 
to pick from six to eight tons from his old 
vines from the acre, all of which he will make 
raisins of. 
NEVADA. 

Apples. — Foothill Tidings, July 17: Apples 
will be a fair crop hereabouts this year and 
grapes and blackberries will turn out large 
quantities and of quality unsurpassed. Pears 
and plums will be short and peaches are almost 
a failure, but altogether the fruit product is a 
good one. 

The fruit interests of Grass Valley have re- 
turned the producers $19,000 the present 
season. 

Accoeding to the Nevada papers "slickens" 
makes excellent soil for the production of po- 
tatoes. 
PLACER. 

Fruits.— Herald, July 17 : Dr. Crandall 
assures us that excepting peaches and apricots, 
his fruit crop this year, in spite of the late 
frosts, is, if anything, better than an average. 
As evidence of the prolific yield of his plum crop, 
he left us a small branch, about two feet long, on 
which were seventy-four large plums. These 
were of the Blue Gage variety. A similar 
branch from a Green Gage tree, contained forty- 
seven large, ripe plums. Besides these the 
Doctor left us a branch from a Siberian crab 
tree, on which the crab apples were so thick as 
to almost conceal the stem. From this evidence, 
the Doctor's statement that his trees are break- 
ing down with their overburdens of fruit is 
altogether consistent. 

SAN BENITO. 

The Geain Yield and its Quality. -^HoUis- 
ter Enterprise, July 17 : Harvest is progressing 
finely. Most of the grain has been cut and a 
good many ranchers are through threshing. 
The yield will average about a two-thirds crop, 
liui the grain is plumper and the heads better, 
as a general thing, than last year. The new 
wheat has commenced coming in to the ware 
houses. Duncan & Baker's teams eome into 
town with huge loads every day. 
SAN DTEaO. 

New Wheat. — Union, July 17: The new crop 
of wheat is beginning to ti ma in. We have 
Hcen some remarkably fine new wheat at the 
warehouse of W. W. Stewart & Co. Nothing 
could be more handsome. 
SONOMA. 

The Habvest. — Democrat, July 17: The 
wheal harvest is just now commencing. From 
the best sources of information we gather that 
the yield is likely to be fair, but rather under 
an average. The quality of the grain is excel- 
lent. The straw of the wheat is of full size 
and bight, but the heads have not filled as well 
as usu d. In some instances a full row of grain 
is 1 leking in a head, which makes a vety mate- 
rial diminution m the aggregate yield. The 
failure to fill well is more notaoeable in the 
early grain, and resulted from a 3aok of mois- 
ture at that critical period when tte head comes 



out of the "boot." The late grain, which had 
the benefit of the last heavy fall of rain, has 
filled as usual and will produce fully up to an 
average. The promise, so far, for both corn 
and potatoes, is good. The fruit yield is some- 
what less than usual, but is of excellent quality. 
The prospect for the grape crop is as favorable 
as could be desired. 

Wheat Yield.— Petaluma Argus, July 17: 
A field of 20 acres of wheat belonging to J. M. 
Bowles, near this city, was threshed last week 
by T. Skillman and yielded 27 bushels per 
acre. Mr. Bowles has 150 acres more which 
will yield about the same as that already 
threshed. 

K. A. Habvey, who has a ranch on the creek, 
two and a half miles from Sonoma, informs us 
that threshing has commenced in the valley. 
The yield will generally be about up to the aver- 
age. The last rain helped late sown grain con- 
siderably, also corn and vines. 

The grape crop in Sonoma valley this year, 
promises to be unusually large. New vines 
have commenced bearing, and a large number 
were planted last winter and spring. In an- 
ticipation of the increased yield, F. G. Hooper 
and other vintners are enlarging their cellars. 
Mr. A, 'long is building a new cellar in the 
town of Sonoma. 
STANISLAUS . 

Desteuction by Squibeels. — Modesto Her- 
ald, July 15 : Our correspondent " Stanis- 
laus " writes under date of the 12th : " Squir- 
rels have become so destructive this season that 
farmers are becoming alarmed. I am informed 
by Mr. Trimmer that he has lost over 300 acres 
of wheat by this peat. Wardrobe & Quiggle 
have lost about 400 acres of good wheat, and in 
fact every farmer throughout the county has 
lost heavily. Heading is about over. Steam 
threshers are moving lively from stack to stack 
over the plains. The yield of grain is less than 
most of the farmers anticipated." 

Coyotes Killing Sheep.— iVews, July 16 : 
Mr. C. C. Baker informs ns that coyotes are 
becoming very destructive on flocks of sheep. 
The other night they got into his band of 
thoroughbreds and killed six very fine sheep, 
highly prized by him. His hounds have cap- 
tured a great many of them, still there are many 
more, and he is in hopes that the people will 
spare no efforts to destroy them. One of these 
wolves in a flock of sheep as is leared by Mr. 
Baker, could in one night's time ruin a man of 
a large fortune. 
SANTA CRTJZ. 

An Excellent Ceop. — Sentinel, July 17: Our 
farmers are now in the midst of a bountiful 
harvest. The wheat crop of the county is ex- 
cellent, and theyield will equal that of last year. 
It would be hard to find in any country a finer 
crop of wheat than that now being gathered 
throughout the county. 

SAN JOAaUIN. 

Yield on the Tulb Lands. — Stockton Inde- 
pendent, July 13: We were shown yesterday, by 
Mr. L. C. McAfee, samples of crops now being 
harvested on Staten island, on the Mokelumne 
river. The specimens consisted of Australian 
and club wheat, chevalier and common barley, 
and timothy. "The heads of grain were well 
filled, and the fields from which they were 
taken promise a yield of from forty to ninety 
bushels per acre. The timothy excited espec- 
ial attention from all who saw it. The heads 
measured from six to eleven inches in length, 
and fully warranted the statement that the 
yield was about four tons of hay to the acre in 
one cutting. Two years ago Staten island was 
subject to the overflow of the tides and was a 
mere swamp. There are now about 5,000 
acres of land under cultivation, and the value 
of the crops will not be less than $200,000. On 
Grand, Brannan, Andrus and Sherman islands 
similar crops have been raised, and the aggro- 
gate yield of the tule lands this season will not 
fall short of $1,000,000, the product of about 
25,000 acres of land. 
TULARE. 

Big Yield of Potatoes.— X>cHo, July 17: 
Last Saturday we were shown one of the finest 
specimens and largest yields of "spuds" (pota- 
toes) that we ever saw in any country. The 
Eulow brothers, living about sixteen miles east 
of Visalia, kept the production of two hills 
separate from the others just for curiosity, and 
this is the result: One hill produced eight pota- 
toes, weighing altogether nine pounds; the 
other produced ten potatoes, weighing ten 
pounds. The largest of the whole lot wei.!hed 
two pounds, and none of them weigh' d less 
than one pound. These p ^tatoes are cot ma- 
tured by three weeks. These gentlem'^n 
planted at the rate of about 4,000 hills to the 
acre, which will produce at ^east seven pounds 
tc tlie hill when matured, giving a production 
of 27,720 pounds. 

Washington Territory. 

Haevestino.— Walla Wallii Union. Julv 10: 
Our farmers are now in tha mid>t of their h ty- 
ing and a good deal of grain has already been 
cut, and they have now started out on the 
timothy. By the end of next week most of the 
h.iy will be cut, and by the week after the 
grain will be ready for the machine. Some 
fields of grain are now getting quite yellow, 
and would do to cut in a very few days, but it 
is safe to nay that grain cutting will not gener- 
ally commence before from two to three 
weeks. So far the crop bids fair, and if the 
weather continues fa vo I able lor the next two 
days, an abundant crop is certain. Tbi ro is 
still a cooeiderable eoaroity of hands, and un- 
less the immigrants get along in time to help 
ug out it will be slow work saving the orops. 



54 



[July 24, 1875 




"Hayseed." 

Timothy and millet seed, 

Redtop and clover, 
Scatter them broadcaet, 

Sow 'em all over. 
Powdered with hayseed, 

Brown locks and fair, 
Cute little barley straws. 

Sticking everywhere, 
Hurrah for hayseed ! 

How it makes them stare. 

Timothy and millet seed, 

Redtop and clover. 
Bongs of running brooks. 

Lays of the plover, 
Odors of hay mows, 

Gold of the com. 
Hayseed will rule the world, 

Sure as you are bom; 
BinK the bell for hayseed. 

Toot the mellow horn! 

Timothy and millet seed, 

Redtop and clover; 
Grangers everywhere 

All the country over; 
Hark! to the wild goose 

Heralding the spring. 
All his song is "hayseed!" 

Hear the arches ring. 
Amen, to hayseed; 

Hayseed is king!! 

—Jfrs. if. C. Clarice. 



The Widow's Only Son. 

"Now, Martin, I've got everything stowed 
away in this bundle, though it was mighty hard 
work. I've done up them two shirts fit for a 
king, and I've stowed away a little patch of 
doughnuts in one corner; and I've given you a 
green needle book, the top is filled with pins, 
and you'l find sewing silk, and brown thread, 
and couple o' darnin' needles in one corner. 
You've got three pair o' nice warm socks, that 
I knit last summer, and that never went on 
your feet You must look out and not wet 'em, 
whatever comes, for I allurs thought that your 
father caught his death cold the day he felled 
the hickory tree in the south meadow, for -he 
came home with his feet soppin' wet, and was 
80 hoarse he couldn't speak a loud word the 
next day, and before the week was gone the 
cough set in which carried him to his grave. 
You'll remember, Martin, and mind and not 
get your feet wet.?" 

"I'll do the best I can mother. You talk as 
though you didn't know much about the rough 
and tumble time we've got to go throngb, but 
you mean it all right." 

It was in the largo kitchen of a small old- 
fashioned country cottage that the words were 
spoken. You could not have helped liking the 
old woman's face, pale and faded, though it 
was with years and sickness and care; it had 
such a good mother look, and it was so full of 
kindness and sympathy. 

She was poor and old; her husband had long 
ago laid down on that last brave pillow which 
the earth spreads smooth for all her children. 
And around his grave clustered half a dozen 
smaller ones, sons and daughters who had gone 
before him. 

So Martin Johnson was all that remained to 
his mother; the hope and the staff of her old 
age. All the tendrils of her love wove them- 
selves around him; and he was a kind, thought- 
ful, industrious son, whose highest ambition 
was to pay the mortgage on the old homestead, 
and settle down there for life. 

But when the summer crops were mostly in, 
and the winter and the hard times promised 
little work or recompense to farm laborers, he 
had been induced to join a company of volun- 
teers forming in the town. And now the last 
hour with his mother has come, and 'he stands 
there, the young, brave and stalwart man, and 
there is a strange weakness about his heart, 
and huskiness in his throat, and he wishes 
he could get away without speaking the last 
word. 

"Come, mother," he says, stowing the large 
bundle in his deep coat pocket, "it's high time 
I was ofl', so we must say good-bye. Take 
care of yourself now and don't go to fretting 
yourself about me. I'll write as often as I 
can." 

The old woman put her feeble arms about 
the strong man. "O, my boy!" and the sobs 
shook her gray hairs, "you won't forget your 
poor old mother, that loves you better than her 
life, will you? You'll remember how the 
morning will never rise, and the night will 
never fall, in which she doesn't pray God to 
take care of her boy; and you won't forget the 
little red covered Bible I put into a corner of 
the bundle." 

"No, I won't forget it. Gome now, mother, 
give me a real hearty, cheerful good-bye. 
Don't look on the dark side. Maybe I shall be 
back before the year is over, and then if he's 
done his duty, as a brave man should, and 
maybe got promoted, you'll be proud of your 
soldier boy!" 

"But you're all I've got, Martin, and if any- 
thing should happen to you, it would break my 
*^-»rt— it would break it, Martin." 



"Don't talk of unything's 'happening,' 
mother, except what's good. Come, cheer up, 
for I want a last smile, instead of a last sob, 
and there isn't another minute to spare!" 

Mrs. Johnson, swallowed down her sobs, 
and drawing down Martin's sun-burnt face 
to her lips, she said with a tremulous smile : 

"God bless you, my precious boy!" 

"God bless you, mother !" he couldn't trust 
his voice to speak another word, and he dashed 
away. 

She stood in the door and watched him un- 
til he was out of sight, and Mrs. Johnson went 
in and closed the door. God help her ! 

"Is there any tidings from the war, Squire 
Farnharui ?" asked Mrs. Johnson, as the gen- 
tleman entered her cottage, one pleasant morn- 
ing in the early autumn. Squire Farnharm 
was a bluff, rubicund-faCed corpulent, good- 
hearted sort of a man. That very morning a 
short paragraph in the country newspaper had 
caught his eye, and it ran: 

"Martin Johnson, of the 3d Vermont Regi- 
ment, was shot by a scout last night, while on 
guard duty." 

The Squire saw at the first glance that the 
terrible tidings had not reached Mrs. Johnson. 
He had ridden over to condole with her, and it 
had fallen to him to break the news to her as 
best he could. 

"Wall, yes," said the gentleman, taking a 
chair in the small parlor, and feeling very 
awkard, "we have had some news."- 

There was something in the tone which 
made Mrs. Johnson look up with a throb of 
fear in her heart. 

"Is it bad news V" she asked. 

"Mrs. Johnson, I'm sorry for you, to my 
soul !" said Squire Farnham. 

Perhaps a woman would have broken the 
news more tenderly, but the Squire was a blunt 
man, and did it after his fashion. 

Mrs. Johnson's lips grew white; she came 
toward the Squire, and said in a rapid trem- 
bling voice: 

"Have you heard anything about my boy ?" 

"Mrs. Johnson, he's gone !" 

She did not shriek nor scream; she sat down 
in the nearest chair, and lifted up her withered 
hands, and while the tears ran down her pale 
cheeks, moaned: 

"Don't say so. Squire Farnham, don't say 
my boy is gone. God has got all the rest, and 
I have thought He'd spare him to my old age ! 
No, no, it can't be that Martin's gone; that I 
shall never hear his bright, quick step on the 
walk, nor see his dear face come bounding in 
at the door. He was all I'd got in the wide 
world, and I was so proud of him, and I loved 
him so ! My little Martin, whose yellow curls 
I used to wind around my fingers, when he 
was a baby, and crowed in my lap — my little 
blue-eyed Martin, lying away off there still and 
cold, with no mother to bend down her face 
over him when he looked up and called for her 
the last time — O, don't say my boy is gone, or 
my heart will break !" moaned the poor 
mother, as the truth began to dawn more fully 
on her. 

Squire Farnham was a strong man, but he 
bowed down his head, and cried like a child. 

At last he looked up for there was a sudden 
fall. Mrs. Johnson had fainted. 

"God help her," he said, as he lifted her in 
his arms, and laid her on the bed in the next 
room. She has said the truth, 'her heart will 
break !' " 

Dear reader, on the golden back-ground of 
the last summer days, how many such dark 
scenes have been painted ! 

Let us who mourn no beloved dead on bat- 
tle fields, be bumble, be pitiful, and grateful 
to God that no blow has -fallen upon our 
homes; and may He drop the dews of His heal- 
ing on the hearts which have been torn with 
that angaish for which there is neither earthly 
help nor consolation. 



The Agricultural College of the Future. 

Perhaps no one document published within 
the year has attracted greater attention than 
the hand book of the Kansas State Agricultural 
College. Its author, the President of the Col- 
lege, Rev. J. A. Anderson, is well known to 
many of our citizens, as California was bis 
former home. Many of Mr. Anderson's friends 
have suggested the republication of the hand 
book as a campaign document. We shall 
make liberal extracts from time to time for the 
benefit of our readers. President Anderson's 
ideal of an agricultural college is thns described : 

Some day and somewhere, there will be an 
agricultural college looking so much like the 
grounds and buildings of a prosperous farmer 
who did hi^ own repairing and manufacturing, 
that we of the present, happening by, would 
mistake it for a little hamlet of thriving arti- 
sans built in the heart of rich and well tilled 
fields. Nothing in its appearance would sug- 
gest our notion of the typical college. Its 
barns, sheds, yards a>d arrangement would 
embody the idea of the greatest utility at the 
least cost. Its implements, stock and fields 
would show them to be used for real profit. Its 
orchards and gardens would not only reveal 
the success of the owner, but also his full de- 
termination to enjoy the fruit with the labor. 
We would be quite certain that it was only 
such a farm — the best specimen of the highest 
type — wer* it not for the presence of cheap, 
stone buildings, one or two stories, scattered 
nmong the trees, all of them more resembling 



mechaoic shops than anything else, some ex- 
actly, others not exactly, and yet no two 
alike. One would be used for teaching prac- 
tical agriculture, but would as little prompt our 
idea of a recitation room as the whole claster 
would that of an imposing college edifice. 
While there would be seats for hearers and a 
place for a speaker, yet the latter would most 
suggest a circus ring for the exhibition of 
short-horns, when short-horns were discussed ; 
of horses, pigs, or sheep; of surgical opera- 
tions; of plows, harrows, or reapers. The 
walls would be lined with photographs of 
famous herds, working models of farm ma- 
chinery, the grain and stalk of cereals. Part 
of its surrounding ground would be belted with 
every variety of growing grasses; and another 
would be for the draft test of implements, or 
the trials of student skill. In fact, it would 
so look, and so be, like an actual workshop of 
real farming as not, even in the remotest way, 
to squint toward the article generally yclept 
' 'scientific agriculture." 

The interior of another shop, a few rods 
distant, ana equally inexpensive, with its 
grafting tables, potting benches, packing room, 
working greenhouse, and, oatside, hotbeds and 
thrifty nursery grounds, would look so much 
like "gardening for profit"' as to throw us com- 
pletely off the trial of botany as a pure science. 
Another would be a force shop, where light, 
heat, water, sound and electricity, w«re made 
to reveal their laws, habits and effects, and to 
do their industrial work. The constant use of 
its appliances by busy students, in sacrilegious 
defiance of the rule, "don't toach the appar- 
atus!" italicised with professoral emphasis, 
would instantly satisfy us that there was noth- 
ing "collegiate" there, and that it was only a 
workshop where pupils had to become skillful 
workmen. There would be a mathematical 
shop, so much like a counting and drawing 
room, that, when it led into an inventor's and 
pattern maker's room, uo one could be sur- 
prised at its winding up in a machine shop. 
There would be an English shop, remarkably 
like a printing office, and the "Printers' Hand 
Book" of that day might strike us as an admir- 
able drill in tho art of using the English lan- 
guage, as well as iu that of sticking type — al- 
most as good as a grammar. 

There would be a womanb' workshop where 
the pale Hortense, at heart much more sensible, 
earnest and womanly than society supposes, 
would strive for the bloom and 'faculty' of 
Mary. The blessed Mrs. Grundy would be 
dead ! And there would be masons', carpen- 
ters' and smiths' shops. Not a shop of them 
all would cost $5,000; and some not the half of 
it; because they would be shops warm, light, 
cheerful, but workshops — not requiring costly 
foundations and tall, heavy walls; not finished 
as are parlors, nor wasting space in broad cor- 
ridors. And they would not have been [foreor- 
dained by men of a previous generation, who, 
to save the lives of the best of them, could not 
possibly have foretold just what buildings such 
a college would need. 

As, in tne process of its growth, a want had 
been felt, its shop was disappointed; and each 
generation had footed its own bills. No ! it 
would not look like our great colleges; but very 
remarkably like a nest of real educational 
workshops, where flesh and blood students ac- 
quired marketable skill for Industrial labor. 
In it, drill in the art would have greater promi- 
nence than the stringing of facts on the threads 
of a system ; and the requirements of the art 
would serve as a skimmer to lift the cream of 
science as needed. Knowledge would ba 
shoved paying end first, and not, everlastingly, 
philosophic end first. For the world would 
have gotten back to the history of its own ex- 
perience, where art was the Coliuubus discov- 
ering science. In it, educational common 
sense would have supplanted uncommon edu- 
cational nonsense. And leaving it, tho newly 
fledged graduate, as Idoes the newly fledged 
"jour.,'' would at once earn a living. Such an 
agricultural college would be in keeping with 
its object, with the requirements and genius of 
labor, with itself ! And, too, it would be in 
keeping with a rich, broad state, carpeted by 
emerald grasses, belted by golden grain, 
clumped with orchards, moving with herds, 
clustered with villages, threaded by railways, 
flecked with countless smoke-offerings from the 
altars of industry to the God of labor. Some- 
day, somewhere, somehow. 

Don't Talk About Yooa Aches, — "A pain 
forgotten is a pain cured," is a proverb I have 
never heard, but I think it would be a good 
one. I know rnore than one person who 
cherishes ailments, and of them makts a 
never-failing topic of conversation which is 
never agreeable and ceases to be interesting to 
others after a time. If the purpose of such 
conversation is to obtain sympathy, it cer- 
tainly fails of its object. When one is really 
suffering, a regard for the feelings of friends 
would cause one to be very careful not to talk 
about it necessarilly, for what is more dis- 
tressing than to witness pain which one has no 
power to alleviate, and be continually re- 
minded of sorrows that cannot be assuaged. 
Don't talk about them. 



It looks bad to see a dog preceding bis mas- 
ter down street, and calmly turn into the first 
saloon he approaches. It shows thera is some- 
thing wrong, something lacking, a deplorable 
tendency on the part of the dog. 

The farmer who has established bis reputa- 
tion for having the best marketable products, 
will always command an extra price for all bis 
crops. 



Make them Comfortable. 

"Mary, why will you continue to put up 
your shoulder in that awkward manner?" 
said Mrs. Lane sharply to her little girl. "I 
have reminded you of it half a dozen times at 
least this very day, and still you pay no atten- 
tion to it. Now, remember, if you have to be 
spoken to again about it this afternoon, I shall 
keep you at home from Aunt Lucy's to-mor- 
row." 

The child's face flushed, and, as she looked 
down, her eyes half filled with tears. She 
seemed timid and anxious lest she should com- 
mit the fault again, yet it was almost a cer- 
tainty that she would. 

"Come here, Mary dear," said Aunt Lucy 
very gently, but with quite an indignant flash 
on her cheek. She began to unbutton the 
little dress and examine the make of the un- 
derwaist. 

"Just as I expected, sister," she said impul- 
sively; "here is this shoulder piece not fitting 
at all, but every moment slipping down over 
the point of the shoulder in an aggravating 
way. What comfort would you take with » 
garment acting that way ? Poor little shoulder, ' ' 
she said, as she rubbed it gently with her soft, 
white hand. "Now auntie will take a stitch or 
two here for the present, and will fix it better 
when you take it off. Doesn't that feel better? 
Now run and play, and after a while you'll get 
all out of the fashion of putting up one 
shoulder." 

The little girl kissed her aunt gratefully, as 
she tripped away, much happier than she was 
a few minutes before. 

"You should be ashamed of yourself, sister," 
said the young lady energetically, when she 
had gone, "to leave a child in such discomfort 
and then blame her for acting awkwardly. I 
have seen a mother scold her child for limping 
when she had on a shoe much too tight or one 
that had a nail in the heel that hurt her at 
every step. There is plenty of unavoidable 
suffering in this world without adding any 
needles.s pain to the burden. It is as little as 
we can do to make children comfortable when 
we expect them to be good and behave with 
propriety. Full two-thirds of the bad be- 
havior of our children lies at the parents' 
door." 

The remarks of her spirited young sister set 
Mrs. Lane a thinking, more seriously than she 
had ever done before, oil the duties of parents 
to make their children comfortable, and, it is 
to be hoped, the good results were seen in 
her after treatment of her little ones.— Mother's 
Magazine. 

The Curse of Sewing Machines. 

"A mother," replying to some strictures in 
a daily paper upon the bold, even immodest 
conduct of "the beautifully dressed young girls 
who, out of school hours, parade Fifth avenue. 
Chestnut and Beacon streets, " remarks that 
"the censure probably would not be so severe 
if it were known how many of these beautiful 
dresses were cut out and made on the sewing 
machine by the wearers. Innocence and igno- 
rance are the true apologies for their unseemly 
behavior." She lays her finger on the main- 
spring of all the trouble. What but vanity and 
grossly vulgar subservience to fashion could 
induce any mother to devote her child's few 
leisure hours to the construction of elaborate 
costumes, marvels of shirring, knife plaiting, 
etc? The real martyrs to fashion are, after all. 
the shabby genteel, whose souls and bodies 
must be worn out iu toiling after her whims 
and changes. But, leaving the moral view out 
of the question, there are physical reasons 
which should forbid the use of the sewing 
machine to any but adult women. Even to 
them it is doubtful whether it has as yet 
proved more of a curse than a blessing. On 
an average, quite as much time is now devoted 
in a family to the more elaborate garments 
which its use has brought into fashion, as for- 
merly was given to the needle; and the appall- 
ing increase of debility and certain diseases 
among women, is proved to be largely due to 
its use. It will be of real benefit only when 
garments can be made by it with steam power, 
of a quality and finish which will supersede its 
use in the family altogether. Until then, this 
"benignant domestic fairy," as it is poetically 
called, is one to be handled with caution; it 
has, too, its malignant errand. At least, let 
young girls keep clear of it; and give their 
time to higher studies than the mysteries of 
stylish costumes, and they will not long re- 
main "ignorant" of the bad taste shown in 
heaping shirrs and frills on their delicate 
young bodies, or in the "unseemly behavior" 
which no gandy costnm e can excuse — 8cr\bner. 

Ovkb-Sensitivenbss. — A great deal of dis- 
comfort arises from over-sensitiveoess about 
what people may see of you or your actions. 
This requires to be blunted. Consider whether 
pnything you can do will have much connec- 
tion with whnt thoy will say. And, besides, it 
mrty be doubted whether they will say any- 
thing at all about you. Many unhappy per- 
sons seem to imagine that they are always in 
an amphitheatre, with the a'^sembled world as 
spectators; whereas all the while they are play- 
ing to empty benches. They fancy, too, they 
form the particulHr theme of every passer-by. 
If, however, they must listen to imaginary 
conversation abjut themselves, they might, at 
any rate, defy the proverb, and insist, upon 
hearing themselves well spoken of. 

Ir alcohol were unknown, half the sins and 
three-fourths of the poverty and unhappiness 
of this world would disappeftr. 



July 24, 1875. J 



55 



New Style of Ornamental Pictures. 

A moat beautiful style of motto for ornament 
in the house, concert halla, Sunday school 
rooms, and small churches has lately been in- 
troduced, which, for its novelty and charm, 
deserves to be known and imitated by those 
whose tastes ran in that direction. They con- 
sist of letters and ornaments of leaves, tinted 
white and gray on a jet black background, and are 
produced in a very easy manner by photo- 
graphy without the help of apparatus. The 
manner of producing them is this: 

The borders or ornaments, with the letters 
or words forming the intended motto, are 
formed by leaves, by preference fern leaves of 
different sorts and sizes, previously dried in a 
book. These leaves are, by means of muci- 
lage attached to the surface of a piece of com- 
mon window glass of say fifteen inches long 
and some five or six inches wide, in such a way 
as to form by their junction the intended letters 
or figures. This glass serves then for what 
photographers call the negative, and from it 
the picture is printed by sunlight in the fol- 
lowing manner: 

If one can buy from the photographer the 
sensitive paper, all that is necessary is to place 
a piece of the size of the glass on a board, 
cover it with the glass, the leaves being in 
contact with the paper, and expose it to strong 
daylight, or better, to the direct sunlight. After 
a few minutes the parts of the paper not 
covered with the leaves will become black, 
while the shadow of the leaves having pro- 
tected the paper from change, will have re- 
mained white, or be simply tinted gray, but 
the forms and outlines of the leaves will be 
seen perfectly sharp and clear. As this paper, 
however, would continue to be changed by day- 
light, and at last become perfectly black all 
over, this further action of daylight must be 
arrested, and this is done by a saturated solu • 
tion of hyposulphite of soda, a salt used by 
every photographic artist, and which may also 
be obtained from any druggist. This solution 
is placed in a flat dish, the paper immersed, 
and the dish moved in such a way as to flow 
the solution continually to and fro over the 
paper; then it is taken out and washed with 
water, renewing the water very often, or leav- 
ing it in to soak over night, as every trace of 
the hyposulphite of soda must be removed, 
otherwise the remaining traces of this salt 
would cause the picture to fade away. 

If a photographer is not at hand, or unwill- 
ing to sell the sensitive paper, it is very easy 
to make it, by first dipping a sheet of flue 
writing paper into a solution of ammonia or 
common salt, and after it dries brushing it 
over with a piece of soft cotton wadding dipped 
in a solution of nitrate of silver of fifty grains 
to one ounce of water. This operation must 
be done in the dark. A better tone is obtained 
when the solution of salt is mixed with a little 
albumen (white of an egg.) 

Don't Quaerel. — People talk of lovers' 
quarrels as rather pleasant episodes — probably 
because they are not quarrels at all. She 
pouts; he kisses. He frowns; she coaxes. It 
is half play, and they know it. Matrimonial 
quarrels are another thing. I doubt seriously 
if married people ever truly forgive each other 
after the first falling out. They gloss it over; 
they kiss and make up; the wound apparently 
heals, but only, as some of those horrible 
wounds given in battle do, to break out again 
at some unexpected moment. The man who 
has sneered and said cruel things to a sensitive 
woman never has her whole heart again. The 
woman who has uttered reproaches to a man 
can never be taken to his bosom with the same 
tenderness as before those words were spoken. 
The two people who must never quarrel are 
husband and wife. One may fall out with 
kinsmen, and make up, and be friends again. 
The tie of blood is a strong one, and affection 
may return after it has flown away ; but love, 
once banished, is a dead and buried thing. 
The heart may ache, butit is with hopelessness. 
It may be impossible to love anyone else, but 
it is more impossible to restore the old idol to 
its empty niche. For a word or two, for a 
sharpening of the wits, for a moment's self-as- 
sertion, two people have often been made mis- 
erable for life. For, whatever there may be be- 
fore, there are no lovers' quarrels after mar- 
riage. 

A BEioHT little girl, sitting on her uncle's 
knee, stroked his hair down on his forehead in 
the meekest, sleekest way, and then looking 
admiringly "at the eff ct, excl timed: " Why, 
Uncle Charles, yon look — lo 'k like — just like a 
— what is the male of M idonna?' ' Uucle Cha- les 
was thoughtful and impressed for a moment. 
But he got the better of the conundrum, and 
answered: " Well— Padonna, I suppose." 



It is said to be satisfactorily demonstrated 
that every time a wife scolds her husband she 
adds a wrinkle to her face. It is thought the 
annonucement of this fact will have a most 
salutary effect, especially as it is understood 
that every time a wife smiles upon her hus- 
band it will remove one of the old wrinkles. 

A Bbookltn husband named Allen discover- 
ed that his wife had stolen his check-book 
and drawn S2,950 in his name. He sued the 
bank and got the full amount restored. 

CoMiNO TO Want. — "I am afraid 'you will 
oome to want," said an old lady to a young 
gentleman. "I have oome to want already," 
was the reply. "I want your daughter." 




How She Received Him. 




Helping Papa and Mamma. 

Planting the corn and potatoes, 

Helping to scittter the Beeds, 
Feeding the hens and the chickens. 

Freeing the garden from weeds. 
Driving the cows to the pasture. 

Feeding the horse in the stall — 
We little children are busy; 

Sure, there is work for us all, 
Helping papa. 

Spreading the hay in the sunshine, 

Raking it up when 'tis dry. 
Picking the apples and peaches 

Down in the orchard bard by. 
Picking the grapes in the vineyard. 

Gathering nuts in the Fall — 
We little children are busy; 

Yes, there is work for us all. 
Helping papa. 

Sweeping, and washing the dishes, 

Bringing the wood from the shed. 
Ironing, sewing and knitting, 

Helping to make up the bed. 
Taking good care of the baby, 

Watching her lest she should fall- 
We little children are busy; 

O, there is work for us all. 
Helping mama. 

Work makes us cheerful and happy, 

Makes us both active and strong; 
Play we enjoy all the better 

When we have labored so long, 
Gladly we help our kind parents, 

Quickly we come at their call; 
Children should love to be busy; 

There is much work for us all. 
Helping papa and mamma. 



QooD HEi^LTH- 



What to Teach Our Boys. 

Not to tease boys or girls older than them- 
selves. 

When their play is over for the day to wash, 
their face and hands, brush the hair and spend 
the evening in the house. 

Not to take the easiest chair in the room and 
put it directly in front of the fire and forget to 
offer it to the mother when she comes in to sit 
down. 

To treat the mother as politely as if she was 
a strange lady, who did not spend her life in 
their service. 

To be as kind and helpful to their sisters as 
they are to other boy's sisters. 

Not to grumble or refuse when asked to do 
some errand that must be done, and which 
will otherwise take the time of some one who 
has more to do themselves. 

To make their friends among good boys. 

To take pride in having their mothers and 
sisters for their best freinds. 

To try and find amusements for the evening 
which all the family can join in large and small. 

To take pride in being gentlemen at home. 

To cultivate a cheerful temper. 

To learn to sew on their own buttons. 

If they do anything to take their mothers 
into confidence, and above all never to lie about 
anything they have done. 

To make up their minds not to learn to 
smoke, to chew, or to drink, remembering that 
these things can be u/i-learned, and they are 
terrible draw-backs to good men and necessities 
to bad ones. 

To remember that there was never a vaga- 
bond without these habits. 

To learn f-) save their money and invest it 
from the first penny they eArn, and they are 
sure to be rich men. 

To ob-erve all these rules and you are sure 
to be gentlemen. 

A True Hero. — A boy about nine years old 
was bathing one day, when, by some mistake, 
he got into deep water and began to sink. His 
elder biother saw him, and ran to s ive him, but 
lacking strength or skill, he alwo sank to the bot- 
tom of thw river. As the two drowning broihars 
rose to the surface for the last time they saw a 
third brotlier, the youogest'of the family, run- 
ning down the bank for the purpose of trying 
t) save them. Teen it was that the nine-year- 
old acted the part of a hero. Struggling as he 
was with death, he gathered all his strength 
and cried to his brother oa the shore, " D-jn't 
oome in, or father will lose all his boys at once !" 
Noble little fellow ! Though dying, he forgot 
himself, and thought only of his father's grief. 
He W'lH a genuine hero. His brother obeyed 
his dying command, and was spared to comfort 
his father when his two dead sons were taken 
from the river clasped in each others arms. 



ESJIC bcO 



Mad Dog Bites. 

Two months ago a lady was bitten by a dog 
in East Newark; the next day the husband, in 
whipping the animal, was bitten on the hand; 
the dog was killed, the wound healed, and the 
circumstances were almost forgotten; but a few 
days since the husband experienced some diffi- 
culty in swallowing, soon fell into horrible con- 
vulsions and died. The wife is well. As all 
are exposed to the bites of domestic animals, 
cat or dog, the^mind ought to be informed as 
to what ought to be done on the spot. 

The moment anyone has been bitten or 
stung, a rag should be thoroughly wetted with 
spirits of hartshorn and patted on the bitten 
place for an hour, then bound on, to be re- 
peated for twenty-four hours, for two reasons; 
the hartshorn creates a smarting, and redness 
and inflammation, which keeps the blood on 
the surface, tends, as it were, to keep the poison 
on the outside, so that it may be washed 
out. Second, the virus of poisonous bites and 
stings is an acid; hartshorn is the strongest 
alkali, and will antagonize an acid in an in- 
stant. If no hartshorn is at hand, take the ley 
of wood ashes, or even make a poultice of 
fresh wood ashes and water, which make an 
alkali, let it remain on the wound until some 
hartshorn can be procured. 

A dog ought not to be killed if he has bitten 
a person, although he may appear to be mad, 
because such animals, when allowed to become 
quiet and composed, have often returned to a 
perfectly natural condition, and thus the mind 
of the person bitten has been saved from most 
terrible forebodings. 

Medical observation shows that about one 
person in twenty, bitten by mad dogs, become 
hydrophobic. In one noted case, a dog bit 
twenty-one animals and persons, and but one 
of these became hydrophobic. Not all per- 
sons exposed even to smallpox, take it; or to 
cholera, measles, or any other communicable 
disease; showing that even dreadful diseases 
invade only those systems, or states of consti- 
tution, which are susceptible to their influence. 
A London brewer's drayman, who has been 
swilling several quarts, if not gallons of beer 
daily, for forty years, is scratched on the hand 
with a pin, recovers from it, if at all, very 
slowly, often never; sometimes death follows 
in a few days from convulsions or mortification. 
I knew a gentleman of wealth, whose foot 
slipping as he was stepping into his carriage, 
the shinbone was thrown against the scraper 
or step, and he died of mortification of the 
limb in a few days; because he was a steady 
hard drinker of whisky, and his system had no 
power of recuperation or resistance against 
disease. This principle ia proven by the case 
in hand; the hupband died, the wife was un- 
affected. It is not impossible that if a perfectly 
healthy man of strong mind was bitten by a 
mad dog, he would not become hydrophobic; 
but the precautions named ought to be taken 
by all, even if the dog or cat be not mad. — 
Journal of Health. 

The Teeatment op Diaeeh(ea. — In a paper 
in Virchow's Archiv, Dr. Hartsen observes that 
diarrhcea of all sorts goes along with an irrita- 
ble state of the intestinal canal, and any in- 
crease of this irritability is to be carefully 
avoided. He considers that the more usual 
astringents are, in addition, irritants; and he 
instances among them the salts of lead, zinc, 
and bismuth. In all cases, soothing means 
should first be adopted; and of these, warm 
applications to the abdomen, in the form of 
bread poultices, or fomentations, are perhaps 
the best. The chief medicine recommended is 
opium, which soothes, but in large doses, inter- 
feres with digestion. If the diarrhoea be so 
violent as to hinder the adoption of opium 
introduced into the stomach, then morphia 
should be injected subcutaneously. Of equal 
importance is the diet. If the person be strong, 
everything, both solid and fluid, should be 
withheld; but, where this cannot be done, the 
food should be of the lightest and simplest. 
The author especially refers to rice and arrow- 
root as simple vegetaibles diets, while any ani- 
mal food given should be free from fat. Milk 
should not be too much used, and in any case 
should be boiled. 



Something About Soups. 

A correspondent sent us some time ago an 
account of Prof. Blot's manner of making soup. 
The recent death of Prof. Blot gives it especial 
interest. He was earnestly engaged in the at- 
tempt to teach our people better and more 
economical use of food than was generally 
practiced, and his loss is greatly to be regretted. 

" Po(-aM-/eu.— Six pounds of fresh beef, 
(ribs, knuckles, or loin) in a crockery kettle, 
with five quarts of cold water, salt, and a little 
pepper on a slow fire. Take off the scum care- 
fully when it rises. Add two white onions 
with one clove in each, a small parsnip, a carrot, 
two middle-sized turnips, half a head of celery, 
two leeks, two sprigs of parsely, one of thyme, 
a clove of garlic, a bay leaf, and a little caramel 
to color it. Simmer five or six hours. Dish 
the meat with the parsnips, turnips, and leeks 
around it, to be served warm after the soup or 
kept for the next day. Strain the broth, skim 
off tlie fat at the top, put back on a good fire, 
and iit the first boiling, pour on croutons in the 
so'ip-dish and serve." 

Thus endeth the Professor's recipe. Ob- 
serve, firstly, that you must use a " crockery 
kettle" — that is, some good soup-kettle. Many 
are the husbands who expect as good home- 
made soup, astheyjgetat first-class restaurants, 
and many are the discouraged wives who would 
gladly cook to please their husbands, but who 
neither of them dream that anything better 
than a common iron kettle is necessary in 
which to make nice soup. So, nine times in 
ten, the soup is more or less flavored with iron. 
Prof. Blot always says " a crockery kettle" or 
a " stow-pan," when he mentions the utensil 
for cooking any dish, meaning the glazed or en- 
ameled ware. Marion Harland tells us never 
to cook onions in an iron kettle. Observe, 
secondly, that you are to simmer your soup 
" for five or six hours." To simmer is to boil 
gently, yet the boiling should not cease for a 
moment during those five or six hours. Ob- 
serve, thirdly, that you must skim off all the 
fat. Many people imagine that the melted tal- 
low gives richness to the soup, but all the best 
cooks agree in saying, ' ' take off all the fat" — 
and so, I think says every educated stomach. — 
Am. Agricidturist. 



A New Mode of Administering Iodine. — An 
English j lurnal says that the cows on the island 
of Ushrtut, off the coast of Brittany, feed princi- 
pally on sea-weed, and that consequently their 
milk is particularly rich in iodine ; and it is 
proposed that this milk be used for the cure of 
diseases benefited by iodine, as it does not pro- 
duce the constitutional disturbances that often 
result from the administration of iodine in other 
forms. Apropos of iodized milk, an Italian 
phy-ician fifteen years ago, proposed to obtain 
it by feeding cows on hay that had been 
sprinkled wi h a solu tion of iodide of potassium. 

Congestion op the Beain.— A French med- 
ical man reports to the Academy a case in 
which be has succeeded in curing grave con- 
gestion of the brain, alon:^ with paralysis of the 
whole right side, by making the patient inhale 
pure oxygen ; from the first inhalation the pa 
tient got relief, and motion and sensibility re- 
turned by degrees. 

Sun Stboke has become so common in New 
York that an establishment f jr the speci il 
treatment of such cases is talked of. Sun 
stroke is something almoBt unheard of in Cal- 
ifornia. 



How Salt Fish Should be Freshened. — 
Many persons are in the habit of freshening 
mackerel or other salt fish, and never dream 
that there is a right and wrong way to do it. 
Any person who has seen the process of evapo- 
rating going on at the salt works, knows that 
the salt falls to the bottom. Just so it is in the 
pan where your mackerel or white fish lies 
with the skin side down, the salt will fall to 
the skin and there remain, when if placed with 
the flesh side down, the salt falls to the bottom 
of the pan, and the fish comes out freshened as 
it should be. In the other case it is nearly as 
salt as when put in. 

A Pan Dowdy. — Did you ever hear of a pan 
dowdy ? It is an old-fashioned New England 
dish and has a flavor of our grandmother's 
cookery. Make a rich crust, line a deep 
earthen pot with it; now slice some pie apples 
quite thin for the first layer; strew the apples 
with molasses and spice and a teaspoonful of 
milk; cover with a thin crust and repeat the 
process. Cover the top with crust and your 
pan dowdy is made. Bake it in a slow oven. 
A brick one is made use of in New England 
generally. When done, turn it oh a platter 
and serve hot. 



Currant Jelly. — A correspondent of the 
Germantown Telegraph writes: I have seen two 
or three recipes in the Telegraph for making cur- 
rant jelly, but I like none of them so well as 
the following, which will give a perfectly trans- 
parent article and will satisfy every house- 
keeper, who will prefer it to all others or I'm 
mistaken: Scald the currants, then press, strain 
and measure them. Put the juice on to boil 
ten minutes; pour it while boiling over the 
sugar, allowing a pound to every pint of 
juice. 

Breakfast Muffins. — Housekeepers will 
value this recipe as a dainty substitute for 
bread at breakfeat or tea: Two eggs well 
beaten with a cupful of sugar, and a lump of 
butter the size of an egg; to this add oue pint 
of milk, with a teaspoonful of soda, one quart 
of flour, and two tablespoons-f ul of cream tartar; 
bake in muffin rings on top of the range, or in 
gem pans in a quick oven. 



Muffins.— One quart of milk, five eggs, one 
tablespoonful of good yeast— if home made, 
three or four; a lump of butter the size of a 
walnut, and sufficient flour to form a stiff bet- 
ter. Set in a warm place to rise, and when 
light bake in muffin rings. 

Green Cobn Griddle Cakes.— Make a batter 
of three eggs, a pint of flour, a little salt and 
water, or milk if you have it. Grate the corn 
from six ears into this mixture and bake on 
griddles. Serve hot with butter. Canned corn 
may be used in winter. 

Mush Wafplbs. — One quart of flour, one 
pint of corn meal mush, two eggs a table- 
spoonful of butter and a little salt. Make a 
thin batter with sweet milk. Separate the sggs 
as for lioe waffles; it makes them lighter. 



66 



«s«i hi *tes\^s^sJy>' al^ 



[July 24, 1875 




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Saturday, July 24, 1875. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

OENERAL EDITORIALS.— Chinese Immigra- 
tion; l.eal Cutters, 49. Fruit Wants; More About 
the Grain Marltit; The Editorial Excursionints, 56 
More Horticultural Importations; "Club Wheat;" 
Italian Mountalu, 57. Patents and Inventions, 60- 

ILLTJSTRATIONS.-The Leaf Cutter, 49- Italian 
Mountain; The Mandarin Orange, 67- 

CORRESPONDENCE. — Utility and Methods of 
Boil Analysus; From Fresno Flats; Steam Boiler Ex- 
plosion; Gall for our Sierra Correspondent; "Yellow 
Jackets and Volunteer Grain:" From Mussel Slough, 
50. Fruit in Western New York, 51. 

POULTRY YARD.— Parasitic Vermin, 51. 

THE DAIRY.— Dairy Farming; Qood Dairy Cows, 
and How to Get Them, 51. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY. — National 
Orange Headquarters; The GranRers' Union of San 
Joaquin Valley; Income of tlie Order; The Vantage 
Ground; Not«s of Orange Travel ; Let Us Have Live 
Members; Another Grange Hall; Mutual Confidence; 
The Good Patron; Fire will Burn; Grangers and 
Sovereigns of Industry, 52- Beware of Disorgan- 
i^ers; Grange Stores; How a Farmer may Prosper — 
The Grange Iiiea; Pomona Granges; A National 
Grange Organ; The Grangers; In Memoriam; Ques- 
tion for DiBCUSsion, 53. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from varlOQg conn- 
ties In California and Washington Territory, 53. 

HOME CIRCLE. — " Hayseed " (Poetry) ; The 
Widow's Only Son; The Agricultural College of the 
Future; Don't Talk About Your Aches; Make Them 
Comfortable; The Curse of Sewing Machines: Over- 
Sensitiveness. 54. New Stylo of Ornamental Pic- 
tures; Don't Quarrel, 55- 

YOUNO FOLKS' COLUMN.— Helping Papa and 
Mamina (Poetry) ; What to Teach Our Boys; A True 
Hero, 55. 

QOOD HEALTH. -Mad Dog Bites; The Treatment 
of Diarrhcea; A Ni w Mode of Administering loalne; 
Congestion of the Brain, 55- 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. — Something About 
Soups; How Salt Fish Should bo Freshened; A Pan 
Dowdy; Currant Jelly; Breakfast Muffins; Green 
Corn Griddle Cakes; Mush Waffles, 55. 

HORTICULTURE.— A San Jose Nursery; Renew- 
inj^ ot Blackberries, 57- 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Fire Proof Compo- 
Bitions; An English Invention; A Cure for Sooty 
Chimneys; Apparitine; Windows for Dark Rooms; 
'Treating Corks with Paraffiue; A